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" Give Thyme or Parfley wreath, I ask no bayes." 













No. / 


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1867, by 

[n the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 

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HIS volume is believed to contain all the ex 
tant works of ANNE BRADSTREET. Three 
editions of her " Poems" have been printed. 
The first edition appeared in London in 1650, 
under the title of "The Tenth Mufe, lately 
fprung up in America ; " a neatly-printed volume in small 
i6mo, xiv and 207 pages. 

The second edition was printed in Boston, by John 
Foster, in 1678. It contained the additions and corrections 
of the author, and several poems found amongst her papers 
after her death ; together with some verses in praise of her 
poems by President Rogers, of Harvard College, and "A 
Funeral Elogy," upon the author, by the Rev. John Norton, 
of Hingham. Like the first edition, it is a i6mo ; but the 
page and type are larger. The second edition has two 
hundred and fifty-five pages, preceded by fourteen pages 
unnumbered. Copies of the titlepages of the first and 
second editions, as exact as modern-antique type can make 
them, are given on pages 79 and 81. 

The third edition, in crown 8vo, xiv and 233 pages, was 
published in Boston in 1758, without bearing the name of 
its publisher or printer. It had the following titlepage : 



Compiled with great Variety of WIT and LEARN 
ING, full of DELIGHT ; 

Wherein efpecially is contained, a compleat Difcourfe and 
Defcription of 



The Four <j A(JES of MAN> 

SEASONS of the Year. 

Together with an exaft EPITOME of the three firft 
MONARCHIES, viz. the 

T WEALTH, from its begin- 

GRECIAN, and laft KING. 
With divers other pleafant and ferious POEMS. 

By a GENTLEWOMAN in New-England. 

The THIRD EDITION, corrected by the Author, 
and enlarged by an Addition of fever al other 
POEMS found amongjl her Papers after her 

Re-printed from the fecond Edition, in the Year 



Although it was reprinted from the second edition, there 
were numerous omissions of words, changes in the spelling, 
and other alterations of little importance. 

In the present edition of the "Poems," the spelling and 
punctuation, and even the typographical mistakes, of the 
second edition have been retained. The headings to the 
pages are new, and the catch-words have been omitted. 
The paging of that edition is preserved in brackets in the 
margin. The corrections in the second edition were exten 
sive. The spelling was, as a rule, modernized ; although 
some words, especially proper names, have an older or 
more incorrect form of spelling in that than in the first 
edition. Grammatical mistakes were corrected ; capitals 
were omitted from common nouns which had them in the 
first ; the punctuation was improved ; and a great many 
words, enclosed in brackets in the first edition, were with 
out them in the second edition. But no rule is uniformly 
adhered to in any of these particulars. There is, in both 
editions, as Charles Lamb s old friend said of a black-letter 
text of Chaucer, "a deal of very indifferent spelling." A 
proper name is sometimes, on the same page, spelt in two 
different ways. I have marked the most important altera 
tions in foot-notes. Mere transpositions of words, changes 
in punctuation and in the spelling of words other than proper 
names, and trifling corrections, not materially affecting the 
sense of a passage, have not been noted. I hope that I 
have let nothing pass which would have been of interest to 
any reader. 

Some of these alterations may have been made by the 
publishers, after the author s death. In order to have 
shown all the changes, it would have been necessary to 

viii PREFACE. 

have presented the text of the first edition entire. There 
are no foot-notes in either of the early editions. 

The miscellaneous writings, which, under the titles of 
" Religious Experiences and Occasional Pieces " and 
"Meditations," precede the "Poems" in this volume, are 
printed from a small manuscript book, which belonged to 
the author, and which has been kept, since her death, as a 
precious relic by her descendants. It is about six inches 
high and three and three-quarters inches broad. The cov 
ers are of common sheep-skin, and are very much soiled and 
worn. The remnants of two small brass clasps still adhere 
to them. The paper is yellow, stained with water, blotted 
with ink, and bears marks of having been much read and 
handled. It has ninety-eight pages, the first forty-one 
of which are taken up with the " Meditations Diuine and 
morall," in Mrs. Bradstreet s handwriting. The forty- 
second page is blank ; but, from the forty-third to the sixty- 
seventh page inclusive, her son Simon has copied in the 
contents of another manuscript book left by her, which is 
now probably lost. Mrs. Bradstreet s handwriting is large 
and distinct ; while that of her son is very small and delicate, 
though clear, and marred by few erasions or alterations. 
The sixty-eighth page is blank, and then follows a Latin 
translation of the first four " Meditations " and their dedica 
tion, by her great-grandson, the Rev. Simon Bradstreet, of 
Marblehead, Massachusetts. This covers only four pages. 
Six pages have been at some time cut out after these. The 
next twenty-four pages are blank ; and on the two sides of 
the last leaf there are some verses in Mrs. Bradstreet s 
handwriting, beginning, "As weary pilgrim, now at rest." 
Several leaves, how many it is uncertain, have been torn 


out at the end of the book. All the contents of this book 
are printed in this volume : the order, however, of the sep 
arate parts of which it is composed, has been changed. 
The portion in her son s handwriting, and the verses which 
I have mentioned as being at the end of the book, being in 
their nature biographical, I have placed first. The "Medi 
tations," and the fragment of their translation into Latin by 
her great-grandson, come next. 

The manuscript has been closely followed, except that 
abbreviations, such as "&," "w th ," "y e ," "yV and some of 
longer words, have been printed in full. These are very 
common in the portion written by her son, who probably 
tried to shorten his work of copying as much as possible. 
The author herself rarely uses any abbreviations. Punctua-, 
tion has been supplied where it was defective ; and in some 
of the poems, whose rhyme required it, the alternate verses 
have been indented, and some poems have been broken into 
stanzas. The manuscript has been scribbled over, appar 
ently by a child ; and a few corrections have been made 
since she wrote, in ink fresher than the original : these, 
of course, have been disregarded. 

With these exceptions, the reader has an exact copy of 
the manuscript. A fac-simile of the first leaf of the volume 
may be found between pages 46 and 47. 

Extracts from the manuscript, with some appropriate 
remarks on the author s life and character, were published 
by the Rev. William I. Budington, D.D., for many years 
pastor of the First Church in Charlestown, in his history of 
that church ; and almost the whole of it appeared in 
a series of articles, under the title of * The Puritan 
Mother," contributed by the same gentleman to the first 


volume of " The Congregational Visiter," a small monthly 
magazine published in Boston, in 1844, by the Massachu 
setts Sabbath-School Society. Several extracts have also 
been published, at various times, in newspapers, by Mr. 
Dean Dudley, who has written some very interesting pieces 
concerning the author and her works, and who is known as 
the indefatigable genealogist of the Dudley and Bradstreet 
families. A good notice of Mrs. Bradstreet is contained in 
Duyckinck s "Cyclopaedia of American Literature." 

The contents of the manuscript book are now, for the 
first time, printed entire. For the use of it, in preparing 
this volume for the press, and also for copies of the first 
three editions of the "Poems," all of which are now 
extremely rare, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
Samuel Bradstreet, of Dorchester. 

The engraving of Governor Bradstreet, in this volume, 
is taken from a plate belonging to Mr. S. G. Drake, which 
he was so good as to allow to be used for this purpose. 

In editing Mrs. Bradstreet s works, I have had the 
benefit of the advice and suggestions of several of my 
friends ; but I am especially obliged, for such favors, to Dr. 
John Appleton, Assistant Librarian of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 

Jan. 31, 1867. 

,;h from a. Paintinc" in the Senate Chamber of "file State House !Ma 


NNE BRADSTREET, distinguished as the 
earliest poet of her sex in America, was 
the daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley, 
and the wife of Governor Simon Bradstreet, 
two of the principal founders of the Colony 
of Massachusetts Bay. The ancestry of that branch of the 
Dudley family to which Mrs. Bradstreet belonged is now 
simply a matter of conjecture. Many attempts have been 
made to trace it, but without success.* "There is a tradi 
tion among the descendants of Governor Dudley, in the 
eldest branch of the family," says Mr. Moore, "that he 
was descended from John Dudley, Duke of Northumber 
land, who was beheaded 22 February, 1553. "f Mrs. 
Bradstreet seems to have shared this belief, if we may 
judge from the following verses from her " Elegy upon Sir 

* " The Dudley Genealogies and Family Records." By Dean Dudley. 
Boston : Published by the Author. 1848. N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, Vol. x. 
p. 133. "The Sutton-Dudleys of England, and the Dudleys of Massachu 
setts." By George Adlard. New York : 1862. " The Herald and Gene 
alogist," Vol. ii. London : 1865. pp. 409-426, and 494-499. 

t Lives of the Governors of New Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. 
By Jacob Bailey Moore. New York : 1846. p. 273 


Philip Sidney," whose mother was the Lady Mary, eldest 
daughter of that Duke of Northumberland : 

" Let then, none dif-allow of thefe my ftraines, 
Which have the felf-fame blood jet in my veines." 

But she retracts this claim to relationship, in the second 
edition of her poems, where the verses appear as follows : 

" Then let none difallow of thefe my ftraines 
Whilft Englifh blood yet runs within my veins."* 

Thomas Dudley, her father, was born at Northampton, 
in England, in the year 1576 or 1577, and was the only son 
of Captain Roger Dudley, who was killed in battle about 
the year 1586. He was thus left an orphan, together with 
a sister, concerning whom, as well as his mother, nothing is 
known. At a school, to which he was sent by a charitable 
lady of his native town, he acquired a good knowledge of 
Latin. But, while still young, he was taken from school, 
and became a page in the family of William Lord Compton, 
afterwards Earl of Northampton. He was subsequently 
a clerk of a kinsman "Judge Nichols," probably Thomas 
Nicolls, a serjeant-at-law. He next appears at the head of 
a company of eighty volunteers, raised in and about North 
ampton, and forming part of the force collected by order of 
Queen Elizabeth, to assist Henry IV. of France, in the war 
against Philip II. of Spain. He is said to have been at the 
siege of Amiens in 1597, and to have returned home to 
England soon after. From each of these various occupa 
tions, of page, lawyer s clerk, and soldier, he derived some 
benefit, courtesy of manners, considerable legal skill and 
acumen, straightforwardness, honesty, and courage. He 
established himself at Northampton, and married "a Gentle- 

* See pages 346, note, and 347. 


woman whofe Extract and Eftate were Conliderable." 
Under the preaching of the well-known Puritan ministers, 
Dodd and Hildersham, and others of less note, he became 
a Nonconformist, and ever after adhered most strictly to 
the views which he thus adopted. 

In 1616 Henry de Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, died, his 
title descending to his son Thomas. The latter survived 
but three years to enjoy his honors, and left to his son 
Theophilus, a young man, a large estate heavily encum 
bered with his father s debts. In this emergency, Dudley 
was recommended to the young Earl as steward, by Lord 
Saye and Sele, Lord Compton, and others who had satisfied 
themselves of his worth and ability. He accordingly took 
the entire charge of the Earl s large estate, and, by his skil 
ful management, in the space of a few years entirely freed 
the estate from the debts with which it was laden. By 
many important services which he rendered, and also by 
his fidelity and constancy in the discharge of his duties, he 
greatly endeared himself to the family. For nine or ten 
years, he continued to be the Earl s steward ; but, after 
that, growing weary of his laborious position, he left the 
Earl s service, and removed to Boston, in Lincolnshire. He 
there formed an intimate acquaintance with the vicar of that 
town, the Rev. John Cotton, who was to be his companion 
at Boston, in the New World. As his services were again 
much needed by the Earl of Lincoln, he was obliged to 
return to his family, and there he remained most of the 
time, until he left the country.* 

* MATHER S MAGNALIA. London: 1702. Bk. ii. pp. 15-17. Old manu 
script life, printed in " The Sutton-Dudleys," pp. 24-38. "Dudley Gene 
alogies." Hutchinson s History of Massachusetts Bay. Boston: 1795. Vol. 
i. p. 21, note *. " Herald and Genealogist," Vol. ii. pp. 409-426; Historic 



In Isaac Johnson s will, dated March, 1629, O.S., of which 
Dudley is constituted one of the executors, he is described 
as of Clipsham in the county of Rutland ; * but it is not 
known how long he lived there. Dudley s first child was 
a son, Samuel, born in 1610. 

His second child was Anne, the subject of this sketch. 
She was born in 1612-13, probably at Northampton, f Of 
her youth and of her bringing up, we know but little. We 
can infer, however, from what she wrote of herself, later in 
life, that she was strictly and religiously trained ; while 
it is evident from her poems, that she had read and 
studied, with unusual diligence, for one of her age and 
sex. She gives the following account of her early religious 
experiences : 

"In my yovng years, about 6 or 7 as I take it, I began to make 
confcience of my waves, and what I knew was finfull, as lying, dif- 
obedience to Parents, &c. I avoided it. If at any time I was over 
taken with the like evills, it was a great Trouble. I could not be 
at reft till by prayer I had confeft it vnto God. I was alfo troubled 
at the neglect of Private Dutyes, tho : too often tardy that way. I 
alfo fovnd much comfort in reading the Scriptures, efpecially thofe 
places I thought moft concerned my Condition, and as I grew to 
haue more vnderftanding, fo the more folace I took in them. 

" In a long fitt of iicknes w ch I had on my bed I often com- 
mvned with my heart, and made my fupplication to the moft 
High who fett me free from that affliction. 

" But as I grew vp to bee about 14 or 15 I fovnd my heart 
more carnall and fitting loofe from God, vanity and the follyes 
of youth take hold of me. 

Peerage of England, by Sir H. Nicola s, p. 289; Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 4th 
series, Vol. viii. p. 342. 

* Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., 3d series, Vol. viii. p. 245. 

t See page 391 ; " Dudley Genealogies," p. 18; " Sutton-Dudleys," p. 97. 


" About 1 6, the Lord layd his hand fore upon me and fmott mee 
with the finall pox. When I was in my affliction, I beibvght the 
Lord, and confefled my Pride and Vanity and he was entreated of 
me, and again reftored me. But I rendered not to him according 
to y e benefit! received. 

" After a fhort time I changed my condition and was marryed, 
and came into this Covntry, where I fovnd a new world and new 
manners, at which my heart rofe. But after I was convinced it 
was the way of God, I fubmitted to it and joined to the church 
at Bofton." * 

In her poem, "In Honour of Du Bartas," she has left 
a very pleasant reminiscence of her childhood, in these 
verses : 

" My mufe unto a Child I may compare, 
Who fees the riches of fome famous Fair, 
He feeds his Eyes, but underftanding lacks 
To comprehend the worth of all thofe knacks : 
The glittering plate and Jewels he admires, 
The Hats and Fans, the Plumes and Ladies tires, 
And thoufand times his mazed mind doth wifh 
Some part (at leaft) of that brave wealth was his, 
But feeing empty wifhes nought obtain, 
At night turns to his Mothers cot again, 
And tells her tales, (his full heart over glad) 
Of all the glorious fights his Eyes have had : 
But finds too foon his want of Eloquence, 
The filly pratler fpeaks no word of fenfe ; 
But feeing utterance fail his great defires, 
Sits down in filence, deeply he admires."! 

Notwithstanding the gloom which over-conscientiousness 
threw over her youth, we can easily imagine the pleasure 
with which she perused the many new books which were 
then appearing in such unwonted numbers, and the zest 

* See pages 4 and 5. t See page 354. 


with which she devoured their delicious contents. The 
quarter of a century preceding the departure of the Massa 
chusetts Company for New England was one of the most 
remarkable in the history of English literature. Coming, as 
it did, at the close of the great Elizabethan Age, the more 
peaceful reign of James was better fitted for the quiet 
and considerate study and cultivation of literature than the 
more glorious and splendid, though more warlike and dis 
turbed, reign of the "Virgin Queen." The impulse given 
by the great minds of her epoch had not yet died out, but 
had transmitted much of its vigor to their successors of the 
Jacoban Age ; many renowned writers of the one living 
late into the other. Spenser had died, near the close of the 
century, leaving his great poem unfinished ; having written 
enough, however, to charm posterity ever after, and to 
found a new school of poetry. His patron, the accom 
plished writer, the elegant poet, and knightly soldier, Sir 
Philip Sidney, had fallen, some fifteen years before, on the 
bloody field before Zutphen. One year, 1616, had been 
rendered famous, by the death of two of the most brilliant 
names in the world s literature, Shakespeare and Cervan 
tes ; one in the prime of life, and the other at threescore 
and ten, summoned hence within ten days of each other. 
To Don Quixote and his squire, Mrs. Bradstreet may have 
been introduced by Shelton s translation. With the plays 
of Shakespeare, as well as those of Ben Jonson, Beaumont 
and Fletcher, Middleton, Webster, Massinger, and the 
other dramatists, we may well presume that she was not 
familiar, and that she rather shunned them, as irreligious. 
There are some passages in her "Poems," however, which 
seem as if they must have been suggested by a reading of 


Shakespeare. The Puritans were bitter enemies of the 
stage, and all connected with it; and their dislike was 
reciprocated most heartily by the playwrights and players. 
Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson, speaking of the treatment of the 
Puritans, says, 

u every stage, and every table, and every puppet-play, belched 
forth profane scoffs upon them, the drunkards made them their 
songs, and all fiddlers and mimics learned to abuse them, as 
finding it the most gameful way of fooling." * 

In 1611, the common version of the Bible was published. 
We have already seen how early Mrs. Bradstreet began to 
find comfort in this volume, which was to be the solace of 
her lonely and melancholy hours, for the rest of her life. 
The charming essays of Montaigne, with their varied learn 
ing and keen insight into human nature, had been "done 
into Englifh" by John Florio, and had attracted the atten 
tion of the immortal dramatist himself. Burton had tried in 
vain to drive away his melancholy, by writing its " Anat 
omy." Chapman had given to the world his grand version 
of Homer. Sir Thomas North had translated " Plutarch s 
Lives" in a manner most aptly suited to the easy story 
telling style of the original ; and his book was to be " a 
household book, for the whole of the seventeenth century." f 
The "silver-tongued" Sylvester, who was himself the 
author of many poems, had translated the works of the fa 
vorite French poet, the " divine " Du Bartas, of whom we 
shall hear more farther on. The poets of this period were 
numerous, and the writings of many of them are even 
now read. Some of them are noted for their sensuousness, 

* Life of Col. Hutchinson, Bohn s ed. p. 82. 

t Hooper s Introduction to Chapman s Homer s Iliad, p. ix. 


and for their delicious descriptions of the beautiful in 
nature. Following upon the poets more distinctively belong 
ing to the Elizabethan Age, with their fancifulness, their 
pretty, tiresome conceits, their quaint analogies, and far 
fetched similes, the poets of the reign of James, while they 
retained many of their faults, were much less artificial. 
These poets, who have been classified as pastoral, satirical, 
theological, metaphysical, and humorous, indicate by their 
number, and by the excellence of many of their writings, 
the literary spirit of the age. They were generally anti- 
Puritans, and we may well doubt if Mrs. Bradstreet could 
have read them with much pleasure, as her scruples and 
belief would have received many a rude shock over their 
pages. Wither and Quarles, however, were peculiarly 
Calvinistic ; the former becoming afterwards one of Crom 
well s major-generals, and the latter being in manner and 
matter, if not in spirit, a Puritan. Their works were 
extremely popular with the Puritans, not only at the period 
of which we are now speaking, but also long after. 
Quarles "Emblems," to be sure, did not appear in print 
until 1635, but his gloomy poems must have already sad 
dened the heart of many an honest Nonconformist. Quarles 
appears to have had some correspondence with the New- 
England men. Josselyn, in his account of his visit to Boston 
in 1638, speaks of "prefenting my refpecls to Mr. Winthorfe 
the Governour, and to Mr. Cotton, the Teacher of Bojlon 
Church, to whom I delivered from Mr. Francis Quarles the 
poet, the Tranflation of the 16, 25, 51, 88, 113, and 137. 
Pfalms into Englifh Meeter for his approbation." * 

This period, so prolific in versifiers, was not without its 

* Josselyn s " Two Voyages," p. 20. 


historians and antiquaries. Speed, Archbishop Usher, 
the learned primate of Ireland, Sir Robert Cotton, and Sir 
Henry Spelman, flourished about this time. Knolles pub 
lished his history of the Turks in 1603, to whom Johnson, 
in one of his "Ramblers" (122), has awarded the first place 
among English historians, being borne out in his judgment 
by Hallam.* The illustrious Camden s "Brittannia" and 
"Annales Rerum Anglicarum regnante Elizabetha" had 
appeared early in the century, and the learned author had 
been long numbered with the dead. There was also the 
Latin historian and poet of Scotland, Buchanan, who had 
been the tutor of King James. Sir Walter Raleigh 
had occupied twelve weary years of imprisonment in 
writing his " History of the World," published in 1614, the 
most important of the works of that distinguished soldier 
and navigator. Bacon, the great philosopher, the able his 
torian, the accomplished orator, who combined in himself 
most of the varied powers of his noted contemporaries, 
had been degraded from the exalted post of Lord Chan 
cellor. Shorn of his honors, after devoting the leisure 
which his retirement afforded to his favorite studies, he 
died on the 9th of April, 1626, in the sixty-sixth year of 
his age, a victim of the science he loved so fondly. f 

A recent English writer has remarked : " In one sense 
the reign of James is the most religious part of our his 
tory ; for religion was then fashionable. The forms of 
state, the king s speeches, the debates in parliament, and 
the current literature, were filled with quotations from 
scripture and quaint allusions to sacred things." J Super- 

* Craik s English Literature. New York : 1863. Vol. I. p. 619. 

t Life pref. to " Essays." Boston : 1856. p. 27. 

J Marsden s " Early Puritans." London : 1860. p. 382. 

or THE 


ficial as the current of real piety is acknowledged to have 
been, we find, m addition to all the secular books above 
referred to, a mass of sermons, books of devotion, religious 
tracts, and controversial pamphlets. Many productions, too, 
of more importance and of greater size and pretensions, 
were the results of deeper delvings in theology and di 
vinity. The " Ecclesiastical Polity " of the illustrious 
Hooker had been in part published, the whole work com 
plete not appearing until 1632, the author himself having 
died at the beginning of the century. There were also, 
besides Archbishop Usher, Andrews, and Donne, the 
"humble and heavenly minded" Dr. Richard Sibbs, whose 
sermons, collected under the title of "The Saint s Cordial," 
were highly prized by the Puritans; the "Engliih Seneca," 
Bishop Hall, a thorough Calvinist, whose "pious Medita 
tions are still a household volume read by all classes, pub 
lished in all forms." * One reason for the small number 
of strictly sectarian, Puritan, or Calvinistic works during 
this period was, that the censorship of the press, the right 
of licensing books, was almost entirely arrogated to himself 
by the untiring enemy of the Nonconformists, Laud, Bishop 
of London, whose watchful eye few heretical writings 
could escape. Some such, however, managed to satisfy 
some of the more liberal censors, and thus appeared with 
the " cum privilegio ; " while many of the most ultra pam 
phlets and tracts were the fruits of foreign presses, secretly 
introduced into the country without the form of a legal 
entry at Stationers Hall.f 

* Marsden s "Early Puritans," p. 393. 

t Craik s English Literature. New York : 1863. Masson s Life of Mil 
ton. London: 1859. Vol. I. ch. vi. Bohn s Bibliographer s Manual, 
c., &c. 


I have thus, at the risk of trying the patience of the 
reader, given a very imperfect summary of what the years 
immediately preceding and including those in which our 
author was growing up produced in the way of writers. It 
must not be forgotten either, that it was in the early part of 
this century that the circulation of the blood was discovered 
by Dr. Harvey, and logarithms were introduced by Na 
pier; creating new eras in medicine and mathematics. In 
such an age of literary activity, Mrs. Bradstreet passed the 
first eighteen years of her life. With literary tastes and the 
advantages which, without doubt, she enjoyed at the Earl 
of Lincoln s castle of Sempringham, she must have felt, 
and, at the same time, been able easily to satisfy, a craving 
for poetical and historical studies. It should be remem 
bered, however, that she was only eighteen when she was 
called to leave her native country, with its manifold attrac 
tions, and her pleasant home, with its tender associations, to 
take up her abode in a wilderness. Even then she would 
be exposed to all the cares consequent upon her position as 
a wife, and that, too, the wife of a busy magistrate who was 
frequently called to be absent from home, leaving her no 
solace except her meditations on what she had once read or 

At the early age of sixteen, she was married to Simon 
Bradstreet, the son of a Nonconformist minister of the same 
name, of Lincolnshire. Bradstreefs father was the son of 
a well-to-do Suffolk gentleman, was one of the first Fel 
lows of Emmanuel College, had preached at Middleburgh, 
in the Netherlands, and was, like Dudley, a friend of the 
Rev. Mr. Cotton and Dr. Preston. Young Bradstreet was 
born at Horbling, March, 1603, and was educated at the 


grammar school, where he studied until the death of his 
father, when he was fourteen years old, made it necessary 
for him to leave. Two or three years after this he was 
taken into the family of the Earl of Lincoln, where he was 
under the care of Dudley. He remained there, until, at the 
suggestion of Dr. Preston, who had been the Earl s tutor, 
he was sent by the Earl to Emmanuel College, in the capacity 
of governor to Lord Rich, son of the Earl of Warwick. As 
the young lord gave up the idea of acquiring an education 
at the University, Bradstreet continued there only a year ; 
having had, as he himself wrote, a very pleasant but un 
profitable time, in the society of the Earl of Lincoln s 
brother, and of other companions. Notwithstanding, he 
took his bachelor s degree in 1620, and his master s four 
years later.* On the removal of Dudley to Boston, Brad- 
street succeeded to his place as steward. He afterwards 
became steward of the Countess of Warwick, and was in 
that position at the time of his marriage, f 

Under Bancroft, as Archbishop of Canterbury, the Non 
conformists had suffered severely, many of the ministers 
being silenced and deprived of their livings, while others 
were driven into exile. The effect of this harsh treatment 
was to strengthen the sufferers in their belief, and to bind 
them more closely together by the common tie of affliction. 
The succession of the austere Abbot, who had much of the 
Puritan in his creed and manners, gave them some respite ; 
although the canons requiring the due observance of those 
forms and ceremonies in worship to which the Noncon 
formists most strongly objected-, were as rigidly enforced as 

* Young s Chronicles of Massachusetts. Boston: 1846. p. 125, note. 
t Mather s Magnalia, Bk. ii. p. 19. 


ever in some places. Bishop Williams, the Lord Keeper, 
the favorite and confidential adviser both of the King and 
of Buckingham, was a great power in religious affairs. 
He was inclined to be tolerant alike of Puritans and Roman 
ists, and it was only those breaches of the canons too 
flagrant to be overlooked which provoked him to harsh 
treatment. On the death of James and the accession of 
Charles, Williams lost the power which he had up to that 
time enjoyed in church and state, and retired in disgrace 
to his diocese of Lincoln. Buckingham, who held the 
same place in the affections of the new King which he had 
gained in those of his father,* committed to Dr.. Laud, his 
great confidant, then Bishop of Bath and Wells, and sworn 
a member of the Privy Council, the sole presentation of 
church promotions and the vacancies which should happen. 
King Charles, after the assassination of Buckingham, 
continued that trust in the same hands, infinitely to the 
benefit and honor of the Church, in Clarendon s opinion, f 
but greatly to the sorrow and discomfort of the Nonconform 
ists, whose bitter opponent Laud had been from the very 
first. Slowly but surely this intolerant prelate got into his 
hands the power which would enable him to indulge his 
malevolent feelings towards the Puritans. He thus did all 
he could to kindle the flame which was to break out before 
long into the dreadful fire of civil war, and in which he was 
to lose his life. Besides the Romanists, whose numbers 
cannot be estimated, there was the extreme class of Puritans 
known as Separatists, who comprised in their ranks only a 
trifling proportion of the population. The Established 

* Clarendon s History of the Rebellion, Bk. i. p. 48. 
t Ibid., p. 145. 


Church of England was divided into two great parties, the 
Prelatical or Hierarchical, headed by the zealous Laud, and 
the Nonconformist or Puritan. This latter party embraced 
at once the severe doctrines, and the plain and simple 
forms, inculcated by their great teacher, Calvin. They 
were still included in the Church ; and their preachers were 
estimated, as early as 1603, at the time of the Hampton 
Court Conference, to have numbered about a ninth part of 
the whole parish clergy. The teachers and disciples had 
both largely increased in numbers during the score of 
years preceding the time of which we are now treating. 
What at first had been a mere variance about church 
government and ritual came to involve important points of 
doctrine. A strife arose between Calvinism and Arminian- 
ism, the Calvinistic or Nonconformist party growing and 
strengthening as the Arminian or Hierarchical party became 
more hostile and vehement. The breach constantly widened, 
severity on the one side being met by persistence and a 
resolution to endure on the other.* 

Such was the state of religious affairs in England, when, 
at a meeting of the Massachusetts Company on the 28th 
of July, 1629, Mr. Cradock, the Governor, made the bold 
proposition to transfer the government and patent of 
the Plantation to America, f After debating the question 
thoroughly and weighing the arguments which could be 
adduced on both sides, legal advice was taken, and they at 
once commenced preparing to transport themselves and 
their families to America. Deplorable as was then the 
condition of religious matters f that of affairs of state was 

* Masson s Milton, Vol. i. ch. v. 

t Massachusetts Colony Records, Vol. i. p. 49. 


equally unpromising, and boded ill for the future. In the 
first four years of his reign, Charles had summoned three 
Parliaments, which he had speedily dissolved, because they 
so scantily supplied him with the money which he demanded, 
but preferred rather to occupy themselves with the rehearsal 
of their wrongs, which they finally erribodied in the Petition 
of Right. Once more only after that did the Parliament 
meet, (in January, 1629,) to be then abruptly dissolved, 
and to remain in abeyance for nearly twelve years. 

The position of those who proposed to go over to 
America was more disagreeable than dangerous. Their 
peril, if any, was prospective, not present. In this respect 
their case was very unlike that of the Separatists who colo 
nized Plymouth. The Massachusetts men professed many 
years later that " our libertie to walke in the faith of the 
gofpell with all good confcience, according to the order of 
the gofpell, . . . was the caufe of our tranfporting our- 
felves with our wives, little ones, and our fubftance, from 
that pleafant land over the Atlantick ocean into the vail 
wildernefs." * But it is evident from the character of the 
first colonists, and the nature of their public acts, that they 
had a great politico-religious scheme to carry out. They 
came here to form a state which should be governed accord 
ing to their own peculiar religious ideas ; not solely to seek 
an asylum from oppression. 

On the 26th of August, 1629, Dudley, with eleven others, 
signed an agreement at Cambridge, whereby they pledged 
themselves to remove with their families to New England 
by the first of the next March, provided the whole govern 
ment, together with the patent, should be legally transferred 

* Hutchinson s Collection, p. 326. 


before the last of September, to remain with such plan 
tation. * Although Dudley had been, as early as 1627, 
interested in the proposition to plant a colony for the propa 
gation of the gospel in New England, and had been active 
in the measures which preceded the departure of the Com 
pany itself, f yet he does not appear by the records to have 
had any connection with the Company until the i5th of Oc 
tober, 1629. On that day, he and Winthrop were, for the 
first time, present at a meeting. J On the 2Oth of the same 
month, Dudley was chosen an Assistant; and, on the 
i8th of the following March, Bradstreet was elected to the 
same office, in place of Mr. Thomas Goffe. From that 
time, they devoted their lives to the interests of the Com 
pany, holding the various high offices in the gift of their 
associates and fellow-colonists. They were the deposi 
taries of the most important trusts, and had at times 
committed to them the conduct of business of vital con 
sequence to the Colony. A thorough history of the lives 
of these two men would embrace the history of Massachu 
setts, if not of all New England, down to the close of the 
seventeenth century. Dudley was soon elected to the re 
sponsible position of "undertaker," that is, to be one of 
those having "the sole managinge of the ioynt stock, w th 
all things incydent thervnto, for the space of 7 yeares." || 
At a Court of Assistants held aboard the "Arbella" 
on the 23d of March he was chosen Deputy-Governor, 
in place of Mr. John Humphrey, who was to stay 
behind in England. 1 It would seem as if, before leav- 

* Hutchinson s Collections, pp. 25, 26. 

f Dudley s Letter in Young s Chronicles of Massachusetts, pp. 309-10. 

% Mass. Colony Records, Vol. i. p. 54. 

Ibid., p. 69. || Ibid., p. 65. 1 Ibid., p. 70. 


ing England, Dudley had visited Winthrop at his house 
at Groton, in Suffolk. The latter, writing from London 
to his wife on the 5th of February, says in a postscript, 
" Lett M r Dudleys thinges be sent up next week." * While 
Winthrop was waiting for the arrival of the ships at South 
ampton, in a letter to his son John he writes, "M r Dudlye 
was gone to the Wight before we came." f 

On Monday, the 2pth of March, the little band of colo 
nists embarked in their four small vessels, the "Arbella," 
"Talbot," "Ambrose," and "Jewell." Most of the promi 
nent people were on the "Arbella." Among them were 
Mr. Isaac Johnson and his wife, the Lady Arbella, sister of 
the Earl of Lincoln, in whose honor the name of the vessel 
had been changed from that of " Eagle." There, too, was 
the Governor, John Winthrop, whom Dudley describes as a 
man "well known in his own country, and well approved 
here for his piety, liberality, wisdom, and gravity, " J and 
others whose names are familiar to the readers of our his 
tory. With them, we have no doubt, were Mrs. Bradstreet 
and her nearest relations, her father, mother, and husband. 
On the same day they weighed anchor, and sailed down the 
English Channel ; but, on account of the adverse winds by 
which they were detained, they put into the port of Yar 
mouth, a small place on the Isle of Wight. From this place 
they addressed their affectionate and touching farewell to 
their "Brethren in and of the Church of England," of which 
Dudley was one of the signers. Charity prompts the sug- 

* Life and Letters of John Winthrop. By R. C. Winthrop. Boston : 
1864. Vol. i. p. 373. f Ibid., p. 386. 

I Dudley s Letter in Young s Chronicles of Massachusetts, p. 310. 

This is Mr. Savage s opinion. Winthrop s History of New England. 
Boston : 1853. Vol. i. p. 12, note 3. 


gestion that they insensibly merged their sorrow at leaving 
England in that of leaving the " Church." The genuine 
ness of their affection for the latter was too clearly shown by 
their conduct on arriving in New England ; for " the very 
first church planted by them was independent in all its 
forms, and repudiated every connection with Episcopacy or 
a liturgy."* On the 8th of April, the vessels set sail. Two 
days before the ladies had gone ashore to refresh them 
selves ; but, from that day until the i2th of the following 
June, they did not again set foot on dry land ; and then it 
was to tread the soil of the New World. After a stormy 
voyage, with much cold and rainy weather, the monotony 
being alleviated by preaching, singing, fasts, and thanks 
givings, on the seventy-second day passed aboard ship the 
sea-worn voyagers came in sight of the rocky but welcome 
shores of Mount Desert. A modern pleasure-seeker has 
spoken in the following glowing and perhaps rather 
exaggerated terms of the appearance of this picturesque 
spot from the sea : " It is difficult to conceive of any finer 
combination of land and water than this view. . . . Cer 
tainly only in the tropics can it be excelled, only in the 
gorgeous islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. On 
the coast of America it has no rival, except, perhaps, at 
the Bay of Rio Janeiro." f What an enchanting sight it 
must have been to those who had gazed on the blank sur 
face of the broad sea so long ! " We had now fair sunshine 
weather, and so pleasant a sweet air as did much refresh 
us, and there came a smell off the shore like the smell of 

* Story s Commentaries on the Constitution, Vol. i. 64. 
t A Summer Cruise on the Coast of New England. By Robert Carter. 
Boston : 1865. p. 252. 


a garden," writes Winthrop.* The more substantial bless 
ings of the main land rejoiced the hearts of the rest of the 
party on the following Saturday, I2th June, who, going 
ashore at Salem, " supped with a good venison pasty and 
good beer."f Some, wandering along the shore, feasted on 
the wild strawberries which grew there in abundance. But 
at night, when it became time to return to the ship, 
Winthrop remarks that "some of the women stayed behind," 
doubtless very reasonably cautious about again trusting 
themselves to the floating prison in which they had been so 
long pent up. They did not, like the wretched settlers of 
Plymouth, arrive in a cold and cheerless season of the year, 
to perish miserably in the ice and snow ; but the green 
hills, clad in the rich verdure of opening summer, smiled 
a genial welcome to our weary voyagers, their beauty 
heightened by that indescribable charm which any land has 
for the sea-tossed adventurer. Higginson, who arrived 
about a year before, speaks of Ten-pound " island, whither 
four of our men with a boat went, and brought back again 
ripe strawberries and gooseberries, and sweet single roses. 
Thus God," he continues, " was merciful to us in giving us 
a taste and smell of the sweet fruit as an earnest of his 
bountiful goodness to welcome us at our first arrival." J 

But the attractions of the scene to Winthrop and his 
company must have been more than offset by the melan 
choly condition in which they found the little settlement. 
They could have had little time to consider the beauties 
of nature, amid their own cares and the misery around 

* Winthrop s New England, Vol. i. p 23, and note i. 

t Ibid., p. 26. 

J Young s Chronicles of Massachusetts, p. 234. 


them. John Endicott had been sent over by the Patentees 
of the Massachusetts territory. He reached Salem in Sep 
tember, 1628, where he established a post, his own men 
and those whom he found there making, in all, a company 
of not much more than fifty or sixty persons.* The Rev. 
Mr. Higginson followed the next year with two hundred 
more colonists, finding with Endicott then about one 
hundred. Of these, two hundred settled at Salem, and 
the rest established themselves at Charlestown with the 
intention of founding a town there. | Dudley, in his letter 
to the Countess of Lincoln, says "We found the Colony in a 
sad and unexpected condition, above eighty of them being 
dead the winter before ; and many of those alive weak 
and sick ; all the corn and bread amongst them all hardly 
sufficient to feed them a fortnight, insomuch that the re 
mainder of a hundred and eighty servants we had the 
two years before sent over, coming to us for victuals to 
sustain them, we found ourselves wholly unable to feed 
them, by reason that the provisions shipped for them were 
taken out of the ship they were put in, and they who 
were trusted to ship them in another failed us and left them 
behind ; whereupon necessity enforced us, to our extreme 
loss, to give them all liberty, who had cost us about 16 
or 20 a person, furnishing and sending over." J 

As Salem was not to their taste, after exploring the 
Charles and Mystic Rivers, they unshipped their goods at 
Salem into other vessels, and brought them in July to 
Charlestown. They made a settlement there to the number 
of fifteen hundred people, Dudley and Bradstreet, per- 

* Young s Chronicles of Massachusetts, p. 13. 

t Ibid., p. 259. \ Ibid., p. 311-12. Ibid., p. 378. 


haps with their families, being among them. "The Gov 
ernor and several of the Patentees dwelt in the great 
house, which was last year built in this town by Mr. 
Graves and the rest of their servants. The multitude set 
up cottages, booths and tents about the Town Hill." * 
From the sad state of things above described, it is easy to 
see that the new comers had to give rather than receive 
assistance from those whom they found already at Charles- 
town. On Friday, July 30, Winthrop, Dudley, Johnson, 
and Wilson entered into a church covenant, which was 
signed two days after by Increase Now ell and four others, 
Sharpe, Bradstreet, Gager, and Colborne;f the sub 
scribers soon numbering sixty-four men and half as many 
women. J The next on the list are William Aspinwall and 
Robert Harding, and then follow the names of "Dorothy 
Dudley y e wife of Tho : Dudley" and "Anne Bradftreete y e 
wife of Simon Bradftreete." Johnson says, in his "Won 
der-working Providence," || that, after the arrival of the com 
pany at Salem, " the Lady Arrabella and fome other godly 
Women aboad at Salem , but their Husbands continued at 
Charles Town, both for the fettling the civill Government 
and gathering another Church of Christ" 

It may be that Mrs. Bradstreet was one of those who 
remained at Salem, and that she was not in Charlestown 
when the covenant was first signed ; but, as her name is 

* Charlestown Records in Young s Chronicles of Massachusetts, p. 378. 

t Prince s Chronology. Boston : 1826. p. 311. Bradford s History o f 
Plymouth Plantation. Boston : 1856. p. 278. Bradford s Letter Book, in 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. iii. p. 76. Budington s History of the First 
Church in Charlestown, pp. 13-15. t Budington, p. 15. 

MS. Records of the First Church in Boston. 

11 London : 1654. p. 37. 


only the thirteenth on the list, she must have joined her 
husband in Charlestown soon after. 

"Many people arrived sick of the scurvy, which also 
increased much after their arrival, for want of houses, and 
by reason of wet lodging in their cottages, &c. Other 
distempers also prevailed ; and, although [the] people were 
generally very loving and pitiful, yet the sickness did so 
prevail, that the whole were not able to tend the sick, as 
they should be tended ; upon which many perished and died 
and were buried about the Town Hill." * In addition to 
all this trouble, their provisions ran short, and, as it was too 
late in the season to think of raising any more, they were 
obliged to despatch a ship to Ireland to buy some. The 
hot weather, the want of running water, and the general 
sickness, which they attributed to the situation, made them 
discontented. Although they had intended to remain and 
found a town, they moved away, scattering about the neigh 
borhood, the majority of them, including the Governor, 
Deputy-Governor, and all the Assistants except Mr. Nowell, 
going across the river to Boston, at the invitation of Mr. 
Blaxton, who had until then been its only white inhabitant, f 

They did not remain long in Boston, as they were 
apprehensive that the Indians would attack them, now that 
they were dispersed and so much reduced by sickness ; but 
looked about for a suitable situation for a fortified town, and 
in December, 1630, decided upon the spot which was after 
wards called Cambridge. t Fortunately, the winter of 1630 
was mild, or their suffering would have been intense. As 

* Young s Chronicles of Massachusetts, pp. 378-9. 
t Ibid., pp. 379-81. Budington, p. 18. 
% Winthrop s New England, Vol. i. p. 39. 
Wood s "New-England s Profpeft," p. 5. 


it was, it is not hard to realize how wretchedly the poorer 
portion must have fared, when we look at the picture which 
Dudley, one of the richest of the party, writing nine 
months after their arrival, so vividly presents to us of the 
condition of himself and his family. He says that he 
writes " rudely, having yet no table, nor other room to write 
in than by the fireside upon my knee, in this sharp winter ; 
to which my family must have leave to resort, though they 
break good manners, and make me many times forget 
what I would say, and say what I would not."* The new 
settlement at Cambridge was begun in the spring of the next 
year ; and it was the intention of the settlers to make this 
place, which they called Newtown, the principal town of 
the Colony. The Governor, Deputy-Governor, and Brad- 
street were among those who moved out and established 
themselves there. The town was laid out in squares, the 
streets intersecting each other at right angles. Dudley s 
house stood on the west side of Water Street, near its 
southern termination at Marsh Lane, at the corner of the 
present Dunster and South Streets. Bradstreet s was at 
the corner of " Brayntree " and Wood Streets, where the 
University Bookstore of Messrs. Sever & Francis now is, 
on Harvard Square, at the corner of Brighton Street. Dud 
ley s lot was half an acre in size, and Bradstreet s measured 
" aboute one rood." f 

Governor Winthrop decided not to remain at Newtown, 

* Dudley s Letter to the Countess of Lincoln, in Young s Chronicles of 
Massachusetts, p. 305. This letter is the most vivid and authentic narra 
tive of the labor and sufferings attendant on the planting of the Colony. 

t "The Regeftere Booke of the Lands and Houfes in the Newtowne. 
1635." MS. pp. i and 27. Holmes History of Cambridge. Mass. Hist 
Soc. Coll., Vol. vii. pp. 7-8. 


and in the autumn took down the frame of his house, and 
moved it to Boston. This caused much dissatisfaction, as 
many thought that the prospects of the town would be 
thereby injured. Dudley was especially displeased, and 
followed up this and other charges which he had against 
Winthrop, so as to produce a temporary alienation between 
them. The matter was afterwards amicably settled, hav 
ing been referred to a conference of ministers ; * and the 
town continued to grow, notwithstanding the loss of the 
Governor. In August, 1632, it was largely increased by 
the arrival of those who had composed the congregation of 
the Rev. Thomas Hooker at Chelmsford, county of Essex, 
England. They left Mount Wollaston, where they had 
established themselves, for Newtown, by order of the Gen 
eral Court. f At their urgent solicitation, their pastor, Mr. 
Hooker, eluding with difficulty the officers of the High 
Commission, came to New England in the " Griffin." He 
reached Boston on the 4th of September, 1633, J and went 
immediately to Newtown, where he was soon after chosen 
minister. Many of the people were pool, and there was, at 
times, a scarcity of food. But the town flourished, the 
inhabitants being fortunately spared by the Indians, who 
had them at their mercy. Wood, who visited it before his 
return to England in August, 1633, thus describes it: 

" This is one of the neateft and beft compacted Townes in 
New England, having many faire ftrudtures, with many hand- 
fome contrived ftreets. The inhabitants moft of them are very 
rich, and well ftored with Cattell of all forts." 

* Holmes Cambridge, pp. 8 and fi. Winthrop s Life and Letters, 
Vol. ii. pp. 91-102. 

t Winthrop s New England, Vol i. pp. 87-8. J Ibid., pp 108-9. 

N. E. Prolpea, p. 43. 


At length there was a complaint of want of room. Men 
were accordingly sent to visit Ipswich, with a view to 
removing there. After much discussion, however, the 
town was enlarged, and the people remained. 

In 1635 Dudley and Bradstreet are found entered among 
the inhabitants of Ipswich.* As early as Jan. 17, 1632, 
O.S., fearing some trouble from their French neighbors, 
among other precautions, it was agreed at a General Court, 
"that a plantation should be begun at Agawam, (being 
the best place in the land for tillage and cattle,) least an 
enemy, rinding it void, should possess and take it from us. 
The governour s son (being one of the assistants) was to 
undertake this, and to take no more out of the bay than 
twelve men ; the rest to be supplied at the coming of the 
next ships." f This was done in March, and the little 
settlement was called Ipswich in August, 16344 The 
ninth church in the Colony, being the next to that at 
Cambridge, was gathered there in the same year. Mr. 
Nathaniel Ward was made pastor of the Church, his place 
being supplied in 1636 by Mr. Nathaniel Rogers. || Ips 
wich was included in the order of the General Court 
passed September 3d, 1635, that no dwelling-house should 
be above half a mile from the meeting-house. IF This 
precautionary measure, owing to greater danger from the 
Indians, was followed in the spring of 16367 by orders that 
watches should be kept, that people should travel with 

* Felt s History of Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton, 1834, pp. 10-11. 
f Winthrop s New England, Vol. i. pp. 98-9. 
J Mass. Colony Records, Vol. i. p. 123. 
Winthrop s New England, Vol. i. p. 94, n. 2. 
|| Johnson s Wonder-working Providence, p. 88. 
^f Mass. Colony Records, Vol. i p. 157 


arms, and should bring them to the public assemblies. 
Mr. Daniel Dennison, Mrs. Bradstreet s brother-in-law, was 
chosen captain for Ipswich.* Mrs. Bradstreet mentions 
her residing there, but we have no particulars respecting 
her stay in that town. 

On the 4th of March, 1634-5, "It is ordered, that the 
land aboute Cochichowicke shalbe reserved for an inland 
plantaeon, & that whosoeuer will goe to inhabite there shall 
haue three yeares iinunity from all taxes, levyes, publique 
charges & services whatsoeuer (millitary dissipline onely 
excepted)," &c., &c.f This is the first mention that we 
find of what was afterwards the town of Andover. In 
September, 1638, Mr. Bradstreet, Mr. Dudley, Junior, 
Captain Dennison, Mr. Woodbridge, and eight others, 
"are alowed (vpon their petition) to begin a plantation 
at Merrimack." :f 

They do not appear to have left Ipswich immediately, 
nor do we know the exact year when they went to Andover. 
It is certain, however, that these and others had already 
established themselves at Andover before the year 1644, 
in the September of which year two churches were ap 
pointed to be gathered, one at Haverhill, and the other 
at Andover. || 

Mrs. Bradstreet s son Simon, afterwards minister at New 
London, Conn., says in his manuscript diary : 

" 1640. I was borne in N. England, at Ipfwitch Septem. 28, 
being Munday 1640. 

* Mass. Colony Records, Vol. i. pp. 190-1. 
t Ibid., p. 141. J Ibid., p. 237. 

Abbot s History of Andover, 1829, p. 13. 
il Winthrop s New England, Vol. ii. p. 194. 


"1651. I had my Education in the fame Town at the free 
School, the matter of w ch was my ever refpecled ffreind Mr. 
Ezekiell Cheevers. My Father was removed from Ipfvv. to 
Andover, before I was putt to fchool, fo y* my fchooling was 
more chargeable." 

This, though not exact, helps us to fix the time of their 

This tract of land was bought of Cutshamache, " Saga 
more of y e Massachusets " by John Woodbridge, in behalf 
of the inhabitants of Cochichewick, "for y e fume of 61 & 
a coate ; " and in 1646 the town was incorporated by the 
name of Andover.* The first settlements were made near 
Cochichewick Brook, the principal part of the town being 
near the meeting-house, though the houses were too far 
apart to form much of a village. This is that portion 
of the town now called North Andover. Not far from 
the site of the first meeting-house is a large old-fashioned 
house, the oldest in the town. There is a tradition that 
this house was built and occupied by Governor Bradstreet, 
and it is certain that it was the residence of his son, Dudley 
Bradstreet. f Governor Bradstreet s house was burnt to 
the ground in July, 1666 ; J and, if the present house was 
built to supply the place of the old one, Mrs. Bradstreet 
may have lived in it for a few years, as she did not 
die until September, 1672, and then in Andover. It has 
always been believed in the town, that this was the Govern 
or s house ; and its size, the solidity of its construction, 
and its position, certainly tend to strengthen this conclusion. 
It stands on the old Haverhill and Boston road, within a 

* Mass. Colony Records, Vol. ii. p. 159; Abbot s Andover, p. n. 
t Abbot s Andover, pp. 19 and 98. t See page 40. 


few feet of the way, and has a southerly aspect. It has two 
full stories in front, but slopes to a single one in the rear. 
The rooms on both sides of the front door are high-studded, 
the floor having been sunk not long since. The doors 
are small, and very low. The walls of some of the rooms 
are wainscotted, while others are papered in the modern 
style. The frame of the house is very heavy, with massive 
old timbers ; and an immense chimney, strongly buttressed 
on its four sides, runs up in the centre. On the lawn in 
front of the house are some beautiful elms, one of which 
is noted for its unusual size.* The ground, falling abruptly 
from the easterly side of the house into a deep hollow 
where there is a little brook, rises again into a hill on the 
slope of which once stood the meeting-house, not a vestige 
of which is now left. Opposite its site is the old burying- 
ground, an irregular lot, sparsely covered with ancient 
moss-grown stones, in all positions straggling, broken, and 
neglected, and overrun with tall grass and weeds. Some 
few, including several tombs with horizontal slabs, are 
more modern and better preserved. The Merrimac is but 
a mile and a quarter distant, and the Cochichewick is quite 

The views from the hill-tops in the vicinity are charming, 
though it is difficult to imagine the appearance the town 
presented when it was first settled, and there was an unbro 
ken circle of woods in every direction. Now the visitor 
has to gaze on the smooth sides of the green hills, the coun 
try sparsely covered with houses, and the long line of the 

* This tree, more than twenty-five years ago, measured sixteen and a 
half feet in circumference, atone foot above the ground. Abbot s Andover, 
p. 195. A view of the house is given in the frontispiece. 


great mills of Lawrence in the distance, which last, more 
than any thing else, tell of the wonderful change wrought 
by two centuries of progress. Dr. Timothy Dwight, who 
had an opportunity (in 1810) to see this town before it lost 
so much of its native beauty, gives the following descrip 
tion of it : 

" North Andover is a very beautiful piece of ground. Its 
surface is elegantly undulating, and its soil in an eminent de 
gree fertile. The meadows are numerous, large, and of the 
first quality. The groves, charmingly interspersed, are tall and 
thrifty. The landscape, every where varied, neat, and cheerful, 
is also, everywhere rich. 

" The Parish is a mere collection of plantations, without any 
thing like a village. 

" Upon the whole, Andover is one of the best farming Towns 
in Eastern Massachusetts." * 

Mr. John Woodbridge was ordained pastor of the church 
at Andover in October, 1645.! He was the husband of 
Mrs. Bradstreet s sister Mercy. He was born at Stanton, 
near Highworth, in Wiltshire, about 1613, of which parish 
his father was minister. He had been some time at 
Oxford, but was unable to complete the course there, owing 
to his own and his father s unwillingness that he should 
take the oath of conformity required of him. About the 
year 1634, he came to New England, with his uncle, Mr. 
Thomas Parker, and settled at Newbury.J From that 
place, as we have seen, he moved to Andover. In 1647 
he sailed for the old country, probably taking with him 

* Travels. New Haven: 1821. Vol. i. p. 401. 
f Winthrop s New England, Vol. ii. pp. 252-3. 
J Mather s Magnalia, Bk. iii. p. 219. 


the manuscript poems of our author. These he caused to 
be published in London in 1650, under the title of "The 
Tenth Mufe Lately fprung up in America. Or Sever all 
Poems, compiled with great variety of Wit and Learn 
ing, full of delight. . . . By a Gentlewoman in thofe 
parts." * 

They were introduced to the reader in a short preface in 
which the author is described as "a Woman, honoured, 
and efteemed where me lives, for her gracious demeanour, 
her eminent parts, her pious converfation, her courteous 
difpofition, her exact diligence in her place, and difcreet 
mannaging of her family occafions." The poems were 
said to be "the fruit but of fome few houres, curtailed 
from her fleep, and other refremments." He also adds : 
"I feare the difpleafure of no perfon in the publilhing of 
thefe Poems but the Authors, without whofe knowledge, 
and contrary to her expectation, I have prefumed to bring 
to publick view what me refolved fhould never in fuch a 
manner fee the Sun ; but I found that divers had gotten 
fome fcattered papers, affected them wel, were likely to 
have fent forth broken pieces to the Authors prejudice, 
which I thought to prevent, as well as to pleafure thofe 
that earneflly delired the view of the whole." f 

That Woodbridge was principally concerned in their 
publication appears yet more fully from a poetical epistle 
signed "I. W." and addressed "To my deare Siller the 
Author of thefe Poems" which follows soon after. J 

Besides this, there are other commendatory verses, in which 
her poems are praised most extravagantly, by the Rev. N. 

* See page 79. f First edition, pp. iii-iv. See pages 83-4. 

J See page 86. 


Ward, who had been one of her neighbors and her minister 
at Ipswich; by the Rev. Benjamin Woodbridge, and 
other friends and admirers of hers. There are some ana 
grams on her name, a poetical dedication by her of the 
whole to her father,* and a prologue. The first four pieces 
in the book, "The Foure Elements," "The Foure Humours 
in Man s Confutation," "The Four Ages of Man," and 
"The Four Seafons of the Year," are really four parts of 
one entire poem. In this the sixteen personified characters 
Fire, Earth, Water, Aire, Choler, Blood, Melancholy, 
Flegme, Childhood, Youth, Middle Age, Old Age, Spring, 
Summer, Autumne, and Winter like the embodied ab 
stractions of the old English moral plays, appear upon the 
stage, where each sets forth successively his various quali 
ties, and boasts of the great power which he exerts for good 
or evil in the world. f Next comes the poem on "The Four 
Monarchies of the World," the Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, 
and Roman, which takes up more than half of the whole 
volume. To these are added, "A Dialogue between Old- 

* The date, March 20, 1642, attached to this Dedication in the second 
edition, may have led to a mistake as to the time when the first edition was 
published. Mr. Allibone, in his " Dictionary of Authors," and Mr. Gris- 
wold, in his "Female Poets of America," state it to have been in 1640; and 
in Appleton s " Cyclopaedia of Biography" it is given as 1642. Both dates 
are wrong, the first edition being published in 1650. 

t The Percy Society have reprinted, in the twenty-second volume of 
their "Publications," " one of the earliest moral plays in the English 
language known to exist," called "The Interlude of the Four Elements." 
Some of the " dyvers matters whiche be in this Interlude conteynyd," are 
" Of the sytuacyon of the iiij. elernentes, that is to say, the Yerth, the Water, 
the Ayre, and Fyre, and of their qualytese and propertese, and of the gen- 
eracyon and corrupcyon of thynges made of the commyxton of them." 

But none of the Elements themselves are players, and there is nothing 
contained in the play similar to what we find in Mrs. Bradstreet s verses. 


England and New, Concerning their prefent troubles. 
Anno 1642 ; " elegies upon Sir Philip Sidney and Queen 
Elizabeth; a poem "In honour of Du Bartas, 1641;" 
"David s Lamentation for Saul, and Jonathan," versified 
from the second book of Samuel ; and another, and the last, 
" Of the vanity of all worldly creatures" 

Of the merit of these productions, I will say but little, 
leaving the reader to judge for himself on this point. I 
can hardly expect, however, that, after f twice drinking the 
neclar of her lines, he will "welter in delight," like the 
enthusiastic President Rogers.* Yet I am confident, that, 
if it is denied that they evince much poetic genius, it must, 
at least, be acknowledged that they are remarkable, when 
the time, place, and circumstances under which they were 
composed, are taken into consideration. They are quaint 
and curious ; they contain many beautiful and original 
ideas, not badly expressed ; and they constitute a singular 
and valuable relic of the earliest literature of the country. 
It is important that the reader should bear in mind the 
peculiarly unpropitious circumstances under which they 
were written. No genial coterie of gifted minds was near 
to cheer and inspire her, no circle of wits to sharpen and 
brighten her faculties ; she had no elegant surroundings of 
rich works of art to encourage and direct her tastes : but 
the country was a wilderness, and the people among whom 
she dwelt were the last in the world to stimulate or appre 
ciate a poet. 

Notwithstanding her assurance to her father that 

"My goods are true (though poor) I love no ftealth," f 

Mrs. Bradstreet s longer poems appear to be, in many places, 

* See pages 93-96. f See page 98, last line. 


simply poetical versions of what she had read. Accord 
ingly, her facts and theories are often discordant with what 
the more accurate and thorough investigation of recent 
years has made certain or probable. To point out these 
differences wherever they occur would be at once a diffi 
cult and a useless task. Her poems make it evident that 
she had been a faithful student of history, an assiduous 
reader, and a keen observer of nature and of what was 
transpiring both at home and abroad. She mentions many 
of the principal Greek and Latin authors, such as Hesiod, 
Homer, Thucydides, Xenophon, and Aristotle, Virgil, Ovid, 
Quintus Curtius, Pliny, and Seneca ; but there is no reason 
to suppose that she had read their works, either in the 
originals or in translations. A few scraps of Latin are 
to be found scattered through her writings ; but they are 
such as any one might have picked up without knowing 
the language. "The Exacl: Epitomie of the Four Monar 
chies," which takes up considerably more than half of the 
volume of "Poems," was probably derived almost entirely 
from Sir Walter Raleigh s "History of the World," Arch 
bishop Usher s "Annals of the World," the Hebrew writ 
ings, Pemble s "Period of the Perfian Monarchic,"* and 
perhaps from other historical treatises. She frequently 

* See page 250, note. 

William Pemble, a learned divine, was born in Sussex, or at Egerton, in 
Kent, in 1591, and died April 14, 1623. One of his works was entitled 
" THE PERIOD OF THE PERSIAN MONARCHIE, Wherein fundry places of 
Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel are cleered. Extracted, contracted, and 
englifhed, (much of it out of Doctor Raynolds) by the late learned and 
godly Man M r . WILLIAM Pemble, of Magdalen Hall in OXFORD." This 
is doubtless the book which Mrs. Bradstreet had seen. All of his works 
were separately printed after his death, and then collected in one volume, 
folio, in 1635, and reprinted four or five times. 


refers to Raleigh and Usher ; but it was to Raleigh that 
she was chiefly indebted, and she follows him very closely. 
A few parallel passages from her "Poems" and from 
Raleigh s "History of the World" will prove this, and will 
show, that, when she apparently gives the result of her own 
researches among the writers of antiquity, she is only 
quoting them indirectly through the English historians of 
her own time. 

She thus describes the murder of the philosopher Callis- 
thenes by Alexander the Great, in her account of the 
Grecian Monarchy : 

" The next of worth that fuffered after thefe, 
Was learned, virtuous, wife Califthenes, 
Who lov d his Matter more then did the reft, 
As did appear, in flattering him the leaft; 
In his efteem a God he could not be, 
Nor would adore him for a Diety : 
For this alone and for no other caufe, 
Againft his Sovereign, or againft his Laws, 
He on the Rack his Limbs in pieces rent, 
Thus was he tortur d till his life was fpent. 
Of this unkingly act doth Seneca 
This cenfure pafs, and not unwifely fay, 
Of Alexander this th eternal crime, 
Which mail not be obliterate by time. 
Which virtues fame can ne re redeem by far, 
Nor all felicity of his in war. 
When e re tis faid he thoufand thoufands flew, 
Yea, and Califthenes to death he drew. 
The mighty Per/tan King he overcame, 
Yea, and he kill d Califtthenes of fame. 
All Countryes, Kingdomes, Provinces, he wan 
From Hellifpont, to th farthest Ocean. 
All this he did, who knows not to be true? 
But yet withal, Califthenes he flew. 


From Macedon, his Empire did extend 
Unto the utmoft bounds o th orient : 
All this he did, yea, and much more, tis true, 
But yet withal, Califtkenes he flew." * 

This passage, the quotation from Seneca included, is 
taken directly from Raleigh, whose words are as fol 
lows : 

" Alexander stood behind a partition, and heard all that was 
spoken, waiting but an opportunity to be revenged on Callisthe- 
nes, who being a man of free speech, honest, learned, and a lover 
of the king s honour, was yet soon after tormented to death, not 
for that he had betrayed the king to others, but because he 
never would condescend to betray the king to himself, as all his 
detestable flatterers did. For in a conspiracy against the king, 
made by one Hermolaus and others, (which they confessed,) he 
caused Callisthenes, without confession, accusation, or trial, to be 
torn asunder, upon the rack. This deed, unworthy of a king, 
Seneca thus censureth : [He gives the Latin, and thus translates 
it.] This is the eternal crime of Alexander, which no virtue 
nor felicity of his in war shall ever be able to redeem. For as 
often as any man shall say, He slew many thousand Persians ; 
it shall be replied, He did so, and he slew Callisthenes : when it 
shall be said, He slew Darius ; it shall be replied, And Callis 
thenes : when it shall be said, He won all as far as to the very 
ocean, thereon also he adventured with unusual navies, and 
extended his empire from a corner of Thrace to the utmost 
bounds of the orient ; it shall be said withal, But he killed 
Callisthenes. Let him have outgone all the ancient examples 
of captains and kings, none of all his acts makes so much to 
his glory, as Callisthenes to his reproach. " f 

* See pages 284-5. 

t " History of the World." Oxford : 1829. Bk. iv. ch. 2, sec. 19. 


Again, speaking of Cyrus, she says : 

" But Zenofhon reports, he dy d in s bed, 
In honour, peace, and wealth, with a grey head, 
And in his Town of Pafargada lyes, 
Where Alexander fought, in hope of prize, 
But in this Tombe was only to be found 
Two Sythian bowes, a fword, and target round ; 
Where that proud Conquereur could doe no leffe, 
Then at his Herfe great honours to expreffe ; "* 

using almost the same words as Raleigh : 

"Wherefore I rather believe Xenophon, saying, that Cyrus 
died aged, and in peace. . . . 

" This tomb was opened by Alexander, as Quintus Curtius, 1 
i. reporteth, either upon hope of treasure supposed to have been 
buried with him, (or upon desire to honour his dead body with 
certain ceremonies,) in which there was found an old rotten 
target, two Scythian bows, and a sword. The coffin wherein the 
body lay, Alexander caused to be covered with his own garment, 
and a crown of gold to be set upon it." f 

Her account of the quarrel of Alexander and Cleitus, 
which resulted in the death of the latter, is evidently taken 
from Raleigh : 

"The next that in untimely death had part, 
Was one of more efteem, but lefle defart ; 
Clitus, belov d next to Epheftion, 
And in his cups, his chief Companion ; 
When both were drunk, Clitus was wont to jeere ; 
Alexander, to rage, to kill, and fweare, 
Nothing more pleafing to mad Clitus tongue, 
Then s Matters god-head, tp defie, and wrong; 

* First edition, p. 89. See page 211. 

t " History of the World," Bk. iii., ch. 3, sec. 6. 


Nothing toucht Alexander to the quick 
Like this, againft his deity to kick : 
Upon a time, when both had drunken well, 
Upon this dangerous theam fond Clitus fell ; 
From jeaft, to earneft, and at laft fo bold, 
That of Parmcnio s death him plainly told. 
Alexander now no longer could containe, 
But inftantly commands him to be flaine; 
Next day, he tore his face, for what he d done. 
And would have flaine himfelf, for Clitus gone. 
This pot companion he did more bemoan, 
Then all the wrong to brave Parmenio done." * 

Raleigh says : 

..." we read of Alexander . . . how he slew him [Clytus] 
soon after, for valuing the virtue of Philip the father before that 
of Alexander the son, or rather because he objected to the king 
the death of Parmenio, and derided the oracle of Hammon ; 
for therein he touched him to the quick, the same being de 
livered in public and at a drunken banquet. Clytus, indeed, 
had deserved as much at the king s hands as any man living had 
done, and had in particular saved his life, which the king well 
remembered when he came to himself, and when it was too late. 
Yet, to say the truth, Clytus s insolency was intolerable. As he 
in his cups forgat whom he offended, so the king in his (for 
neither of them were themselves) forgat whom he went about 
to slay ; for the grief whereof he tore his own face, and sor 
rowed so inordinately, as, but for the persuasions of Callisthenes, 
it is thought he would have slain himself." t 

In her sketch of Semiramis, we find this : 

v " The River Indus J fwept them half away, 
The reft Staurobates in fight did flay ; 

* First edition, pp 145-6. See pages 283-4. 
t " History of the World," Bk. iv. ch. 2, sec. 19. 
% See page 186, note /. 


This was laft progrefs of this mighty Queen, 
Who in her Country never more was feen. 
The Poets feign d her turn d into a Dove, 
Leaving the world to Venus foar d above : 
Which made the AJfyrians many a day, 
A Dove within their Enfigns to difplay : " * 

Now, Raleigh says : 

" But of what multitude soever the army of Semiramis con 
sisted, the same being broken and overthrown by Stanrobates 
upon the banks of Indus, canticum cantavit extremum, she sang 
her last song ; and (as antiquity hath feigned) was changed by 
the gods into a dove ; (the bird of Venus ;) whence it came that the 
Babylonians gave a dove in their ensigns." f 

She says of Xerxes : 

" He with his Crown receives a double war, 
The Egyptians to reduce, and Greece to marr, 
The firft begun, and finifh d in fuch hafte, 
None write by whom, nor how, twas over paft. 
But for the laft, he made fuch preparation, 
As if to duft, he meant, to grinde that nation ; 
Yet all his men, and Inftruments of flaughter, 
Produced but derilion and laughter." % 

Raleigh has the same in these words : 

" Xerxes received from his father, as hereditary, a double war, 
one to be made against the Egyptians, which he finished so speed 
ily that there is nothing remaining in writing how the same was 
performed ; the other against the Grecians, of which it is hard to 
judge whether the preparations were more terrible, or the success, 

* See page 186. 

t " History of the World," Bk. i. ch. 12, sec. 4. 

J See page 223. 

" History of the World," Bk. iii. ch. 6, sec. i. 


Speaking of the state of things after the death of Alex 
ander the Great, she uses the following very apt illustration, 
which, however, she found in Raleigh : 

" Great Alexander dead, his Armyes left, 
Like to that Giant of his Eye bereft; 
When of his monftrous bulk it was the guide, 
His matchlefs force no creature could abide. 
But by Uliffes having loft his fight, 
All men began ftreight to contemn his might; 
For aiming ftill amifs, his dreadful blows 
Did harm himfelf, but never reacht his Foes." * 

Now, Raleigh : 

" The death of Alexander left his army (as Demades the 
Athenian then compared it) in such case, as was that mon 
strous giant Polyphemus, having lost his only eye. For that 
which is reported in fables of that great Cyclops might well be 
verified of the Macedonians : their force was intolerable, but 
for want of good guidance (ineffectual, and harmful chiefly to 
themselves." f 

After the publication of the first edition of her "Poems," 
Mrs. Bradstreet appears to have read Sir Thomas North s 
translation of Plutarch s Lives, and to have incorporated 
some of the facts which she thus obtained into the second 
edition. She does not mention Plutarch in the first edition ; 
while, in the second, she refers to him twice by name. I 
will give a single instance of the way in which she made 
these additions. In place of the lines in the first edition, 
already quoted, 

"Alexander now no longer could containe, 
But inftantly commands him to be flaine ; " 

* See page 289. 

t " History of the World," Bk. iv. ch. 3, sec. i. 


are substituted in the second, the following : 

" Which Alexanders wrath incens d fo high, 
Nought but his life for this could fatisfie ; 
From one ftood by he ihacht a partizan, 
And in a rage him through the body ran." * 

These last two lines must have come from Plutarch. 

u Then Alexander taking a partifan from one of his guard, as 
Clitus was coming towards him, and had lift vp the hanging be 
fore the doore, he ranne him through the body, fo that Clitus 
fell to the ground, and fetching one grone, died prefently." t 

So, notwithstanding her allusion to Galen and Hippoc 
rates ? :f it is almost certain that she obtained her wonder 
fully exact description of human anatomy from the "curious 
learned Crooke," whose "Description of the Body of Man" 
had gone through three editions in London in 1631. 

Mrs. Bradstreet s familiarity with the Bible is apparent 
all through her writings. There are traces of her having 
used the Genevan Version, which, for many reasons, was 
more acceptable to the Puritans than the authorized one of 
King James. 

* See pages 283 and 284, note /, and page xlvii. 

t North s Plutarch. London: 1631. p. 700. 

t See page 143. 

See page 144. Probably Helkiah Crooke, M.D., of whose works Watt 
has the following in his " Bibliotheca Britannica," Vol. i. p. 272, w. : 

" M.iKpoKoajj.o-ypa<j>ia, or a Description of the Body of Man, collected and 
translated out of all the best Authors of Anatomy, especially out of Gaspar, 
Bauchinus, and A. Sourentius. Lond. 1615, 1618, 1631. fol. A large 
work, illustrated with the plates of Vesalius and others. An Explanation 
of the fashion and use of three and fifty Instruments of Chirurgery. Lond. 
1631, fol. The same Lond. 1634, 8vo. Taken chiefly from Parey." [Am 
brose Pare, a French surgeon.] 




Du Bartas, as translated by Joshua Sylvester, was her 
favorite author. However distasteful his writings may be 
to readers of the present day, they were then exceedingly 
popular, and we are told that Milton not only found pleas 
ure in reading them, but was to some extent indebted to 
them.* Mrs. Bradstreet, besides her special tribute to his 
memory, constantly displays her admiration for Du Bartas. 
This liking was known to her friends ; and in her dedica 
tion of her "Poems" to her father, she felt it necessary 
expressly to disclaim having copied from him at all. How 
much she really owed to him it is hard to tell. The gen 
eral idea of her longer poems may have been suggested 
by reading his works, and her style and manner may have 
been affected in the same way.f 

* Craik s English Literature, Vol. i. p. 569, and note 2. Bohn s Bib 
liographer s Manual, sub Du Bartas. 

t Guillaume de Saluste du Bartas, born of noble parents near Audi 
about 1544, and brought up to the profession of war, distinguished himself 
as a soldier and a negotiator. Holding the same religious views as Henry 
IV. before he became King of France, and attached to the person of that 
prince in the capacity of gentleman in ordinary of his bed-chamber, he 
was successfully employed by him on missions to Denmark, Scotland, and 
England. He was at the battle of Ivry, and celebrated in song the victory 
which he had helped to gain. He died four months after, in July, 1590, 
at the age of forty-six, in consequence of some wounds which had been 
badly healed. He passed all the leisure which his duties left him at his 
chateau du Bartas. It was there that he composed his long and numer 
ous poems : La Premiere Semaine, that is, the Creation in seven days ; 
LUranie, Judith, Le Triomphe de la Foi, Les Neuf Muses, and La 
Seconde Semaine. The last work is very strangely entitled, as it com 
prehends a great part of the Old Testament histories. His principal 
poem, La Semaine, went through more than thirty editions in less than 
six years, and was translated into Latin, Italian, Spanish, English, Ger 
man, and Dutch. MICHAUD ; BIOGRAPHIE UNIVERSELLE, sub Bartas. 

Sylvester s translation of Du Bartas s works was first published in a 


Sir Philip Sidney was also a great favorite with Mrs. 
Bradstreet, but she was not able to praise his works in 
such unqualified terms as she does those of Du Bartas. 
Her criticisms are quite entertaining. She refers to the 
" Historic of Great Britaine " by Speed, and to Camden s 
"Annales,"* as if she had read them, and she probably 
derived some of the facts used in the " Dialogue between 
Old-England and New" from the former. She was not 
ignorant of the works of Spenser, f but she does not dis 
cuss their merits. 

The earliest date attached to any of Mrs. Bradstreet s 
writings is that of a posthumous poem entitled " Upon a 
Fit of Sicknefs, Anno. 1632. ^tatis face, 19. "if This was 
written at a time of great despondency, and certainly does 
not show the signs of much poetic genius. The elegy 
upon Sir Philip Sidney bears date 1638 ; the poem in 
honor of Du Bartas, 1641 ; the Dialogue between Old- 
England and New, 1642; the Dedication of the "Poems" 
to her father (in the second edition), March 20, 1642 ; and 
the poem in honor of Queen Elizabeth, 1643. All the 
" Poems," in the first edition at least, were thus apparently 
written by the time she was thirty years old. 

Of her mother, who died on the 27th of December, 
1643, scarcely any thing is known, not even her maiden 

quarto volume in London in 1605, the parts of which it was composed 
having previously appeared separately. The title of the edition of 1621 
pleate Collection of all the other most delightfull Workes, Translated 
and Written by y* famous Philomusus* Josvah Sylvester, Gent." Others 
had also competed with Sylvester in this work. 

* See page 358. f See pages 348 and 358. 

% See page 391. 


name. Her homely virtues are thus simply recorded by 
her daughter : 

On my dear and ever honoured Mother 

Mrs. Dorothy Dudley, 

who deccafed Decemb. 27. 1643. and of her age, 61 : 

Here lyes, 

A Worthy Matron of unj~potted life, 

A loving- Mother and obedient wife, 
A friendly Neighbor, pitiful to poor, 

Whom oft JJie fed, and clothed with her ftore ; 
To Servants wifely aweful, but yet kind, 
And as they did, Jo they reward did find . 
A true Inftrufier of her Family, 
The which JJie ordered with dexterity. 
The publick meetings ever did frequent, 
And in her Clofet conjlant hours fhe fpent ; 
Religious in all her words and wayes, 
Preparing ft ill for death, till end of dayes : 
Of all her Children, Children, liv dto fee, 
Then dying, left a blejfed memory" * 

After the death of this lady, Governor Dudley married, 
on the 1 4th of the following April, Catherine, widow of 
Samuel Hackburne.f He died on the 3ist of July, 1653, 

* See page 369. 

f Governor Dudley had the following children by his first wife : 

1. Samuel; born in England, in 1610. Married three times, first in 
1632 or 33, Mary, daughter of Governor Winthrop. Settled minister at 
Exeter, N.H., in 1650, where he died in January, 1682, O.S. Had eighteen 

2. Anne; married Governor Bradstreet. 

3. Patience; married Major-General Daniel Denison. Died Feb. 8, 
1690, O.S. Had two children. 


in the seventy-seventh year of his age.* He moved from 
Ipswich to Roxbury about the year 1639,! and resided there 
during the rest of his life. From the time of his arrival in 
America he had been a magistrate ; he had held the offices 
of Governor, Deputy-Governor, Assistant, and Justice of 
the Peace ; he was in May, 1636, together with Winthrop, 
chosen Councillor for life ; in 1644 he was elected the first 
Major-General ; he had been appointed to hold court in 
various places, and had received many other tokens of 
the regard and confidence of the people .J He has been 
charged with bigotry and intolerance, faults which certainly 
did not distinguish him from most of his contemporaries, 

4. Sarah ; baptized July 23, 1620, at Sempringham ; married Major 
Benjamin Keajne, of Boston, and was divorced from him in 1647. She 
afterwards married Pacye, and died Nov. 3, 1659. 

5. Mercy; born Sept. 27, 1621; married the Rev. John Woodbridge in 
1639; an d died in July, 1691. Had twelve children. 

6. Dorothy; died Feb. 27, 1643. 

By his second wife he had, 

i. Deborah; born Feb. 27, 1644-5; died unmarried Nov. I, 1683. 
"2. Joseph; born Sept. 23, 1647; married in 1668 Rebecca, daughter of 
Edward Tyng, and died April 2, 1720. He was Governor of Massachusetts, 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, and first Chief-Justice of New 
York. He had thirteen children, one of whom, Paul, was also a distin 
guished man; being Attorney-General, and afterwards Chief-Justice of 
Massachusetts, Fellow of the Royal Society, and founder of the Dudleian 
Lectures at Harvard College. 

3. Paul ; born Sept. 8, 1650, married Mary, daughter of Governor John 
Leverett, and died 1681-82. Had three children.* 

* See page 365. 

t Felt s Ipswich, p. 72. 

t Massachusetts Colony Records, Vo ls. I. -III. 

" Sutton-Dudleys," p. 97 Dudley Genealogies, p. 18. N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, Vol. i. 
pp. 71-2; Vol. x. pp. 130-6. Mass Hist. Soc. Proceedings (1860-52), pp. 93, 95. 


either here or in England. If he was stern, blunt, and 
overbearing, he was at the same time placable, generous, 
and hospitable. He was a faithful and an able magistrate, 
and conscientiously discharged all his duties. He had 
some knowledge of law, and was a shrewd business man, 
but honest in all his dealings. In short, he presented that 
varied phase of character that one might expect to find in 
a man who had had such a rough experience in life. He 
left fifty or sixty books, principally on history and divinity, 
some of them in Latin, and forming what was then a large 
library.* Mather has preserved a Latin epitaph in his 
"Magnalia," signed "E. R." [Ezekiel Rogers] , in which 
Dudley is described as a 

" Helluo Librorum, Lectorum Bibliotheca 

Communis, Sacrae Syllabus Historiae" f 

Mrs. Bradstreet, too,. calls him "a magazine of history," and 
acknowledges that he was her " guide " and " instructor," J 
and that it was to him that she owed her love of books. In 
some verses to her father, she says : 

" Moft truly honoured, and as truly dear, 
If worth in me, or ought I do appear, 
Who can of right better demand the fame? 
Then may your worthy felf from whom it came." 

If we may judge from a reference in her " Dedication," 
it is probable that he had written a poem "On the Four 
Parts of the World," || which might even have been printed. 
But, if it was similar to the oft-quoted verses said to have 

* Suffolk Probate Records, Lib. ii. Fol. 133. N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, 
Vol. xii. pp. 355-6. 

t Magnalia, Bk. ii. p. 17. J See pages 365 and 368. 

See page 398. || See page 97. 


been found in his pocket after his death,* we ought not 
to complain that the poem is among the lost books of the 
world. Having had 500 left to him when he was very 
young, f he had always been prosperous, being the wealth 
iest man in Roxbury, where the people were generally well- 
to-do. He was the owner of a large quantity of land, and 
at the time of his death his property was appraised at 
1560. 105. id.,$ which was a considerable sum in this 
country at that early date. He interested himself in town 
affairs, and headed the list of those who entered into an 

* These verses are thus given by Mather (MAGNALIA, Bk. ii. p. 17.) 
In the old manuscript life in "The Sutton Dudleys," p. 37, there is a 
somewhat different version : 

" Dim Eyes, Deaf Ears, Cold Stomach, JJicw 
My Diffblution is in View. 
Eleven times Seven near liv*d have /, 
And now God calls, I willing Die. 
My Shuttle s Jhot, my Race is run, 
My Sun is Jet, my Day is done. 
My Span is meafur d, Tale is told, 
My Flower is faded, and grown old. 
My Dream is vani/h d, Shadow s fled, 
My Soul with Chrift, my Body Dead. 
Farewel Dear Wife, Children and Friends, 
Hate Herejte, make BleJJed Ends. 
Bear Poverty, live with good Men ; 
So Jhall we live with Joy agcn. 
Let Men of God in Courts and Churches watch 
O re fuch as do a Toleration hatch, 
Left that III Egg bring forth a Cockatrice, 
To poifon all with Herejte and Vice. 
If Men be left, and otherwjfe Combine, 
My Epitaph s, Qg ft no ILtberttnc." 

t " Sutton-Dudleys," p. 24. 

\ Suffolk Probate Records, Lib. ii. Fol. 134. 


agreement in August, 1645, to support a free school in 

Mrs. Bradstreet had eight children, four sons and four 
daughters ; a fact which she has recorded in some fanciful 
verses, beginning, 

" I had eight birds hatcht in one neft, 
Four Cocks there were, and Hens the reft, 
I nurft them up with pain and care, 
Nor coft, nor labour did I fpare, 
Till at the laft they felt their wing. 
Mounted the Trees, and learn d to fing ; " f 

She goes on at some length, carrying out the simile, and 
describes their past life, their condition at that time, and her 
solicitude for their future health and happiness. Prompted 
by her love for her children, she wrote out her religious 
experiences, in a little book in which she also kept a 
record, partly in prose and partly in verse, of her sick 
nesses, her religious feelings, and the most important inci 
dents in her life.J The earliest date in it is July 8, 1656, 
but it was undoubtedly begun before that. 

Having had from her birth a very delicate constitution, 
prostrated when only sixteen years old by the small-pox, 
troubled at one time with lameness, subject to frequent 
attacks of sickness, to fevers, and to fits of fainting, she 
bore these numerous inflictions with meekness and resig 
nation. Recognizing the inestimable blessing of health, 
she regarded it as the reward of virtue, and looked upon 

* History of Roxbury Town, by Charles M. Ellis. Boston: 1847, 
p. 37. Mr. Ellis has given the best sketch of Dudley s life which I have 
seen (pp. 97-104). 

t See page 400. J See pages 2-39. See page 17. 



her various maladies as tokens of the divine displeasure 
at her thoughtlessness or wrong-doing. She says that her 
religious belief was at times shaken ; but her doubts and 
fears were soon banished, if, indeed, they were not exag 
gerated in number and importance by her tender con 
science. Her children were constantly in her mind. It 
was for them that she committed to writing her own re 
ligious experiences, her own feelings of joy or sorrow at 
the various changes which brightened or darkened her 
life. Her most pointed similes are drawn from the familiar 
incidents of domestic life, especially the bringing-up of 
children. From some of these references it would seem 
as if she had found among her own children the most 
diverse traits of character ; that some of them were obedi 
ent and easily governed, while others were unruly and 
headstrong ; and that she derived an intense satisfaction 
from contemplating the virtues of some, while she deplored 
the failings of others. Notwithstanding the comfort she 
took in her children, notwithstanding the happiness of her 
married life, she continually dwells on the vanity of all 
worldly delights, the shortness of life, and the great ills 
to which humanity is subject. She found, however, a 
never-failing solace for all her troubles in prayer. " I 
have had," she writes, "great experience of God s hear 
ing my Prayers, and returning comfortable Anfwers to 
me, either in granting y e Thing I prayed for, or elfe," 
she adds, with a charming frankness, "in fatiffying my 
mind without it." * 

In November, 1657, her son Samuel, her eldest child, 
sailed for England, j He graduated at Harvard College 

* See page 7. f See page 24. 


in the year 1653, but his age is not known, though at that 
time he could not have been more than twenty. Mrs. 
Bradstreet says, " It pleafed God to keep me a long time 
without a child, which was a great grief to me, and coll 
mee many prayers and tears before I obtaind one." * 
Samuel was, 

" The Son of Prayers, of vowes, of teares, 
The child I ftay d for many yeares." f 

and she was very loth to part with him, but she committed 
him at last to the care of Providence, and was rewarded 
by welcoming him home safe, in July, 16614 

Her husband s mission to England in January, 1661-2, 
must have been an event of great importance in her life. 
Devotedly attached to him as she was, and unhappy when 
separated from him for even a short time, the circumstances 
under which he went were such as to make her particularly 
anxious during his absence. The news of the restoration 
of Charles II. to the throne had been somewhat coldly 
received by the Massachusetts colonists. They were justly 
apprehensive that their indifference, if not actual hostility, 
to his cause during the Civil War, their severe treatment 
of the Quakers, and their assumption of the powers of an 
independent state, might now be brought up against them, 
and result in a serious diminution of the privileges they had 
up to that time enjoyed. The complaints of the Quakers, 
and the exertions of those who had suffered by or who 
were disaffected with the Massachusetts men, were so 
violent, and met with such success, that the latter were 
obliged, by the order of the King, to send agents to plead 

* See page 5. f See page 24. J See page 28. 


their cause and repel these attacks at Court. The unwil 
lingness of the Government to send these Commissioners 
was only equalled by the distaste of those upon whom their 
choice had fallen Mr. Bradstreet and the Rev. Mr. Nor 
ton for this delicate and unpleasant duty. Mr. Norton 
was particularly disinclined to have any thing to do with 
the matter, but his scruples were finally overcome. Having 
recovered from a severe attack of sickness, whose sudden 
approach delayed their departure, Norton embarked with 
Bradstreet on the loth of February. On the following 
morning they set sail for England, John Hull, the mint- 
master of the Colony, being a fellow-passenger with them. 
They arrived in London the last of March, and were suc 
cessful in their endeavors, to divert the anger of the king, 
to put a favorable construction on the past acts of the Col 
ony, and to secure for it an extension of the royal favor. 
On the 3d of September, they returned in the ship "Society," 
bringing with them a letter from the King, in which the 
charter privileges were confirmed, and all past errors par 
doned. The satisfaction which this gave was more than 
counterbalanced by the rest of the letter, which enjoined 
a fuller establishment of the King s authority, and contained 
other matter equally distasteful to the people. The conse 
quence was, that the two agents became extremely unpopu 
lar, and this cold treatment was thought to have hastened 
the death of Norton, who grew very melancholy, and died 
on the 5th of the following April. While they were in 
England, fears were entertained for their safety, and re 
ports came in private letters that they had been detained, 
and that Mr. Norton was in the Tower. And, according 
to Sewel, the Quaker historian, who gives no very flatter- 


ing account of their conduct in London, they were really 
in some danger.* 

Mrs. Bradstreet had from time to time been writing 
under the name of "Meditations" some apothegms, sug 
gested mainly by the homely events of her own experience. 
This was done at the request of her son Simon, to whom 
they were dedicated March 20, 1664. f The "Meditations" 
display much more ability, much greater cultivation of 
mind, and a deeper thoughtfulness than most of her other 
works. She shows in them a more correct taste than in 
her "Poems." We must take her word for their originality. 
" I have avoyded," she says, " incroaching upon others con 
ceptions becaufe I would leave you nothing but myne owne, 
though in value they fall fhort of all in this kinde." And 
again she reminds him that "There is no new thing vnder y e 
fun, there is nothing that can be fayd or done, but either that 
or fomething like it hath been both done and fayd before." J 

In July, 1666, by the burning of the house at Andover, 
her papers, books, and many other things of great value 
to her, were destroyed. She had intended to complete her 
poetical account of "The Roman Monarchy," and had spent 
much time in preparing a continuation of it, but the loss of 
what she had already finished made her abandon the work 
altogether. Her son Simon thus notices this disaster in 
his diary, and represents his father s loss as very great : 

"July. 12. 1666. Whilft I was at N. London my fathers houfe 
at Andover was burnt, where I loft my Books, and many of my 

* See pages 32-9. Hutchinson s History, Vol. i. pp. 201-5; Hull s 
Diaries, Arch. Amer., Vol. iii. pp. 153-4, and 204-8; History of the Qua 
kers, by William Sewel. London : 1725, pp. 279-80. 

t See page 47. J See page 53. See pages 40 und 329. 


clothes, to the valeiu of 50 or 60 ft at leaft ; The Lord gaue, 
and the Lord hath taken, bleffed bee the Name of the Lord. 
Tho : my own lofle of books (and papers efpec.) was great and 
my fathers far more being about 800, yet y e Lord was pleafed 
gratioufly many wayes to make up y fame to us. It is there 
fore good to truft in the Lord." 

There could have been little of variety to call Mrs. Brad- 
street aside from the daily routine of her quiet country life. 
Attendance on the frequent and long-protracted religious 
meetings, and the duties of her household, must have occu 
pied her time when she was well. She had evidently 
exposed herself to the criticism of her neighbors by study 
ing and writing so much. The fact of a woman s being 
able to compose any thing possessing any literary merit 
was regarded with the greatest surprise by her contempo 
raries, and was particularly dwelt upon by her admirers.* 
In the " Prologue " she says : 

"I am obnoxious to each carping tongue 
Who fays my hand a needle better fits, 
A Poets pen all fcorn I mould thus wrong, 
For fuch defpite they caft on Female wits : 
If what I do prove well, it won t advance, 
They l fay it s ftoln, or elfe it was by chance." f 

* See pages 83-92. There is a paragraph in Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall s 
sketch of Miss Hannah More (probably written by Mrs. Hall) which shows 
that public opinion changed quite slowly on this point. 

"In this age, when female talent is so rife, when, indeed, it is not 
too much to say women have fully sustained their right to equality with 
men in reference to all the productions of the mind, it is difficult to 
comprehend the popularity, almost amounting to adoration, with which 
a woman writer was regarded little m*ore than half a century ago. Medi 
ocrity was magnified into genius, and to have printed a book, or to have 
written even a tolerable poem, was a passport into the very highest society." 
"Art Journal." London : 1866. p. 187. f See page 101. 


The forests were still stocked with wild beasts, and there 
was constant fear of assaults and depredations by the In 
dians. She wandered in the woods, however, and found 
great pleasure in meditating on their ever winning charms, 
their grand and quiet beauty. By far the best of all her 
" Poems " was the result of one of these rambles. It ap 
peared for the first time in the second edition, under the 
name of "Contemplations."* She describes with great 
spirit the sights and sounds of the forest, the fields and 
the stream, and makes us wish that she had done more 
in this style, for which many of the poets of her time were 
distinguished. It was doubtless by the side of the untamed 
Merrimac, before its rushing waters were made to pour 
through the immense structures which now line its banks, 
that she sat and pondered. The great dam which now 
spans the river at Lawrence is only two miles from the 
spot where the first settlement of Andover was made, and 
where Mrs. Bradstreet lived when she wrote, 

" Under the cooling ihadow of a ftately Elm 

Clofe fate I by a goodly Rivers fide, 
Where gliding ftreams the Rocks did overwhelm ; 
A lonely place, with pleafures dignifi d." f 

This "Poem" proves that she had true poetic feeling, 
and shows to what she could rise when she was willing to 
throw aside her musty folios and read the fresh book of 

" And Wisdom s self t 

Oft seeks to sweet retired solitude, \ 

Where, with her best nurse Contemplation, 
She plumes her feathers, and lets grow her wings, 
That in the various bustle of resort, 
Were ail-to ruffled, and sometimes impair d." J 

* See page 370. f See page 377. t Milton s Comus, 375-80- 


The revision of her " Poems " must have been no small 
undertaking, and from some of the references in the many 
additions which she made, it is evident that she was en 
gaged upon this work as late at least as 1666. Sympa 
thizing, as she naturally did, with Parliament and the 
Puritans, she said much in the first edition, written at the 
outbreak of the Civil War, which she felt obliged to omit 
or modify to suit the state of things existing under the 
Restoration. Although she speaks of a " BrittiJJi bruitilh 
Cavaleer," and dignifies him with the titles of " wretch " 
and " monfter," yet she has to come down to calling Crom 
well a "Ufurper." Indeed, these alterations form one of 
the most diverting features of the book. It must be con 
fessed, however, that she rather inclined from the first to 
be a Monarchist, and that her hatred of Papists admitted 
of not the slightest compromise. 

She had never set a very great value on the pleasures 
of this world, and had always been ready to abandon them 
for the joys which she expected to find in another. In the 
last piece which we have in her writing, dated Aug. 31, 
1669,* she represents herself as positively weary of life and 
longing to die. Three years after, her wish was granted, 
and she was released from suffering. Her son Simon s sad 
account of her sickness and death proves that it must have 
been in reality a blessing to her : 

" September 16. 1672. My ever honoured & most dear Mother 
was tranflated to Heaven. Her death was occalioned by a con- 
fumption being wasted to fkin & bone & She had an iflue made 
in her arm bee : she was much troubled with rheum, & one of 
y e women y* tended herr dreffing her arm, f d ihee never faw 

* See pages 42-4. 


such an arm in her Life, I, f d my most dear Mother, but y* arm 
fhull bee a Glorious Arm. 

I being abfent fro her lost the opportunity of comitting to 
memory her pious & memorable xprefsions vttered in her lick- 
nefle. O y* the good Lord would give vnto me and mine a 
heart to walk in her steps, considering what the end of her Con- 
verfation was, y* fo wee might one day haue a happy & glorious 

Mrs. Bradstreefs burial-place is unknown. No stone 
bearing her name can be found in the old graveyard at 
Andover, and it is not at all improbable that her remains 
were deposited in her father s tomb at Roxbury. As no 
portrait of her is in existence, the reader will have to con 
template her image in her works, where she will reveal to 
him all the graces of a loving mother, a devoted wife, and 
a devout Christian. 

Three years after her death, Edward Phillips, the nephew 
of Milton, has this brief notice of her in his " Theatrum 
Poetarum : " 

" Anne Bradstreet, a New-England poetess, no less in. title ; 
viz. before her Poems, printed in Old- England anno 1650 ; then 
[than] The tenth Muse sprung up in America; the memory of 
which poems, consisting chiefly of Descriptions of the Four Ele 
ments, the Four Humours; the Four Ages, the Four Seasons, 
and the Four Monarchies, is not yet wholly extinct." * 

Quite different from this is the pompous eulogy of Cotton 
Mather : 

" But when I mention the Poetry of this Gentleman [Gov. 
Dudley] as one of his Accomplifhments, I muft not leave unmen- 

* First published in London in 1675. Third Edition. Reprinted by 
Sir Egerton Brydges, Bart. etc. Geneva: 1824. p. (48). 108. 


tioned the Fame with which the Poems of one defcended from 
him have been Celebrated in both Englands. If the rare Learn 
ing of a Daughter, was not the leaft of thofe bright things that 
adorn d no lefs a Judge of England than Sir Thomas More ; it 
must now be said, that a Judge of New England, namely, Thomas 
Dudley, Esq ; had a Daughter (beiides other Children) to be a 
Crown unto him. Reader, America juftly admires the Learned 
Women of the other Hemifphere. She has heard of thofe that 
were Tutorejfes to the Old Profeflbrs of all Philofophy : She 
hath heard of Hippatia, who formerly taught the Liberal Arts ; 
and of Sarocchia, who more lately was very often the Modera- 
trix in the Difputations of the Learned Men of Rome: She has 
been told of the Three Corinnce*s, which equall d, if not ex- 
cell d, the moft Celebrated Poets of their Time. She has been 
told of the Emprefs Eudocia, who Compofed Poetical Para- 
phrafes on Divers Parts of the Bible ; and of Rofuida, who 
wrote the Lives of Holy Men ; and of Pamphilia, who wrote 
other Hiftories unto the Life : The Writings of the most Re 
nowned Anna Maria Schurnian, have come over unto her. 
But fhe now prays, that into fuch Catalogues of Author effes, 
as Beverovicius, Hottinger, and Voetius, have given unto the 
World, there may be a room now given unto Madam &nn 
93ratlfttt, the Daughter of our Governour Dudley, and the 
Confort of our Governour Bradftreet, whofe Poems, divers 
times Printed, have afforded a grateful Entertainment unto the 
Ingenious, and a Monument for her Memory beyond the State- 
lieft Marbles." * 

Six years after her death, in 1678, the second edition 
of her "Poems" was brought out in Boston, t being one 
of the earliest volumes of poems printed in America. It 
was the work of John Foster, "who had set up a press in 

* Magnalia, Bk. ii. p. 17. 

t See pages v, vii-viii, Si et seq. 


Boston in 1675 or 76, and who issued the first book ever 
printed in that town.* 

Of Mrs. Bradstreet s eight children,! all but one, Dorothy, 

* Thomas s History of Printing, Vol. i. p. 275 ; History of Dorchester, 
Mass., pp. 244 and 493. 
f They were, 

1. Samuel; graduated at Harvard College in 1653. He went to Eng 
land in November, 1657, and returned in July, 1661. He was a fellow of 
Harvard College, and represented Andover in the General Court in 1670. 
He practised as a physician in Boston for many years, but afterwards 
removed to the island of Jamaica, where he died in August, 1682. He was 
twice married ; first to Mercy, daughter of William Tyng, by whom he had 
five children, only one of whom survived him. He had three children, 
who were living with their grandfather, Governor Bradstreet, at the time 
of the latter s death, by a second wife, whose name is unknown. N. E. 
Hist. Gen. Register, Vol. viii. pp. 312-14; Vol. ix. pp. 113-4; Governor 
Bradstreet s will, Suffolk Probate Records, Lib. xi. Fol. 276. 

2. Dorothy; married the Rev. Seaborn Cotton, eldest son of the Rev. 
John Cotton, of Boston, June 25, 1654. She had nine children, and died 
Feb. 26, 1672. Her husband was ordained pastor of the church at Hamp 
ton, N.H., May 4, 1659, and died April 19, 1686, at the age of fifty-two, 
having survived her and married again. N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, Vol. i. 
PP- 3 2 5-6; Vol. viii. p. 321 ; Vol. ix. p. 114; Hull s Diaries, pp. 187-8. 

3. Sarah ; married Richard Hubbard, of Ipswich, brother of the Rev. 
William Hubbard, the historian. She had five children by him. He died 
May 3, 1681, and she afterwards married Major Samuel Ward, of Marble- 
head. N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, Vol. viii. p. 323 ; Felt s Ipswich, p. 164; 
Essex Institute Collections, Vol. iii. p. 66; Vol. iv. pp. 66, 71 ; Vol. v. pp. 


4. Simon ; was born at Ipswich, Sept. 28, 1640, and graduated at Har 
vard College in 1660. He went to New London, Connecticut, to preach in 
May, 1666, and was ordained pastor of the church there Oct. 5, 1670. He 
was married Oct. 2, 1667, at Newbury, by his uncle, Major-General Daniel 
Denison, to his cousin Lucy, daughter of the Rev. John Woodbridge. 
They had five children. He died in the fall of 1683. His own MS. 
Diary; Caulkins s History of New London, passim-, N. E. Hist. Gen. 
Register, Vol. viii. pp. 316-17, and 378; Vol. ix. pp. 117-18. 

5. Hannah; married Andrew Wiggin, of Exeter, N.IL, June 14, 1659, 


were living at the time of her death. Her descendants 
have been very numerous, and many of them have more 
than made up by the excellence of their writings for 
whatever beauty or spirit hers may have lacked. Her 
grandson, the Rev. Simon Bradstreet, of Charlestown, 
son of the Rev. Simon of New London, Conn., although 
very eccentric, was one of the most learned men of his 

and died in 1707. She had five sons and five daughters. N. E. Hist. Gen. 
Register, Vol. viii. pp. 167 and 324; Vol. 5x. p. 143. 

6. Mercy; married Major Nathaniel Wade, of Medford, Oct. 31, 1672. 
She died Oct. 5, 1715, in her sixty-eighth year. She had eight children. 
N. E. Gen. Hist. Register, Vol. iii. p. 66; Vol. viii. p. 324; Vol. ix. p. 121 ; 
Brooks s History of Medford, p. 558; Essex Institute Collections, Vol. iv. 
pp. 68-69; Felt s Ipswich, p. 153. 

7. Dudley; was born in 1648, and married Ann Wood, widow of Theo 
dore Price, Nov. 12, 1673. He resided in Andover, which town he repre 
sented in the General Court, besides holding many municipal offices in its 
gift. He was one of the Council of Safety between 1689 and 1692, was 
a colonel in the militia, and for many years a magistrate. During the 
witchcraft delusion in 1692, he granted thirty or forty warrants for the ap 
prehension and imprisonment of the supposed witches; but, refusing after 
wards to grant any more, he himself fell a victim to the same charge, and 
was obliged for a time to secrete himself. At the time of the attack of the 
Indians on Andover in 1698, he and his family were made prisoners, but 
immediately afterwards released. He died Nov. 13, 1702, having won the 
respect and confidence of his fellow-townsmen. He had three children. 
Abbot s Andover, pp. 18-19, 133, 154 et seq. ; N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, 
Vol. iii. p. 66; Vol. viii. p. 320; Savage s Genealogical Dictionary, Vol. i. 
p. 235 ; Butler s History of Groton, pp. 165-70. 

8. John ; was born in Andover, July 22, 1652, and resided in Topsfield. 
He married Sarah, daughter of the Rev. William Perkins of that town, 
June n, 1677. He died at Topsfield, Jan. n, 1718. He had five children, 
and perhaps more. N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, Vol. viii. pp. 320-21 ; Vol. 
ix. p. 120; " Sutton-Dudleys," p. 101. * 

In her poem " In reference to her Children" (p. 401), Mrs. Bradstreet 
speaks of her fift i child as being a son. This must be a misprint for 
seventh, as a comparison of the above dates will show. 


day.* Among her descendants may be counted the cele 
brated divine, Dr. Wm. E. Channing ; the Rev. Joseph 
Buckminster, of Portsmouth, N.H., his accomplished son, 
the Rev. J. S. Buckminster, and his daughter, Mrs. Eliza 
B. Lee, who has so gracefully recorded her father s and her 
brother s lives ; Mr. Richard H. Dana, the poet, and his 
son, the Hon. R. H. Dana, Jr., eminent as a man of letters, 
a lawyer, and a jurist; Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, the 
poet and humorist; Mr. Wendell Phillips, the orator; and 
Mrs. Eliza G. Thornton, of Saco, Maine, whose verses were 
once highly esteemed, f 

After Mrs. Bradstreet s death, her husband married, 
June 6, 1676, the widow of Captain Joseph Gardner, of 
Salem, who was killed in the storming of the Narragansett 
fort in December, 1675. She was a daughter of Emanuel 
Downing, and sister of Sir George Downing, Bart., who 
graduated in the first class of Harvard College, and became 
afterwards Ambassador from Cromwell and Charles II. 
successively at the Hague. She was born in London, but 
came to New England when very young. Her step-son 
Simon describes her as "a Gentl. of very good birth & 
education, and of great piety & prudence." J 

* Budington, pp. in-i6 and 125; Sprague s Annals, Vol. i. pp. 241-43; 
Mass. Hist. Coll. Vol. viii. p. 75 ; Vol. x. p. 170 ; Caulkins s New London, p. 193. 

t See the "Pedigree of Bradstreet," in Drake s folio History of Boston, 
and the "Descendants of Governor Bradstreet," in N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, 
Vol: viii. pp. 312-25, and Vol. ix. pp. 1 13-21. A book was published in Lon 
don in 1858, with the title of " Six Legends of King Golden-Star, a poem by 
Anna Bradstreet." Whether this lady is a descendant or not I cannot say. 

J MS. Diary. 

She died at Salem, April 19, 1713, leaving no children by either husband. 
N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, Vol. xii. p. 219. Her will, with notes, is printed 
in the Essex Institute Collections, Vol. iv. pp. 185-90. 



Upon the death of Mr. Symonds, in October, 1678, Mr. 
Bradstreet succeeded him as Deputy-Governor, and the 
Governor himself, John Leverett, dying in the following 
March, he was elected Governor in May, 1679, being then 
about seventy-six years of age.* He continued to be Gov 
ernor until the dissolution of the Charter and the establish 
ment of the Provisional Government in May, 1686, under 
his brother-in-law, Joseph Dudley, as President, f Governor 
Bradstreet and his son, Dudley Bradstreet, were named as 
Counsellors in the royal commission, but they both refused 
to act. J On the 2Oth of December of that year, Sir Ed 
mund Andros landed in Boston, and on the same day his 
commission was read as " Governor in Chief in and over 
the territory and dominion of New England." After a 
little more than two years of oppression under his admin 
istration, on the receipt of the news of the landing of the 
Prince of Orange in England, there was a rising in Boston 
in April, 1689. On the morning of the i8th, the Royal 
Governor and his adherents were made prisoners, and the 
officers who had been elected under the charter in 1686, 
with the venerable Bradstreet at their head, were called 
upon to act as a " Council of Safety." On the assembling 
of the representatives of the towns a month later, he was 
confirmed in his position, and acted as Governor under the 
temporary re-establishment of the old charter government 
until the i/fth of May, 1692. On that day Sir William 
Phipps arrived in Boston with the new charter and a com 
mission as Governor of the Province of the Massachusetts 

* Mass. Colony Records, Vol. v. pp. 209-10: Hutchinson s History, 

Vol. i. p. 291. 

t Hutchinson s History, Vol. i. pp. 306-8. 

J Ibid., p. 314, note. Ibid , p. 316. 


Bay. Thereupon Governor Bradstreet, whose name was 
the first on the list of Counsellors appointed by the New 
Charter, resigned his office to him.* 

He died at Salem, March 27, 1697, at the age of ninety- 
four, thus closing a long, exemplary, and honorable life, 
sixty years of which had been devoted to constant and 
faithful public service, f 

* Hutchinson s History, Vol. i. pp. 332-415; Vol. ii. pp. 19, 20; Palfrey s 
History of New England. Vol. iii. pp. 574-98; Ancient Charters, p. 27. 

t He was buried in Salem, where his tomb is still to be seen in the old 
Charter Street burying-ground. The inscription on the horizontal slab 
which covers it is now totally obliterated. His epitaph, however, was 
preserved by some antiquary in the following communication to " The 
Boston Chronicle" for March 7-14, 1768 (p. 119) : 

" By giving the inclofed a place in your Chronicle, it being now fcarce 
legible on the monument, you ll oblige a number of your friends, who 
think it worth prelerving. 

Infcription ufon Governor BRADSTREET S Tomb Stone, in Salem. 

" SIMON BRADSTREET. Armiger ex Ordine Senatorio in Colonia 
MaflTachufettenfi ab Anno 1630 ufq; ad Annum 1673 Deinde ad Annum 
1679 Vice Gubernator Deniq; ad Annum 1686 ejufdem Colonise Communi 
& Conftanti Populi Suffragio Gubernator Vir Judicis Lynceato prseditus 
Quern nee Minas nee Honos allexit Regis Authoritatem & Populi Liberta- 
tem sequa Lance libravit Religione Cordatus Via innocuus Mundum et 
vicit et deferuit Die XXVII. Marcij Anno Dom : MDCXCVII Annoq; R. 
R s Gullielmi tertii IX. et ^Etatis fuae XCIV." 

Mr. Robert Peele, of Salem, has a copy of this paper, with this marginal 
note in the handwriting of the old loyalist, Sam. Curwen, whose Journal 
and Letters were so ably edited by the late Mr. Geo. A. Ward : 

" Ben son of Co 1 B. Pickman sold y e tomb, being claimed by him for a 
small expence his father was at in repairing it ab* y e y r 1793 or 1794 to one 
Daniel Hathorne who now holds it." 

I am told that the tomb was accordingly cleaned out, and the remains 
of the honored Governor and his family thrown into a hole not far off. 


iEiperfences ant) ccastonal Pieces. 


Religious Experiences 3 

Occasional Meditations i r 

Deliverance from a Fever 12 

Deliverance from a Fit of Sickness 13 

Deliverance from a Fit of Fainting i^ 

Meditations on Spiritual Consolations 16 

Submission and Reliance on God, July 8, 1656 17 

Verses ; Praise of God 17 

Verses; Joy in God 18 

After much Sickness, August 28, 1656 20 

After Sickness and Weakness, May n, 1657 21 

Verses, May 13, 1657 . 22 

Submission to Chastisement from God, Sept. 30, 1657 . . 23 

Poem upon her son Samuel s going to England, Nov. 6, 1657 24 

Divine Dealings, May n, 1661 25 

Verses ; Thankfulness for Health 26 

On the Restoration of her Husband from an Ague, June, 1661 27 

Upon her daughter, Hannah Wiggin s recovery from a Fever 28 

On her son Samuel s return from England, July 17, 1661 . . 28 

On her Husband s going to England, Jan. 16, 1661-62 . . 32 

In her solitary hours in her Husband s absence 34 



In acknowledgment of the letters received from her Hus 

band in England ............. 37 

In thankful remembrance of her Husband s safe arrival 

home, Sept. 3, 1662 ........... 38 

Verses upon the burning of her house, July 10, 1666 ... 40 

Verses; Longing for Heaven, Aug. 31, 1669 ...... 42 

fKrtu tationg, TOine anfc fHaral. 

Dedication of the Meditations to her son, Simon Bradstreet, 

March 20, 1664 ............. 47 

Meditations ........... ...... 48 

Latin Translation of the Dedication of the Meditations by 

her great-grandson, Simon Bradstreet ..... 74 

Latin Translation of the first four Meditations by the same . 75 

Fac-simile of Title-Page of First Edition . . . , . . . 79 

Fac-simile of Title-Page of Second Edition ...... 81 

Address to the Reader ............. 83 

Commendatory Verses by N. Ward ......... 85 

I.[ohn] W.[oodbridge] .... 86 

,, ,, ,, B.[enjamin] W.[oodbridge] . . 89 

C. B ........ ... 90 

R- Q: ........ . 9on. 

N. H ......... . . 91 

C. B ........... 92 

H. S ........... 92 

Anagrams of the Author s name .......... 92 

Commendatory Verses by J. Rogers . . ....... 93 

Dedication to her father, Thomas Dudley, Esq., March 20, 

642 ............... 97 

The Prologue . 100 

,, ,, ,, 





Earth I09 

Water II4 

Air 119 


Choler 124 

Blood 129 

Melancholy 136 

Phlegm . . .141 


Childhood 149 

Youth . 152 

Middle Age 156 

Old Age 161 


Spring . . . . .1 1 68 

Summer . .-.. . . . 172 

Autumn 176 

Winter. . . . ... . 178 

An Apology 180 


The Assyrian * . . 181 

The, Persian . . . 208 

The Grecian 251 

An Explanation 322 

The Roman 323 

An Apology . 328 


Dialogue between Old England and New ; concerning their 

present troubles, Anno, 1642 ........ 330 

Elegy upon Sir Philip Sidney .......... 344 

In Honour of Du Bartas, 1641 .......... 353 

In Honour of Queen Elizabeth .......... 357 

David s Lamentation for Saul and Jonathan ...... 363 

To the Memory of her Father, Thomas Dudley, Esq. . . 365 

Epitaph on her Mother, Mrs. Dorothy Dudley ..... 369 

Contemplations ............... 370 

The Flesh and the Spirit ............ 381 

The Vanity of all Worldly Things ......... 386 

The Author to her Book ............ 089 

Upon a Fit of Sickness, Anno. 1632. ^Etatis suce, 19 . . 391 

Upon some Distemper of Body .......... 392 

Before the Birth of one of her Children . . ..... 393 

Verses to her Husband ............. 394 

Letter to her Husband, absent upon Public Employment . 394 

Another ................ 395 

Another ................ 397 

To her Father with some Verses ......... 398 

In Reference to her Children, June 23, 1656 ...... 400 

In Memory of her grand-child Elizabeth Bradstreet . . . 404 

,, ,, ,, ,, Anne Bradstreet .... 405 

,, Simon Bradstreet .... 406 

daughter-in law Mrs. Mercy Bradstreet . 407 

A Funeral Elegy upon the Author by the Rev. John Norton 409 

INDEX 415 

11 11 11 

11 11 




ALL that is included under the title u RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES 
AND OCCASIONAL PIECES," with the exception of the verses 
beginning "As weary pilgrim now at reft," is printed from a 
manuscript copy in the handwriting of Mrs. Bradstreet s son, 
the Rev. SIMON BRADSTREET, of New London, Connecticut. 
The following note is prefixed by him: "A true copy of a 
Book left by my hon d & dear mother* to her children & found 
among fome papers after her Death." 

To my Dear Children, 

THIS Book by Any yet vnread, 
I leaue for yov when I am dead, 
That, being gone, here yov may find 
What was your liueing mother s mind. 
Make vfe of what I leaue in Loue 
And God fhall blefie yov from above. 

A. B. 


KNOWING by experience that the ex 
hortations of parents take moil effe6t 
when the speakers leaue to fpeak, and 
thofe efpecially fink deepelt which are 
fpoke lateft and being ignorant whether on my 
death bed I fhall haue opportunity to fpeak to any of 
yov, much leffe to All thought it the befl, whilft I 
was able to compofe fome fhort matters, (for what 
elfe to call them I know not) and bequeath to yov, 
that when I am no more with yov, yet I may bee 

4 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

daylv in your remembrance, (Although that is the 
leaft in my aim in what I now doe) but that yov 
may gain fome fpiritual Advantage by my experi 
ence. I haue not ftudyed in this yov read to mow my 
{kill, but to declare the Truth not to fett forth my- 
felf, but the Glory of God. If I had minded the former, 
it had been perhaps better pleafing to yov, but feing 
the laft is the beft, let it bee beft pleafing to yov. 

The method I will obferve mail bee this I will 
begin w T ith God s dealing with me from my childhood 
to this Day. In my yovng years, about 6 or 7 as I 
take it, I began. to make confcience of my wayes, and 
what I knew was finfull, as lying, difobedience to Pa 
rents, &c. I avoided it. If at any time I was over 
taken with the like evills, it was a great Trouble. I 
could not be at reft till by prayer I had confeft it vnto 
God. I was alfo troubled at the neglect of Private 
Dutyes, tho: too often tardy that way. I alfo fovnd 
much comfort in reading the Scriptures, efpecially 
thofe places I thought moft concerned my Condition, 
and as I grew to haue more vnderftanding, fo the 
more folace I took in them. 

In a long fitt of ficknes which I had on my bed 
I often commvned with my heart, and made my fup- 
plication to the moft High who fett me free from 
that affliction. 

But as I grew vp to bee* about 14 or 15 I fovnd 
my heart more carnall, and fitting loofe from God, 
vanity and the follyes of youth take hold of me. 

Religious Experiences. 5 

About 1 6, the Lord layd his hand fore vpon me 
and fmott mee with the fmall pox. When I was in 
my affliction, I befovght the Lord, and confefled my 
Pride and Vanity and he was entreated of me, and 
asrain reftored me. But I rendered not to him accord- 


ing to the benefitt received. 

After a fhort time I changed my condition and was 
marryed, and came into this Covntry, where I fovnd 
a new world and new manners, at which my heart 
rofe. But after I was convinced it was the way of 
God, I fubmitted to it and joined to the church at 

After fome time I fell into a lingering ficknes like 
a confvmption, together with a lamenerTe, which cor 
rection I faw the Lord fent to humble and try me 
and doe mee Good : and it was not altogether in- 

It pleafed God to keep me a long time without a 
child, which was a great greif to me, and coft mee 
many prayers and tears before I obtaind one, and 
after himf gave mee many more, of whom I now 
take the care, that as I have brovght yov into the 
world, and with great paines, weaknes, cares, and 
feares brovght yov to this, I now travail in birth 
again of yov till Chrift bee formed in yov. 

Among all my experiences of God s gratious Deal 
ings with me I haue conftantly obferved this, that he 
hath never fuffered me long to iitt loofe from him, 

* See Introduction. f See page 24. 

6 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

but by one affliction or other hath made me look 
home, and fearch what was amifTe fo vfually thvs 
it hath been with me that I haue no fooner felt my 
heart out of order, but I haue expected correction 
for it, which moft commonly hath been vpon my own 
perfon, in ficknefle, weaknes, paines, fometimes on 
my foul, in Doubts and feares of God s difpleafure, and 
my fincerity towards him, fometimes he hath fmott 
a child with iicknes, fometimes charTtened by lofles 
in eftate, and thefe Times (thro: his great mercy) 
haue been the times of my greateft Getting and Ad 
vantage, yea I haue fovnd them the Times when the 
Lord hath manifefted the moft Love to me. Then 
haue I gone to fearching, and haue faid with David, 
Lord fearch me and try me, fee what wayes of 
wickednes are in me, and lead me in the way ever- 
lafting : and feldome or never but I haue fovnd either 
fome fin I lay vnder which God would haue re 
formed, or fome duty neglected which he would haue 
performed. And by his help I haue layd Vowes and 
Bonds vpon my Soul to perform his righteous com 

If at any time yov are chaftened of God, take it as 
thankfully and Joyfully as in greateft mercyes, for if 
yee bee his yee mail reap the greateft benentt by it. 
It hath been no fmall fupport to me in times of 
Darknes when the Almighty hath hid his face from 
me, that yet I haue had abundance of fweetnes and 
refrefhment after affliction, and more circumfpection 

Religious Experiences. 7 

in my walking after I haue been afflicted. I haue been 
with God like an vntoward child, that no longer then 
the rod has been on my back (or at leafl in fight) 
but I haue been apt to forgett him and myfelf too. 
Before I was afflicted I went aftray, but now I keep 
thy ilatutes. 

I haue had great experience of God s hearing my 
Prayers, and returning comfortable Anfwers to me, 
either in granting the Thing I prayed for, or elfe in 
fatiffying my mind without it; and I haue been con 
fident it hath been from him, becavfe I have fovnd 
my heart through his goodnes enlarged in Thank- 
fullnes to him. 

I haue often been perplexed that I haue not found 
that conftant Joy in my Pilgrimage and refrefhing 
which I fuppofed moil of the fervants of God haue ; 
althovgh he hath not left me altogether without the 
wittnes of his holy fpirit, who hath oft given mee his 
word and fett to his Seal that it mail bee well with 
me. I haue fomtimes tafbed of that hidden Manna 
that the world knowes not, and haue fett vp my 
Ebenezer, and haue refolved with myfelf that againft 
fvch a promis, fvch tafts of fweetnes, the Gates of 
Hell mall never prevail. Yet haue I many Times 
linkings and droopings, and not enjoyed that felicity 
that fomtimes I haue done. But when I haue been 
in darknes and feen no light, yet haue I defired to 
flay my felf upon the Lord. 

And, when I haue been in iicknes and pain, I haue 

8 Anne Bradftree^s Works. 

thovght if the Lord would but lift vp the light of his 
Covntenance vpon me, altho: he grovnd me to 
powder, it would bee but light to me; yea, oft haue 
I thovght were it hell itfelf, and could there find 
the Love of God toward me, it would bee a Heaven. 
And, could I haue been in Heaven without the Love 
of God, it would haue been a Hell to me; for, in 
Truth, it is the abfence and prefence of God that 
makes Heaven or Hell. 

Many times hath Satan troubled me concerning 
the verity of the fcriptures, many times by Atheifme 
how I could know whether there was a God; I never 
faw any miracles to confirm me, and thofe which I 
read of how did I know but they were feigned. That 
there is a God my Reafon would foon tell me by 
the wondrous workes that I fee, the vail frame of the 
Heaven and the Earth, the order of all things, night 
and day, Summer and Winter, Spring and Autvmne, 
the dayly providing for this great hovfhold vpon the 
Earth, the preferving and directing of All to its proper 
end. The confideration of thefe things would with 
amazement certainly refolve me that there is an Eter- 
nall Being. 

But how fhould I know he is fuch a God as I 
worfhip in Trinity, and fuch a Saviour as I rely upon ? 
tho: this hath thovfands ^of Times been fvggefbed 
to mee, yet God hath helped me over. I haue argved 
thvs with myfelf. That there is a God I fee. If ever 
this God hath revealed himfelf, it mvft bee in his 

Religious Experiences. 9 

word, and this mvfh bee it or none. Haue I not 
fovnd that operation by it that no humane Invention 
can work vpon the Soul ? hath not Judgments befallen 
Diverfe who haue f corned and contemd it? hath 
it not been preferved thro : All Ages maugre all 
the heathen Tyrants and all of the enemyes who 
haue oppofed it ? Is there any ftory but that which 
Ihowes the beginnings of Times, and how the 
world came to bee as wee fee? Doe wee not know 
the prophecyes in it fullfilled which could not haue 
been fo long foretold by any but God himfelf ? 

When I haue gott over this Block, then haue I an 
other pvtt in my way, That admitt this bee the trve 
God whom wee worfhip, and that bee his word, yet 
why may not the Popifh Religion bee the right? 
They haue the fame God, the fame Chrift, the fame 
word : they only enterprett it one way, wee another. 

This hath fomtimes ftuck with me, and more it 
would, but the vain fooleries that are in their Reli 
gion, together with their lying miracles and cruell 
perfecutions of the Saints, which admitt were they 
as they terme them, yet not fo to bee dealt with- 

The confideration of thefe things and many the like 
would foon turn me to my own Religion again. 

But fome new Troubles I haue had lince the world 
has been filled with Blafphemy, and Sectaries, and fome 
who haue been accounted fincere Ghriflians haue been 
carrved awav with them, that fomtimes I haue faid, 

io Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Is there fFaith vpon the earth ? and I haue not known 
what to think. But then I haue remembred the 
words of Chrift that fo it muft bee, and that, if it 
were poffible, the very elect fhould bee deceived. 
Behold, faith our Saviour, I have told yov before. 
That hath flayed my heart, and I can now fay, Re 
turn, O my Soul, to thy Reft, vpon this Rock Chrift 
Jefus will I build my faith; and, if I perifh, I perifh. 
But I know all the Powers of Hell mail neuer pre 
vail againft it. I know whom I haue trvfted, and 
whom I haue beleived, and that he is able to keep 
that I haue committed to his charge. 

Now to the King, Immortall, Eternall, and invifible, 
the only wife God, bee Honoure and Glory for ever 
and ever ! Amen. 

This was written in mvch licknefle and weaknes, 
and is very weakly and imperfectly done; but, if yov 
can pick any Benefitt out of it, it is the marke which 
I aimed at. 

Occafeonal Meditations. \ \ 

Here follow feverall occafionall meditations. 


T3 Y night when others foundly flept, 
-^f And had at once both eafe and Ref> 
My waking eyes were open kept, 
And fo to lye I fovnd it beft. 


I fovght him whom my Soul did Love, 
With tears I fovght him earneftly; 
He bow d his ear down from Above, 
In vain I did not feek or cry. 


My hungry Soul he rilPd with Good, 
He in his Bottle putt my teares,* 
My fmarting wounds waiht in his blood, 
And banifht thence my Doubts and feares. 


What to my Saviour fhall I giue, 
Who freely hath done this for me? 
Fie ferve him here whilft I fhall Hue, 
And Loue him to Eternity. 

* Put thou my tears into thy bottle: are they not in thy book? 
PSALM Ivi. 8. 

12 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

For Deliverance from a feaver. 

T T 7HEN Sorrowes had begyrt me rovnd, 

And Paines within and out, 
When in my flelh no part was fovnd, 
Then didft thou rid me out. 

My burning flefh in fweat did boyle, 

My aking head did break; 
From fide to fide for eafe I toyle, 

So faint I could not fpeak. 

Beclouded was my Soul with fear 

Of thy Difpleafure fore, 
Nor could I read my Evidence 

Which oft I read before. 

Hide not thy face from me, I cry d, 
From Burnings keep my foul; 

Thov know ft my heart, and haft me try d; 
I on thy Mercyes Rowl. 

O, heal my Soul, thov know ft I faid, 
Tho flefh confume to novght; 

What tho in duft it shall bee lay VI, 
To Glory \ mall bee brovght. 

Verfes in Sicknefs. 13 

Thou heardft, thy rod thou didft remove, 

And fpar d my Body frail, 
Thou fhew ft to me thy tender Love, 

My heart no more might quail. 

O, Praifes to my mighty God, 

Praife to my Lord, I fay, 
Who hath redeem d my Soul from pitt: 

Praifes to him for Aye! 

ffrom another fore ffitt* 

TN my diftreffe I fovght the Lord, 

When nought on Earth could comfort giue; 
And when my Soul thefe things abhor d, 
Then, Lord, thou faid ft vnto me, Liue. 

Thou knoweft the forrowes that I felt, 
My plaints and Groanes were heard of Thee, 
And how in fweat I feem d to melt; 
Thov help fb and thov regardeft me. 

My wafted flefh thou didft reflore, 

My feeble loines didft gird with ftrenght; * 

* " She girdeth her loins with strength, and strengthened her arms." 
PROV. xxxi. 17. 

14 Anne Bradjlreef s Works. 

Yea, when I was molt low and poor, 

I laid I fhall praife thee at lenght. 

What fhall I render to my God 
For all his Bovnty fhew d to me, 
Even for his mercyes in his rod, 
Where pitty mofl of all I fee? 

My heart I wholly giue to Thee: 

O make it frvitfull, faithfull Lord! 

My life fhall dedicated bee 

To praife in thought, in Deed, in Word. 

Thou know ft no life I did require 
Longer then ftill thy Name to praife, 
Nor ovght on Earth worthy Defire, 
In drawing out thefe wretched Dayes. 

Thy Name and praife to celebrate, 
O Lord! for aye is my requeft. 
O, gravnt I doe it in this Hate, 
And then with thee which is the Beft. 

Verfes in Sicknefs. 15 

Deliverance from a fitt of ffainting. 


ORTHY art Thou, O Lord of praife! 

But ah ! it s not in me; 
My finking heart I pray thee raife, 
So fhall I giue it Thee. 

My life as Spider s webb s cutt off, 
Thvs fainting haue I faid, 

And liueing man no more fhall fee, 
But bee in filence layd. 

My feblee Spirit thou didft reviue, 
My Doubting thou didfl chide, 

And tho: as dead mad ft me aliue, 
I here a while might bide. 

Why mould I Hue but to thy Praife ? 

My life is hid with Thee; 
O Lord, no longer bee my Dayes, 

Then I may frvitfull bee. 

1 6 Anne Bradflreefs Works. 

Meditations when my Soul hath been refreJJied with the 
Confutations which the world knowes not. 

T ORD, why fhould I doubt any more when thov 
**r/ haft given me fuch allured Pledges of thy Loue? 
Firft, thov art my Creator, I thy creature; thov my 
mafter, I thy fervant. But hence arifes not my comfort: 
Thov art my ffather, I thy child. Yee mail [be] my 
Sons and Daughters, faith the Lord Almighty. Chrift 
is my Brother ; I afcend vnto my ffather and your 
ffather, vnto my God and your God. But leaft this 
mould not bee enough, thy maker is thy hufband. 
Nay, more, I am a member of his Body; he, my 
head. Such Priviledges, had not the Word of Truth 
made them known, who or where is the man that 
durft in his heart haue prefumed to haue thought it? 
So wonderfull are thefe thoughts that my fpirit failes 
in me at the conlideration thereof; and I am con- 
fovnded to think that God, who hath done fo much 
for me, fhould haue fo little from me. But this is 
my comfort, when I come into Heaven, I mall vnder- 
fhand perfe6lly what he hath done for me, and then 
mall I bee able to praife him as I ovght. Lord, 
haueing this hope, let me purefie myfelf as thou art 
Pure, and let me bee no more afFraid of Death, but 
even defire to bee diffolved, and bee with thee, which 
is beft of All. 

Submiffion and Reliance. 17 

July 8th, 1656. 

F had a fore fitt of fainting, which lafted 2 or 3 dayes, 
A but not in that extremity which at firft it took 
me, and fo mvch the forer it was to me becaufe my 
dear hufband was from home (who is my cheifeft 
comforter on Earth) ; but my God, who never failed 
me, was not abfent, but helped me, and gratiouily 
manifefted his Love to me, which I dare not pafTe by 
without Remembrance, that it may bee a fupport to 
me when I mall haue occalion to read this hereafter, 
and to others that mall read it when I mail poffeffe 
that I now hope for, that fo they may bee encourag d 
to truft in him who is the only Portion of his Ser 

O Lord, let me neuer forgett thy Goodnes, nor 
queftion thy faithfullnes to me, for thov art my God: 
Thou haft faid, and mail not I beleiue it? 

Thou haft given me a pledge of that Inheritance thou 
haft promifed to beftow upon me. O, never let Satan 
prevail againft me, but ftrenghten my faith in Thee, 
till I mail attain the end of my hopes, even the Salva 
tion of my Soul. Come, Lord Jefus; come quickly. 

WHAT God is like to him I ferve, 
What Saviour like to mine ? 
O, never let me from thee fwerue, 
For truly I am thine. 

1 8 Anne Bradftreef s Works. 

My thankfull mouth fhall fpeak thy praile, 
My Tongue fhall talk of Thee: 

On High my heart, O, doe thou raife, 
For what thou ft done for me. 

Goe, Worldlings, to your Vanities, 

And heathen to your Gods; 
Let them help in Adverlities, 

And fanctefye their rods. 

My God he is not like to yours, 
Your felves fhall Judges bee; 

I find his Love, I know his Pow r, 
A Succourer of mee. 

He is not man that he mould lye, 

Nor fon of man to vnfay; 
His word he plighted hath on high, 

And I fhall Hue for aye. 

And for his lake that faithfull is, 
That dy d but now doth Hue, 

The firft and laft, that Hues for aye, 
Me lafting life fhall giue. 

MY foul, rejoice thou in thy God, 
Boaft of him all the Day, 
Walk in his Law, and kiffe his Rod, 
Cleaue clofe to him alway. 

Joy in God. 19 

What tho : thy outward Man decay, 

Thy inward fhall waxe ftrong; 
Thy body vile it fhall bee chang d, 

And gloriovs made ere-long. 

With Angels-wings thy Soul fhall movnt 

To Bliffe vnfeen by Eye, 
And drink at vnexhaufled fovnt 

Of Joy vnto Eternity. 

Thy teares fhall All bee dryed vp, 

Thy Sorrowes all fhall flye; 
Thy Sinns fhall ne r bee fummon d vp, 

Nor come in memory. 

Then fhall I know what thov hafl done 

For me, vnworthy me, 
And praife thee fhall ev n as I ovght, 

ffor wonders that I fee. 

Bafe World, I trample on thy face, 

Thy Glory I defpife, 
No gain I find in ovght below, 

For God hath made me wife. 

Come, Jefvs, qvickly, Blefled Lord, 

Thy face when fhall I fee? 
O let me covnt each hour a Day 

Till I diffolved bee. 

20 Anne Brad/lree? s Works. 

Auguft 28, 1656. 

A FTER mvch weaknes and ficknes when my 
** fpirits were worn out, and many times my faith 
weak likewife, the Lord was pleafed to vphold my 
drooping heart, and to manifefh his Loue to me; and 
this is that which Hayes my Soul that this condition 
that I am in is the belt for me, for God doth not 
afflict willingly, nor take delight in greiving the chil 
dren of men: he hath no benefitt by my adverfity, nor 
is he the better for my profperity; but he doth it for 
my Advantage, and that I may bee a Gainer by it. 
And if he knowes that weaknes and a frail body is 
the beft to make me a veflell fitt for his vfe, why mould 
I not bare it, not only willingly but joyfully? The 
Lord knowes I dare not defire that health that fom- 
times I haue had, leafh my heart mould bee drawn from 
him, and fett vpon the world. 

Now I can wait, looking every day when my Saviour 
mall call for me. Lord gravnt that while I live I may 
doe that fervice I am able in this frail Body, and bee 
in continuall expectation of my change, and let me 
never forgett thy great Love to my foul fo lately 
expreffed, when I could lye down and bequeath my 
Soul to thee, and Death feem d no terrible Thing. 
O let me ever fee Thee that Art inviiible, and I mail 
not bee vnwilling to come, tho: by fo rovgh a 

Valley of Baca. 21 

May n, 1657. 

T HAD a fore iicknes, and weaknes took hold of me, 
which hath by fitts lafted all this Spring till this 
1 1 May, yet hath my God given me many a refpite, 
and fome ability to perform the Dutyes I owe to him, 
and the work of my famely. 

Many a refreihment haue I fovnd in this my weary 
Pilgrimage, and in this valley of Baca* many pools of 
w r ater. That which now I cheifly labour for is a con 
tented, thankfull heart vnder my affliction and weak 
nes, feing it is the will of God it mould bee thus. 
Who am I that I fhould repine at his pleafure, efpe- 

* "Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; in whose heart are the 
ways of them. Who, passing through the valley of Baca, make it a well ; 
the rain also filleth the pools." PSALM Ixxxiv. 5, 6. 

"Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; in whose heart are thy 
ways. Who, going through the vale of misery, use it for a well ; and the 
pools are filled with water." PSALTER. 

" Eig rrjv /cot/lada TOV K^av6fj.uvog." SEPTUAGINT. 
" In valle lacrymarum" VULGATE. 

The old Genevan Bible (London, 1599) has the following translation 
and note : 

" They going through the vale of e Baca, make welles therein : the rain 
alto couereth the pooles." 

" e That is, of mulbery trees, which was a barren place : fo that they 
which parTed through muft dig pits for water," &c., &c. 

The old " Bay Pfalm Book," which she must often have read and sung 
from, thus quaintly renders the verse : 

" Who as they pafie through Baca s Vale, 

doe make it a fountaine : 
alfo the pooles that are therin 
are filled full of raine." 

22 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

cially feing it is for my fpirituall advantage ? for I hope 
my foul mall flourifh while my body decayes, and the 
weaknes of this outward man mail bee a meanes to 
ftrenghten my inner man. 

Yet a little while and he that mail come will come, 
and will not tarry. 

May 13, 1657. 

A S fpring the winter doth fucceed, 
* ^ And leaues the naked Trees doe dreffe, 
The earth all black is cloth d in green; 
At fvn-fhine each their joy exprefle. 

My Svns returned with healing wings, 
My Soul and Body doth rejoice; 
My heart exvlts, and praifes lings 
To him that heard my wailing Voice. 

My winters paft, my ftormes are gone, 
And former clowdes feem now all fled ; 
But, if they mvft eclipfe again, 
Fie rvn where I was fuccoured. 

I haue a fhelter from the ftorm, 
A lhadow from the fainting heat; 
I haue accefle vnto his Throne, 
Who is a God fo wondrous great. 

Submiffion to Chaftifement. 23 

haft thou made my Pilgrimage 
Thvs pleafant, fair, and good; 
BleiT d me in Youth and elder Age, 
My Baca made a fpringing flood ? * 

1 iludiovs am what I fhall doe, 
To mow my Duty with delight; 
All I can giue is but thine own, 
And at the mofl a limple mite. 

Sept. 30, 1657. 

TT pleafed God to vifet me with my old Difbemper of 
weaknes and fainting, but not in that fore manner 
fomtimes he hath. I delire not only willingly, but 
thankfully, to fubmitt to him, for I trvft it is out of his 
abvndant Love to my ftraying Soul which in profperity 
is too much in love with the world. I haue fovnd by 
experience I can no more Hue without correction then 
without food. Lord, with thy correction giue Inftrvc- 
tion and amendment, and then thy ftroakes mall bee 
welcome. I haue not been refined in the furnace of 
affliction as fome haue been, but haue rather been pre- 
ferved with fugar then brine, yet will he preferve me 
to his heavenly kingdom. 

Thus (dear children) haue yee feen the many iick- 

* See page 21 and note. 

24 Anne Bradflreet^s Works. 

neffes and weaknefles that I haue patted thro: to 
the end that, if you meet with the like, yov may haue 
recourfe to the fame God who hath heard and deli- 
uered me, and will doe the like for yov if you trvft in 
him; And, when he mail deliuer yov out of diftreffe, 
forget not to giue him thankes, but to walk more 
clofely with him then before. This is the delire of 
your Loving mother, A. B. 

In the fame book were vpon fpeciall occaiions the 
Poems, &c., which follow added. 

Vpon my Son Samuel his goeing for England, Novem. 

6, 1657.* 

mighty God of Sea and Land, 
I here religne into thy hand 
The Son of Prayers, of vowes, of teares, 
The child I ftay d for many yeares.f 
Thou heard ft me then, and gav ft him me; 
Hear me again, I giue him Thee. 
He s mine, but more, O Lord, thine own, 
For fure thy Grace on him is mown. 
No freind I haue like Thee to truft, 
For mortall helpes are brittle Dvft. 

* He was her eldest child. See Introduction. f See page 5. 

Divine Dealings. 25 

Preferve, O Lord, from ftormes and wrack, 

Protect him there, and bring him back; 

And if thou malt fpare me a fpace, 

That I again may fee his face, 

Then mall I celebrate thy Praife, 

And Blefle the .for t even all my Dayes. 

If otherwife I goe to Reft, 

Thy Will bee done, for that is beft; 

Perfwade my heart I mall him fee 

For ever happefy d with Thee. 

May n, 1661. 

TT hath pleafed God to giue me a long Time of re- 
A fpite for thefe 4 years that I haue had no great 
fitt of licknes, but this year, from the middle of Janu 
ary till May, I haue been by fitts very ill and weak. 
The firft of this month I had a feaver feat d vpon me 
which, indeed, was the longeft and forefl that ever I 
had, lafting 4 dayes, and the weather being very hott 
made it the more tedious, but it pleafed the Lord to 
fupport my heart in his goodnes, and to hear my 
Prayers, and to deliuer me out of adverfity. But, 
alas ! I cannot render vnto the Lord according to all 
his loving kindnes, nor take the cup of falvation with 
Thankfgiving as I ought to doe. Lord, Thou that 
knowefl All things know ft that I delire to teftefye my 

26 Anne Bradftreet s Works. 

thankfullnes not only in word, but in Deed, that 
my Converfation may fpeak that thy vowes are vpon 

A /TY thankfull heart with glorying Tongue 
-^* Shall celebrate thy Name, 
Who hath reitor d, redeem d, recur d 
From iicknes, death, and Pain. 

I cry d thov feem ft to make fome flay, 

I fovght more earneftly; 
And in due time thou fuccour ft me, 

And fent fl me help from High. 

Lord, whilfl my fleeting time fhall laft, 

Thy Goodnes let me Tell. 
And new Experience I haue gain d, 

My future Doubts repell. 

An humble, faitefull life, O Lord, 

For ever let me walk; 
Let my obedience teflefye, 

My Praife lyes not in Talk. 

Accept, O Lord, my fimple mite, 

For more I cannot giue; 
What thou beftow ft I fhall reflore, 

For of thine Almes I Hue. 

On her Hii/band^s Recovery from Sicknefs. 27 

For the rejloration of my dear Hujband from a burn 
ing Ague , June, 1661. 

T \ 7HEN feares and forrowes me befett, 

Then did ft thou rid me out; 
When heart did faint and fpirits quail, 
Thou comforts me about.* 

Thou raif ft him vp I feard to loofe, 

Regau ft me him again: 
Diflempers thou didft chafe away; 

With flrenght didft him fuftain. 

My thankfull heart, with Pen record 

The Goodnes of thy God; 
Let thy obedience teftefye 

He taught thee by his rod. 

And with his ftaffe did thee fupport, 
That thou by both may ft learn; 

And twixt the good and evill way, 
At laft, thou mig ft difcern. 

Praifes to him who hath not left 

My Soul as deftitute; 
Nor turnd his ear away from me, 

But graunted hath my Suit. 

* Ps. Ixxi. 21. 

28 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Vpon my Daughter Hannah Wiggin * her recouery 
from a dangerous feaver. 

LEST bee thy Name, who did ft reftore 

To health my Daughter dear 
When death did feem ev n to approach, 
And life was ended near. 

Gravnt fhee remember what thov il done, 

And celebrate thy Praife; 
And let her Converfation fay, 

Shee loues thee all thy Dayes. 

On my Sons Return out of England, July 17, i66i.f 

A LL Praife to him who hath now turn d 
^ ^- My feares to Joyes, my fighes to song, 
My Teares to fmiles, my fad to glad: 
He s come for whom I waited long. 

Thou di fl preferve him as he went; 
In raging ftormes did fb fafely keep : 

* She married Andrew Wiggin, of Exeter, N.H., June 14, 1659, anc ^ 
died in 1707. 

t He sailed for England in November, 1657. See page 24. 

On her Sorfs Return from England, 29 

Did ft that fhip bring to quiet Port. 
The other fank low in the Deep.* 

From Dangers great thou did ft him free 
Of Py-rates who were neer at hand ; 
And order ft fo the adverfe wind, 
That he before them gott to Land. 

* Gookin, in his " Historical Collections," pp. 62-63, tells the story of 
these ships : 

"But An. 1657, in the month of November, Mr. Mayhew, the fon, took 

fhipping at Bofton, to pafs for England, He took his paffage for 

England in the beft of two mips then bound for London, whereof one James 
Garrett was mafter. The other fhip, whereof John Pierfe was commander, 
I went pafienger therein, with Mr. Hezekiah Ufher fenior of Bofton, and 
feveral other perfons. Both thefe mips failed from Bofton in company. Mr. 
Garrett s fhip, which was about four hundred tons, had good accommoda 
tions, and greater far than the other : and fhe had aboard her a very rich 
lading of goods, but moft efpecially of paffengers, about fifty in number; 
whereof divers of them were perfons of great worth and virtue, both men 
and women ; efpecially Mr. Mayhew, Mr. Davis, Mr. Ince, and Mr. Pel- 
ham, all fcholars, and mafters of art, as I take it, moft of them. The fec- 
ond of thefe, viz. Mr. Davis, fon to one of that name at New Haven, was 
one of the beft accomplilhed perfons for learning, as ever was bred at Har 
vard college in Cambridge in New England. Myfelf was once intended 
and refolved to pafs in that Ihip : but the mafter, who fometimes had been 
employed by me, and from whom I expected a common courtefy, carried it 
fomething unkindly, as I conceived, about my accommodations of a cabin ; 
which was an occafion to divert me to the other fhip, where I alfo had good 
company, and my life alfo preferved, as the fequel proved : For this Ihip of 
Garrett s perimed in the paffage, and was never heard of more. And there 
good Mr. Mayhew ended his days, and finimed his work." 

John Hull also mentions the loss of Garrett s ship, in his Diary (Arch. 
Amer. iii. 184.) : 

"4th month [June, 1658]. We heard, by two ships that came in from 
England, that Master James Garret s ship was not arrived, and looked as 
foundered in the sea, and so persons and estates lost. There was sundry 

30 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

In covntry ftrange thou did ft provide, 
And freinds raif d him in euery Place; 
And courtefies of fvndry forts 
From fuch as fore nere faw his face. 

In ficknes when he lay full fore. 
His help and his Phyfitian wer t; 
When royall ones that Time did dye,* 
Thou heal dft his flefh, and cheer d his heart. 

persons of pretty note : Mr. Mejo (Mayhew), a godly minister, that taught 
the Indians at Martha s Vineyard ; and sundry young students, and some 
very hopeful ; sundry women also, two of which were sisters in our own 
church One of the ketches, likewise, that went hence for Eng 
land, was taken by a pirate of Ostend, and therein much estate lost." 

* Henry, Duke of Gloucester, third son of Charles I., died of small-pox 
i3th September, 1660, only a few months after the restoration of his 
brother, Charles II., to the throne. Mary, their sister, the Princess of 
Orange, returned from Holland soon after his death, and fell a victim to 
the same disease on the 24th December following. 

"This punishment of declared enemies interrupted not the rejoicings of 
the court; but the death of the Duke of Gloucester, a young prince of prom 
ising hopes, threw a great cloud upon them. The king, by no incident in 
his life, was ever so deeply affected. Gloucester was observed to possess 
united the good qualities of both his brothers ; the clear judgment and 
penetration of the king, the industry and application of the Duke of York. 
He was also believed to be affectionate to the religion and constitution of 
his country. He was but twenty years of age when the small-pox put an 
end to his life. The Princess of Orange, having come to England, in order 
to partake of the joy attending the restoration of her family, with whom 
she lived in great friendship, soon after sickened and died." HUME S 
" History of England," chap. Ixiii. 

Under date of Sept. 13, Evelyn writes in his Diary, " In the midst of all 
this joy and jubilee the Duke of Gloucester died of y e small pox in the 
prime of youth, and a prince of extraordinary hopes." And again, on the 
2 1 st [24th] of December, "This day died the Princesse of Orange, of y e 

On her Sorfs Return from England. 3 1 

From troubles and Incubers Thov, 
Without (all fraud),* did ft fett him free, 
That, without fcandall, he might come 
To th Land of his Nativity. 

On Eagles wings him hether brovght *j* 
Thro : Want and Dangers manifold ; 
And thvs hath gravnted my Reqveft, 
That I thy Mercyes might behold. 

O help me pay my Vowes, O Lord! 
That ever I may thankfull bee, 
And may putt him in mind of what 
Tho ft done for him, and fo for me. 

In both our hearts erecl: a frame 
Of Duty and of Thankfullnes, 
That all thy favours great receiv d, 
Oure vpright walking may exprefle. 

O Lord, gravnt that I may never forgett thy Loving 
kindnes in this Particular, and how gratiovfly thov 
haft anfwered my Deiires. 

small pox, w ch entirely alter d j e face and gallantry of the whole court." 
MEMOIRS, vol. ii. pp. 155 and 159-60. 

These sad events were probably fresh in Mrs. Bradstreet s mind. 

* Sic. 

t Ex. xix. 4. 

32 Anne Bradftree? s Works. 

Vpon my dear and loving hujband his goeing into Eng 
land, Jan. 1 6, 1 66 1.* 

OTHOV moil high who ruleft All, 
And hear ft the Prayers of Thine; 
O hearken, Lord, vnto my fuit, 
And my Petition figne. 

Into thy everlafting Armes 

Of mercy I commend 
Thy fervant, Lord. Keep and preferve 

My hufband, my dear freind. 

At thy command, O Lord, he went, 
Nor novght could keep him back; 

* This was in 1662 (N. S.), on occasion of Bradstreet s mission to Eng 
land with the Rev. John Norton (see Introduction). They did not sail 
until the nth of February. John Hull, who was their companion out and 
back, says, in his Diary (Arch. Amer. iii. 205-6), " loth of Feb., Mr. 
Norton, Mr. Broadstreet, Mr. Davis, and myself, went on shipboard. Next 
morning, set sail ; and, by the 28th March, we saw the Lizard ; and, 22d of 
ist, we arrived in the Downs. After a few days, the messengers addressed 
themselves to the Court, delivered their letters to the Lord Chancellor, re 
ceived good words from him. After their minds, by several comings, fully 
known, they had fair promises of a full grant to their whole desire in the 
country s behalf. But their writing, which they drew in order thereunto, at 
last unsigned ; and another letter, wherein was sundry things ordered 
for the country to attend which seemed somewhat inconsistent with our 
patent and former privileges, in the beginning of said letter confirmed, and 
which some endeavor to take advantage from to the change [of] our 
good laws and customs." 

On her Hufband s Miffion to England. 33 

Then let thy promis joy his heart: 
O help, and bee not flack. 

Vphold my heart in Thee, O God, 

Thou art my ftrenght and Hay; 
Thou fee ft how weak and frail I am, 

Hide not thy face Away. 

I, in obedience to thy Will, 
Thov knoweft, did fubmitt; 

It was my Duty fo to doe, 
O Lord, accept of it. 

Vnthankfullnes for mercyes Paft, 

Impute thov not to me ; 
O Lord, thov know ft my weak delire 

Was to fmg Praife to Thee. 

Lord, bee thov Pilott to the fliip, 
And fend them profperous gailes; 

In ftormes and licknes, Lord, preferve, 
Thy Goodnes never failes. 

Vnto thy work he hath in hand, 

Lord, gravnt Thov good SuccefTe 
And favour in their eyes, to whom 

He fhall make his AddrefTe. 

34 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Remember, Lord, thy folk whom thou 
To wilclernefle haft brovght; 

Let not thine own Inheritance 
Bee fold away for Novght. 

But Tokens of thy favour Give 
With Joy fend back my Dear, 

That I, and all thy fervants, may 
Rejoice with heavenly chear. 

Lord; let my eyes fee once Again 
Him whom thov gaveft me, 

That wee together may fing Praife 
ffor ever vnto Thee. 

And the Remainder of oure Dayes 

Shall confecrated bee, 
With an engaged heart to fing 

All Praifes vnto Thee. 

In my Solitary houres in my dear hufband his Abfence. 

LORD, thov hear ft my dayly moan, 

And fee ft my dropping teares : 
My Troubles All are Thee before, 
My Longings and my feares. 

In her Hujband s Abfence. 35 

Thou hetherto haft been my God; 

Thy help my foul hath fovnd : 
Tho: lofle and ficknes me aflail d, 

Thro: the I ve kept my Grovnd. 

And thy Abode tho ft made with me; 

With Thee my Soul can talk 
In fecrett places, Thee I find, 

Where I doe kneel or walk. 

Tho : hufband dear bee from me gone, 

Whom I doe loue fo well; 
I haue a more beloued one 

Whofe comforts far excell. 

O flay my heart on thee, my God, 

Vphold my fainting Soul! 
And, when I know not what to doe, 

I ll on thy mercyes roll. 55 

* This singular expression has been used once before (page 12). It is 
probably taken from Ps. xxii. 8, " He trusted on the Lord that he would 
deliver him : let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him"; or from 
Ps. xxxvii. 5, " Commit thy way unto the Lord ; trust also in him ; and he : 
shall bring it to pass." The marginal reading for " trusted on" is " rolled 
himself," and for " Commit thy way unto," " roll thy way upon" 
The " Bay Pfalm Book" translates the former verse as follows : 
" Vpon the Lord he rold hinTelfe, 

let him now rid him quite : 
let him deliver him, becaufe 
in him he doth delight." 

36 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

My weaknes, thou do ft know full well, 

Of Body and of mind. 
I, in this world, no comfort haue, 

But what from Thee I find. 

Tho : children thou haft given me, 

And freinds I haue alfo: 
Yet, if I fee Thee not thro: them, 

They are no Joy, but woe. 

O fhine vpon me, bleffed Lord, 
Ev n for my Saviour s fake; 

In Thee Alone is more then All, 
And there content I ll take. 

O hear me, Lord, in this Reqveft, 
As thov before ha ft done: 

Bring back my hufband, I befeech, 
As thov didft once my Sonne. 

So fhall I celebrate thy Praife, 
Ev n while my Dayes lhall laft; 

And talk to my Beloued one 
Of all thy Goodnes paft. 

Winthrop uses the same expression in a letter to his son (" Life and Let 
ters," p. 250). 

" But such as will roll their ways upon the Lord, do find him always as 
good as his word." 

In her Hufband^s Abfence. 37 

So both of vs thy Kindnes, Lord, 

With Praifes fhall recovnt, 
And ferve Thee better then before, 

Whofe Bleilings thvs furmovnt. 

But give me, Lord, a better heart, 

Then better fhall I bee, 
To pay the vowes which I doe owe 

For ever vnto Thee. 

Vnlefie thou help, what can I doe 

But ftill my frailty mow? 
If thov affift me, Lord, I fhall 

Return Thee what I owe. 

In thankfull acknowledgment for the letters I received 
from my hufband ovt of England. 

THOU that hear ft the Prayers of Thine, 
And mongft them haft regarded Mine, 

Haft heard my cry s, and feen my Teares ; 

Haft know r n my doubts and All my fFeares. 

Thov haft releiv d my fainting heart, 
Nor payd me after my defert; 

38 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Thov haft to fhore him fafely brovght 
For whom I thee fo oft befovght. 

Thov waft the Pilott to the fhip, 
And raif d him vp when he was lick; 
And hope thov ft given of good fucceffe, 
In this his Buifnes and Addreffe; 

And that thov wilt return him back, 
Whofe prefence I fo much doe lack. 
For All thefe mercyes I thee Praife, 
And fo delire ev n all my Dayes. 

In thankfull Remembrance for my dear hujbands Jafe 
A rrivall Sept. 3 , 1662.* 

T WHAT mall I render to thy Name, 

Or how thy Praifes fpeak; 
My thankes how fhall I teftefye ? 
O Lord, thov know ft I m weak. 

I ow fo mvch, fo little can 
Return vnto thy Name, 

* " Sept. 3. Master Clark, in the ship Society, brought in the coun 
try s messengers in safety; viz., Mr. Broadstreet and Mr. Norton." 
HULL S Diary; Arch. Amer. iii. 206. 

On her HuJbancPs fafe Return. 39 

Confufion feafes on my Soul, 
And I am fill d with mame. 

O thov that heareft Prayers, Lord, 
To Thee mail come all fflefh; 

Thou hail me heard and anfwered, 
My Plaints haue had accefie. 

What did I aik for but thov gav it? 

What could I more defire? 
But Thankfullnes, even all my dayes, 

I humbly this Require. 

Thy mercyes, Lord, haue been fo great, 

In nvmber nvmberles, 
Impoffible for to recovnt 

Or any way exprefie. 

O help thy Saints that fovght thy fface, 

T Return vnto thee Praife, 
And walk before thee as they ought, 

In Uriel; and vpright wayes. 

This was the lafl Thing written in that Book by my 
dear and hon d Mother. 

40 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Here followes fome verfes vpon the burning of our 
houfe, July loth, 1666. Copyed ovt of a loofe Paper. 

TN filent night when reft I took, 
* For forrow neer I did not look, 
I waken d was w r ith thundring nois 
And Piteovs fhreiks of dreadfull voice. 
That fearfull found of fire and fire, 
Let no man know is my Defire. 

I, ftarting vp, the light did fpye, 
And to my God my heart did cry 
To ftrengthen me in my Diftrefle 
And not to leaue me fuccourlefle. 
Then coming ovt beheld a fpace, 
The flame confvme my dwelling place. 

And, w T hen I could no longer look, 
I bleft his Name that gave and took, 
That layd my goods now in the dvft: 
Yea fo it was, and fo twas jvft. 
It was his own : it was not mine ; 

ffar be it that I mould repine. 

He might of All iuftly bereft, 
But yet fufficient for us left. 

On the Burning of her Houfe. 41 

When by the Ruines oft I paft, 
My forrowing eyes afide did caft, 
And here and there the places fpye 
Where oft I fate, and long did lye. 

Here Hood that Trunk, and there that cheft; 
There lay that ftore I covnted heft: 
My pleafant things in afhes lye, 
And them behold no more mall I. 
Vnder thy roof no gvefh mall fitt, 
Nor at thy Table eat a bitt. 

No pleafant tale mall ere be told, 

Nor things recovnted done of old. 

No Candle ere fhall mine in Thee, 

Nor bridegroom s voice ere heard fhall bee. 

In filence ever fhalt thou lye; 

Acleiu, Adeiu; All s vanity. 

Then flreight I "gin my heart to chide, 
And did thy wealth on earth abide? 
Didfh fix thy hope on mouldring dvft, 
The arm of flefh didfl make thy trvft? 
Raife vp thy thovghts above the fkye 
That dunghill mills away may flie. 

Thou haft an houfe on high erect, 
Fram d by that mighty Architect, 


42 Anne Brad/I reel s Works. 

With glory richly furnifhed, 
Stands permanent tho : this bee fled. 
Its purchafed, and paid for too 
By him who hath enovgh to doe. 

A Prife fo vail as is vnknown, 
Yet, by his Gift, is made thine own. 
Ther s wealth enovgh, I need no more; 
Farewell my Pelf, farewell my Store. 
The world no longer let me Love, 
My hope and Treafure lyes Above. 

A S weary pilgrim, now at reft, 

^- Hugs with delight his lilent nefl 
His wafted limbes, now lye full foft 

That myrie fteps, haue troden oft 
Blefles himfelf, to think vpon 

his dangers paft, and travailes done 
The burning fun no more (hall heat 

Nor ftormy raines, on him mall beat. 
The bryars and thornes no more mall fcratch 

nor hungry wolues at him mall catch 
He erring pathes no more fhall tread 

nor wild fruits eate, in ftead of bread, 

Longing for Heaven. 

for waters cold he cloth not long 

for thirfl no more fhall parch his tongue 
No rugged Hones his feet fhall gaule 

nor flumps nor rocks caufe him to fall 
All cares and feares, he bids farwell 

and meanes in fafity now to dwell. 
A pilgrim I, on earth, perplext 

w th fmns w th cares and forrows vext 
By age and paines brought to decay 

and my Clay houfe mouldring away 
Oh how I long to be at reft 

and foare on high among the blefl. 
This body fhall in filence fleep 

Mine eyes no more fhall ever weep 
No fainting fits fhall me affaile 

nor grinding paines, my body fraile 
W th cares and fears ne r cumbred be 

Nor lofles know, nor forrowes fee 
What tho my flefh fhall there confume 

it is the bed Chrifl did perfume 
And when a few yeares fhall be gone 

this mortall fhall be cloth d vpon 
A Corrupt Carcaffe downe it lyes 

a glorious body it fhall rife 
In weaknes and difhonour fowne 

in power tis raif d by Chrifl alone 
Then foule and body fhall vnite 

and of their maker haue the fight 

44 Anne Bradftreef s Works. 

Such lafting ioyes fhall there behold 
as eare ne r heard nor tongue e er told 

Lord make me ready for that day 

then Come deare bridgrome Come away.* 

Aug: 31, 69. 

* These verses are printed from the original in Mrs. Bradstreet s hand 
writing. Her spelling and punctuation are carefully followed. 



The u Meditations" are printed from the original in Mrs. 
Bradstreet s handwriting. 

Fac-simile of Ami e Bradstreet*s 


f U I Inj **~ 7 / K 


& . / - y/ N 

2?/c/?H Ay>c/JPt % /A^///jtA 
/, rtei/P0jcrrtr> ***.**** 
n^nen w MciT fa &+ * i 

Men Jg vaj-u f/affy fAfMV 
,r i -/ A /A / 
/Ac -tak-Lnfatfat 

For my deare fonne Simon Bradftreet. 

ARENTS perpetuate their Hues in their 
pofterity, and their mariers in their imita 
tion. Children do natureally rather fol 
low the failings then the vertues of their 
predeceffors, but I am perfwaded better things of you. 
You once deiired me to leaue fomething for you in 
writeing that you might look vpon when you mould 
fee me no more. I could think of nothing more 
fit for you, nor of more eafe to my felf, then thefe 
fhort meditations following. Such as they are I be 
queath to you: fma.ll legacys are accepted by true 
friends, much more by du-ty full children. I haue 
avoyded incroaching upon others conceptions, becaufe 
I would leaue you nothing but myne owne, though in 
value they fall fhort of all in this kinde, yet I prefume 
they will be better prif d by you for the Authors fake, 
the Lord blefle you with grace heer, and crown you 
with glory heerafter, that I may meet you with re- 
joyceing at that great day of appearing, which is the 
continuall prayer, of 

your affectionate mother, 
March 20, 1664. A. r>. 

48 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Meditations Diuine and morall. 


nr^HERE is no obiecl that we fee; no action that 
-* we doe; no good that we inioy; no evill that we 
feele, or fear, but we may make fome fpiritu[a]ll ad- 
uantage of all: and he that makes fuch improvment 
is wife, as well as pious. 



ANY can fpeak well, but few can do well. We 
are better fcholars in the Theory then the 
pratique part, but he is a true Chriftian that is a pro 
ficient in both. 


"\7~OUTH is the time of getting, middle age of im- 
"- prouing, and old age of fpending; a negligent 
youth is vfually attended by an ignorant middle age, 
and both by an empty old age- He that hath nothing 
to feed on but vanity and lyes mufh needs lye down 
in the Bed of forrow. 


A SHIP that beares much faile, and little or no 
"* ^ ballaft, is eafily ouerfet; and that man, whofe 
head hath great abilities, and his heart little or no 
grace, is in danger of foundering. 

Meditations. 49 


TT is reported of the peakcock that, prideing himfelf 
-* in his gay feathers, he ruffles them vp; but, fpying 
his black feet, he foon lets fall his plumes, fo he 
that glorys in his gifts and adornings, mould look 
vpon his Corruptions, and that will damp his high 


T^HE fmefl bread hath the leail bran; the purefl 
hony, the leaft wax; and the fmcereft chriflian, 
the leaft felf loue. 


E hireling that labours all the day, comforts 
himfelf that when night comes he mail both take 
his reft, and receiue his reward; the painfull chriftian 
that hath wrought hard in Gods vineyard, and hath 
born the heat and drought of the day, when he per- 
ceiues his fun apace to decline, and the fhadowes of 
his euening to be ftretched out, lifts vp his head with 
joy, knowing his refrefhing is at hand. 



( OWNNY beds make drofey perfons, but hard 
lodging keeps the eyes open. A profperous 
ftate jnakes a fecure Chriftian, but adverlity makes 

him Confider. 


Anne Bradftree? s Works. 


SWEET words are like hony, a little may refrefh, 
but too much gluts the ftomach. 


TAIUERSE children haue their different natures; 
-*-^ fome are like flefh which nothing but fait will 
keep from putrefaction ; fome again like tender fruits 
that are beft preferued with fugar: thofe parents 
are wife that can fit their nurture according to their 


r I ^HAT town which thoufands of enemys without 
-* hath not been able to take, hath been deliuered 
vp by one traytor within; and that man, which all the 
temptations of Sathan without could not hurt, hath 
been foild by one luft within. 


\ UTHORITY without wifedome is like a heavy 
^ * axe without an edg, fitter to bruife then polifh. 


I ^HE reafon why chriftians are fo loth to exchang 
this world for a better, is becaufe they haue 
more fence then faith: they fe what they inioy, they 
do but hope for that which is to Come. 


5 1 


TF we had no winter the fpring would not be fo 
A pleafant: if we did not fometimes tail of adverfity, 
profperity would not be fo welcome. 


A LOW man can goe vpright vnder that door, 
^ ^- wher a taller is glad to ftoop; fo a man of 
weak faith and mean abilities, may vndergo a crofle 
more patiently then he that excells him, both in gifts 
and graces. 


THHAT houfe which is not often fwept, makes the 
cleanly inhabitant foone loath it, and that heart 
which is not continually purifieing it felf, is no fit tem 
ple for the fpirit of god to dwell in. 


?EW men are fo humble as not to be proud of 
A their abilitys; and nothing will abafe them more 
then this, What haft thou, but what thou haft re- 
ceiued ? come giue an account of thy ftewardfhip. 


TTE that will vntertake to climb vp a fteep moun- 
A *- tain with a great burden on his back, will finde 
it a wearyfome, if not an impoffible talk; fo he that 

52 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

thinkes to mount to heaven clog d with the Cares and 
riches of this Life, tis no wonder if he faint by the 


, till it haue paft through the Mill and been 
ground to powder, is not fit for bread. God fo 
deales with his fervants: he grindes them with greif 
and pain till they turn to dull, and then are they fit 
manchet* for his Manfion. 


hath futable comforts and fupports for his 
children according to their feuerall conditions 
if he will make his face to mine vpon them: he then 
makes them lye dow T n in green pafbures, and leades 
them belides the ftill waters; if they Hick in deepe 
mire and clay, and all his wanes and billows goe 
ouer their heads, he then leads them to the Rock 
which is higher then they. 


T TE that walks among briars and thorns will be 
A -* very care full where he fets his foot. And he 
that pafles through the wildernes of this world, had 
need ponder all his fteps. 

* The finest white rolls. Nares. 



11 7ANT of prudence, as well as piety, hath 

brought men into great inconveniencys; but 

he that is well ftored with both, feldom is fo infnared. 


E fldllfull fifher hath his feverall baits for fev- 
erall fim, but there is a hooke vnder all; Satan, 
that great Angler, hath his fundry baits for fundry 
tempers of men, which they all catch gredily at, but 
few perceiues the hook till it be to late. 


THHERE is no new thing vnder the fun, there is 
nothing that can be fayd or done, but either that 
or fomething like it hath ,been both done and fayd 



N akeing head requires a foft pillow; and a 
drooping heart a ftrong fupport.. 


\ SORE finger may difquiet the whole body, but 
^ ^ an vlcer within deftroys it: fo an enemy with 
out may difturb a Commonwealth, but diffentions 
within ouer throw it. 

54 Anne Bradjlreefs Works. 


TT is a pleafant thing to behold the light, but fore 
-*" eyes are not able to look vpon it ; the pure in 
heart fhall fe God, but the defiled in confcience 
mail rather choofe to be buried vnder rocks and 
mountains then to behold the prefence of the Lamb. 


T \ 7ISEDOME with an inheritance is good, but 
wifedome without an inheritance is better then 
an inheritance without wifedome. 



IGHTENING doth vfually preceed thunder, and 
ftormes, raine; and ftroaks do not often fall till 

after threat ning. 


"XT ELLOW leaues argue the want of fap, and gray 
* haires want of moifbure ; fo dry and faplefle per 
formances are fimptoms of little fpiritall vigor. 


TRON till it be thoroughly^ heat is vncapable to be 
* wrought; fo God fees good to call fome men into 
the furnace of affliction, and then beats them on his 
anuile into what frame he pleafes. 

Meditations. 55 


A MBITIOUS men are like hops that neuer reft 
f *- climbing foe long as they haue any thing to flay 
vpon; but take away their props and they are, of all, 
the moft deie6led. 


"TV /TUCH Labour wearys the body, and many 
-L*-*- thoughts opprefTe the minde: man aimes at 
profit by the one, and content in the other; but often 
mifles of both, and findes nothing but vanity and vexa 
tion of fpirit. 


"FAIMNE eyes are the concomitants of old age; 
*~? and fhort fightednes, in thofe that are eyes of a 
Republique, foretels a declineing State. 


"\"\ 7E read in Scripture of three forts of Arrows, 
the arrow of an enemy, the arrow of peftilence, 
and the arrow of a flanderous tongue; the two firft 
kill the body, the 1 aft the good name; the two former 
leaue a man when he is once dead, but the laft man 
gles him in his graue. 

56 Anne Brad/lree? s Works. 


OORE labourers haue hard hands, and old finners 
*^ haue brawnie Confciences. 


T 1 7ICKEDNES comes to its height by degrees. 
He that dares fay of a lefle fin, is it not a little 
one ? will ere long fay of a greater, Tufh, God regards 
it not ! 


Children are hardly weaned, although the 
teat be rub d with wormwood or mufbard, they 
wil either wipe it off, or elfe fuck down fweet 
and bitter together; fo is it with fome Chriftians, let 
God imbitter all the fweets of this life, that fo they 
might feed vpon more fubflantiall food, yet they are fo 
childilhly fottifh that they are ilill huging and fuck 
ing thefe empty brefts, that God is forced to hedg vp 
their way with thornes, or lay affliction on their loynes, 
that fo they might make hands with the world before 
it bid them farwell. 


A PRUDENT mother will not cloth her little 
T *- childe with a long and cumberfome garment; 
me ealily forefees what euents it is like to produce, at 
the beft but falls and bruifes, or perhaps fomewhat 

Meditations. 5 y 

wdrfe, much more will the alwife God proportion his 
dilpenfations according to the ftature and ftrength of 
the perfon he beftowes them on. Larg indowments 
of honour, wealth, or a helthfull body would quite 
ouerthrow foine weak Chriftian, therefore God cuts 
their garments fhort, to keep them in fuch a trim that 
they might run the wayes of his Commandment. 


r I "*HE fpring is a liuely emblem of the refurreclion, 
"* after a long winter we fe the leavleffe trees and 
dry flocks (at the approach of the fun) to refume 
their former vigor and beavty in a more ample man 
ner then what they loft in the Autumn; fo mall it be 
at that great day after a long vacation, when the Sun 
of righteoulmes mail appear, thofe dry bones mall 
arife in far more glory then that which they loft at 
their creation, and in this tranfcends the fpring, that 
their leafe mail neuer faile, nor their fap decline. 


A WISE father will not lay a burden on a child of 
^ * feven yeares old, which he knows is enough for 
one of twice his ftrength, much lefTe will our heauenly 
father (who knowes our mould), lay fuch afflictions 
vpon his weak children as would crufh them to the 
duft, but according to the ftrength he will proportion 
the load, as God hath his little children fo he hath his 
ftrong men, fuch as are come to a full Stature in Chrift; 

58 Anne Bradftreet * s Works. 

and many times he impofes waighty burdens on their 
moulders, and yet they go vpright vnder them, but it 
matters not whether the load be more or leffe if God 
afford his help. 


T HAUE feen an end of all perfection (fayd the 
royall prophet) \* but he never fayd, I haue feen 
an end of all finning: what he did fay, may be eafily 
fayd by many; but what he did not fay, cannot truly 
be vttered by any. 


TIRE hath its force abated by water, not by wind; 
* and anger mull be alayed by cold words, and 
not by bluilering threats. 


A SHARP appetite and a through conco6lion, is 
-^ ^ a figne of an healthfull body; fo a quick recep 
tion, and a deliberate cogitation, argues a found mind. 


"\ T 7E often fe ftones hang with drops, not from any 

* * innate moifture, but from a thick ayre about 

them; fo may we fometime fe marble-hearted finners 

feem full of contrition; but it is not from any dew of 

* PSALM cxix. 96. 



grace within, but from ibme black Clouds that im 
pends them, which produces thefe fweating effects. 


r I ^HE words of the wife, fath Solomon,* are as 
nailes, and as goads, both vfed for contrary 
ends, the one holds faft, the other puts forward; 
fuch mould be the precepts of the wife mailers of 
aiTemblys to their heareres, not only to bid them hold 
faft the form of found Doclrin, but alfo, fo to run that 
they might obtain. 


\ SHADOW in the parching fun, and a Ihelter in 
* * a bluftering ilorme, are of all feafons the moil 
welcom; fo a faithfull friend in time of adverlity, is 
of all other moft comfortable. 


ERE is nothing admits of more admiration, 
then Gods various difpenfation of his gifts among 
the fons of men, betwixt whom he hath put fo vaft a 
difproportion that they fcarcly feem made of the 
fame lump, or fprung out of the loynes of one Adam; 
ibme fet in the higheft dignity that mortality is capa 
ble off; and fome again fo bafe, that they are viler 

* " The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails fastened by the 
masters of assemblies, -which are given from one shepherd." ECCL. xii. 

60 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

then the earth: fome Ib wife and learned, that they 
feeme like Angells among men; and fome againe fo 
ignorant and fotiih, that they are more like beafts then 
men: fome pious faints; fome incarnate Deuils: fome 
exceeding beautyfull; and fome extreamly deformed: 
fome fo ftrong and hea.lthfull that their bones are full 
of marrow, and their breafts of milk; and fome againe 
fo weak and feeble, that, while they Hue, they are ac 
counted among the dead, and no other reafon can 
be giuen of all this, but fo it pleafed him, whofe will 
is the perfect rule of righteoufnefTe. 


r I ^HE treafures of this world may well be compared 
^ to hufkes, for they haue no kernell in them, and 
they that feed vpon them, may foon ftuffe their throats, 
but cannot fill their bellys; they may be choaked by 
them, but cannot be fatisfied with them. 


OOMTIMES the fun is only madowed by a cloud 
^-^ that wee cannot fe his luiler, although we may 
walk by his light, but when he is let we are in dark- 
nes till he arife againe; fo God doth fomtime vaile 
his face but for a moment, that we cannot behold the 
light of his Countenance fome other time, yet he 
affords fo much light as may direct our way, that we 
may go forwards to the Citty of habitation, but when 
he feemes to let and be quite gone out of light, then 

Meditations. 6 1 

muft we needs walk in darknerTe and fe no light, yet 
then mult we trull in the Lord, and ftay vpon our 
God, and when the morning (which is the appointed 
time) is come, the Sun of righteoufnes will arife with 

healing in his wings. 


HT^HE eyes and the eares are the inlets or doores of 
-*- the foule, through which innumerable objects 
enter, yet is not that fpacious roome filled, neither doth 
it euer fay it is enough, but like the daughters of the 
horfleach, crys giue, giue ! * and which is moft 
Itrang, the more it receius, the more empty it finds 
it felf, and fees an impoffibility, euer to be filled, but 
by him in whom all fullnes dwells. 


T TAD not the wifelt of men taught vs this lerTon, 
*- * that all is vanity and vexation of fpirit, yet our 
owne experience would foon haue fpeld it out; for 
what do we obtaine of all thefe things, but it is with 
labour and vexation? when we injoy them it is 
with vanity and vexation; and, if we loofe them, then 
they are lefle then vanity and more then vexation: fo 
that we haue good caufe often to repeat that fentence, 
vanity of vanityes, vanity of vanityes, all is vanity. 

* The horseleach hath two daughters, crying, Give, give." PROV. 
xxx. 15. 

6 2 Anne Bradftreet s Works. 


T TE that is to faile into a farre country, although 
-*- * the ihip, cabbin, and prouilion, be all convenient 
and comfortable for him, yet he hath no deiire to 
make that his place of refidence, but longs to put in 
at that port wher his buffines lyes: a chriftian is fail 
ing through this world vnto his heauenly country, and 
heere he hath many conueniences and comforts; but 
he muft beware of defire[ing] to make this the place of 
his abode, left he meet with fuch toffings that may 
caufe him to long for more before he fees land. We 
muft, therfore, be heer as ftrangers and pilgrims, that 
we may plainly declare that we feek a citty aboue, 
and wait all the dayes of our appointed time till our 
chang mall come. 


T TE that neuer felt what it was to be lick or 
* wounded, doth not much care for the company 
of the phifitian or chirurgian; but if he perceiue a 
malady that threatens him with death, he will gladly 
entertaine him, whom he flighted before: fo he that 
neuer felt the licknes of fin, nor the wounds of a 
guilty Confcience, cares not how far he keeps from 
him that hath fkill to cure it; but when he findes his 
difeafes to difreft him, and that he muft needs perifh 
if he haue no remedy, will vnfeignedly bid him wel- 

Meditations. 63 

come that brings a plaifter for his lore, or a cordial 1 
for his fainting. 


"\ \ 7E read of ten lepers that were Cleanfed, but of 
one that returned thanks: we are more ready 
to receiue mercys then we are to acknowledg them: 
men can vfe great importunity when they are in dif- 
treiTes, and mew great ingratitude after their fuccefles ; 
but he that ordereth his conuerfation aright, will 
glorifie him that heard him in the day of his trouble. 


r I ^HE remembrance of former deliuerances is a great 
* fupport in prefent deftrefles: he that deliuered 
me, fath Dauid, from the paw of the Lion and the 
paw of the Beare, will deliuer mee from this vncir- 
cumcifed Philiftin; and he that hath deliuered mee, 
faith Paul, will deliuer me: God is the fame yefter- 
day, to day, and for euer; we are the fame that Hand 
in need of him, today as well as yefterday, and fo 
mail for euer. 


EAT receipts call for great returnes, the more 
that any man is intrufted withall, the larger his 
accounts ftands vpon Gods fcore: it therfore be- 
houes euery man fo to improue his talents, that when 

64 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

his great mailer mall call him to reckoning he may 
receiue his owne with advantage. 


OIN and fhame euer goe together. He that would 
*^ be freed from the laft, muft be fure to fhun the 
company of the firft. 


D doth many times both reward and punifh for 
one and the fame action: as we fee in Jehu, he 
is rewarded with a kingdome to the fourth generation, 
for takeing veangence on the houfe of Ahab ; and yet 
a little while (faith God), and I will avenge the blood 
of Jezerel vpon the houfe of Jehu: he was rewarded 
for the matter, and yet punifhed for the manner, which 
mould warn him, that doth any fpeciall feruice for God, 
to fixe his eye on the command, and not on his own 
ends, left he meet with Jehu s reward, which will end 
in punifhment. 


T TE that would be content with a mean condition, 
"^ * muft not caft his eye vpon one that is in a far 
better eftate then himfelf, but let him look vpon him 
that is lower then he is, and, if he fe that fuch a 
one beares pouerty comfortably, it will help to quiet 
him; but if that will not do, let him look on his owne 

Meditations. 65 

vnworthynes, and that will make him fay with Jacob, 
I am lefle then the leaft of thy mercys. 


>RNE is produced with much labour (as the 
hufbandman well knowes), and fome land afkes 
much more paines then fome other doth to be brought 
into tilth, yet all muft be ploughed and harrowed ; 
fome children (like fowre land) are of fo tough and 
morofe a difpo[fi]tion, that the plough of correction 
muft make long furrows on their back, and the Har 
row of difcipline goe often ouer them, before they bee 
fit foile to fow the feed of morality, much lefle of 
grace in them. But when by prudent nurture they are 
brought into a fit capacity, let the feed of good in- 
ftruction and exhortation be fown in the fpring of their 
youth, and a plentifull crop may be expected in the 
harueft of their yeares. 


A S man is called the little world, fo his heart may 
be caPd the little Commonwealth: his more 
fixed and refolued thoughts are like to inhabitants, his 
flight and flitting thoughts are like paflengers that 
trauell to and fro continvally; here is alfo the great 
Court of iuftice erected, which is alway kept by con- 
fcience who is both accufer, excufer, witnes, and 
Judg, whom no bribes can pervert, nor flattery caufe 
to favour, but as he finds the evidence, fo he abfolues 

or condemnes: yea, fo Abfolute is this Court of Judi- 


66 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

cature, that there is no appeale from it, no, not to 
the Court of heaven itfelf, for if our confcience con 
demn vs, he, alfo, who is greater then our confcience, 
will do it much more; but he that would haue bolcl- 
nes to go to the throne of grace to be accepted there, 
mufh be fure to carry a certificate from the Court of 
confcience, that he Hands right there. 


T TE that would keep a pure heart, and lead a 
* -*- blamleffe life, mufl fet himfelf alway in the 
awefull prefence of God, the conlideration of his all- 
feeing eye will be a bridle to reflrain from evill, and a 
fpur to quicken on to good dutys: we certainly dream 
of fome remotnes betwixt God and vs, or elfe we 
mould not fo often faile in our whole Courfe of life as 
we doe; but he, that with David, fets the Lord alway 
in his fight, will not fmne againfl him. 


\\ TE fee in orchards fome trees foe fruitfull, that 
* ^ the waight of their Burden is the breaking of 
their limbes; fome again are but meanly loaden; and 
fome haue nothing to fhew T but leaues only; and fome 
among them are dry flocks: fo is it in the church, 
which is Gods orchard, there are fome eminent Chrif- 
tians that are foe frequent in good dutys, that many 
times the waight therof impares both their bodys and 
eflates; and there are fome (and they fincere ones 

Meditations, 67 

too) who haue not attained to that fruitfullnes, altho 
they aime at perfection: And again there are others 
that haue nothing to commend them but only a gay 
proffeffion, and thefe are but leavie chriflians, which 
are in as much danger of being cut down as the dry 
ftock, for both cumber the ground. 


"\ \ 7E fee in the firmament there is but one Sun 
among a multitude of ftarres, and thofe flarres 
alfo to differ much one from the other in regard of 
bignes and brightnes, yet all receiue their light from 
that one Sun : fo is it in the church both militant and 
triumphant, there is but one Chrift, who is the Sun of 
righteoufhes, in the midefl of an innumerable com 
pany of Saints and Angels; thofe Saintes haue their 
degrees euen in this life, fome are Stars of the firil 
magnitude, and fome of a lefie degree; and others 
(and they indeed the moil in number), but fmall 
and obfcure, yet all receiue their lufler (be it more or 
lefle) from that glorious fun that inlightens all in all; 
and, if fome of them mine fo bright while they moue 
on earth, how tranfcendently fplendid mail they be? 
when they are fixt in their heauenly fpheres! 


A /TEN that haue walked very extrauagantly, and at 
T*-* laft bethink themfelues of turning to God, the 
firft thing which they eye, is how to reform their 

68 Anne Bradftreef s Works. 

wayes rather then to beg forgiuenes for their linnes : 
nature lookes more at a Compenfation then at a par 
don; but he that will not Come for mercy without 
mony and without price, but bring his filthy raggs to 
barter for it, mail meet with miferable difapointment, 
going away empty, beareing the reproch of his pride 
and folly. 


A LL the works and doings of God are wonderfull, 
. *" but none more awfull then his great worke of 
election and Reprobation; when we confider how 
many good parents haue had bad children, and againe 
how many bad parents haue had pious children, it 
mould make vs adore the Souerainty of God, who will 
not be tyed to time nor place, nor yet to perfons, but 
takes and chufes when and where and whom he 
pleafes: it mould alfoe teach the children of godly 
parents to w^alk with feare and trembling, left they, 
through vnbeleif, fall fhort of a promife: it may alfo 
be a fupport to fuch as haue or had wicked parents, 
that, if they abide not in vnbeleif, God is able to 
grafFe them in: the vpfhot of all mould make s vs, with 
the Apoftle, to admire the iuftice and mercy of God, 
and fay, how vnfearchable are his wayes, and his foot- 
fteps pail rinding out. 

Meditations* 69 


r THHE gifts that God bellows on the fons of men, are 
-*- not only abufed, but moll Commonly imployed 
for a Clean Contrary end, then that which they were 
giuen for, as health, wealth, and honour, which might 
be fo many Heps to draw men to God in conlideration 
of his bounty towards them, but haue driuen them the 
further from him, that they are ready to fay, we are 
lords, we will come no more at thee. If outward 
bleffings be not as wings to help vs mount vpwards, 
they will Certainly proue Clogs and waights that will 
pull vs lower downward. 


A LL the Comforts of this life may be compared to 
P ^ the gourd of Jonah, that notwithilanding we 
take great delight for a feafon in them, and find their 
fhadow very comfortable, yet there is fome worm or 
other of difcontent, of feare, or greife that lyes at the 
root, which in great part withers the pleafure which 
elfe we mould take in them; and well it is that we 
perceiue a decay in their greennes, for were earthly 
comforts permanent, who would look for heauenly? 


A LL men are truly fayd to be tenants at will, and 

V it mav as truly be fayd, that all haue a leafe of 

their Hues, fome longer, fome fhorter, as it pleafes 

70 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

our great landlord to let. All haue their bounds let, 
ouer which they cannot paffe, and till the expiration 
of that time, no dangers, no ficknes, no paines nor 
troubles, fhall put a period to our dayes; the certainty 
that that time will come, together with the vncer- 
tainty how, where, and when, mould make vs fo to 
number our dayes as to apply our hearts to wifedome, 
that when wee are put out of thefe houfes of clay, we 
may be fure of an euerlalting habitation that fades 
not away. 


A LL weak and difeafed bodys haue hourly me- 
^ ^- mentos of their mortality. But the founder! 
of men haue likwife their nightly monitor by the em- 
bleain of death, which is their deep (for fo is death 
often calld), and not only their death, but their graue 
is liuely reprefented before their eyes, by beholding 
their bed; the morning may mind them of the refur- 
re6tion; and the fun approaching, of the appearing of 
the Sun of righteoufnes, at whofe comeing they fhall all 
rife out of their beds, the long night fhall fly aw^ay, 
and the day of eternity fhall neuer end : feeing thefe 
things mult be, what manner of perfons ought we to 
be, in all good converfation ? 


A S the brands of a fire, if once fevered, will of 
* *- themfelues goe out, altho you vfe no other 
meanes to extinguifh them, fo diftance of place, to- 

Meditations. 7 1 

gether with length of time (if there be no intercourfe) 
will coole the affectiones of intimate friends, though 
there mould be no difpleaience betweene them. 


A GOOD name is as a precious oyntment, and it is 
* a great favour to haue a good repute among 

good men; yet it is not that which Commends vs to 
God, for by his ballance we muft be weighed, and by 
his Judgment we muft be tryed, and, as he pafles the 
fentence, fo mall we Hand. 


Tl 7ELL doth the Apoftle call riches deceitfull 
riches, and they may truely be compared to de 
ceitfull friends who fpeake faire, and promife much, 
but perform nothing, and fo leaue thofe in the lurch 
that moil relyed on them: fo is it with the wealth, 
honours, and pleafures of this world, which miferably 
delude men and make them put great confidence in 
them, but when death threatens, and diftrefle lays hold 
vpon them, they proue like the reeds of Egipt that 
peirce infleed of fupporting,* like empty wells in 
the time of drought, that thofe that go to finde water 
in them, return with their empty pitchers afhamed. 

* " Now, behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, even 
upon Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it." 
2 KINGS xviii. 21. 

72 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 


TT is admirable to confider the power of faith, by 
* which all things are (almofl) poflible to be done: 
it can remoue mountaines (if need were) it hath ftayd 
the courfe of the fun, raifed the dead, caft out divels, 
reverfed the order of nature, quenched the violence of 
the fire, made the water become firme footing for 
Peter to walk on; nay more then all thefe, it hath 
ouercome the Omnipotent himfelf, as when Mofes in 
tercedes for the people, God fath to him, let me 
alone that I may deftroy them, as if Mofes had been 
able, by the hand of faith, to hold the everlafting 
armes of the mighty God of Jacob ; yea, Jacob him 
felf, when he wreftled with God face to face in Pen- 
iel: let me go! fath that Angell. I will not let 
thee go, replys Jacob, till thou blefle me! faith is 
not only thus potent, but it is fo neceffary that without 
faith there is no falvation, therfore, with all our feek- 
ings and gettings, let vs aboue all feek to obtain this 
pearle of prife. 


OME chriftians do by their lufts and Corruptions as 
the Ifralits did by the Canaanites, not deftroy 
them, but put them vnder tribute, for that they could do 
(as they thought) with lefle hazard, and more profit; 
but what was the Iffue ? they became a fnare vnto them, 
prickes in their eyes, and thornes in their fides, and at 

Meditations. 73 

laft ouercame them, and kept them vnder flauery: fo 
it is moft certain that thofe that are difobedient to the 
Command of God, and endeavour not to the vtmoft to 
drive out all their accurfed inmates, but make a league 
with them, they mail at laft fall into perpetuall bond 
age vnder them vnlefTe the great deliuerer, Chrift 
Jefus, come to their refcue. 


OD hath by his prouidence fo ordered, that no 
one Covntry hath all Commoditys within it felf, 
but what it wants, another mail fupply, that fo there 
may be a mutuall Commerce through the world. As 
it is with Covntrys fo it is with men, there was neuer 
yet any one man that had all excellences, let his 
parts, naturall and acquired, fpirituall and morall, be 
neuer fo large, yet he Hands in need of fomething 
which another man hath, (perhaps meaner then him- 
felf,) which mews vs perfection is not below, as alfo, 
that God will haue vs beholden one to another. 

hon d and dear mother intended to haue rilled up this 
Book with the like obfervations, but was prevented by 

* This note is in the handwriting of the Rev. Simon Bradstreet. 


74 Anne Bradjireet^ s Works. 

Ad Sim. Bradftreet filium charifsimum meum. 

TN posteris Parentes vitam perpetuam faciunt, & in 

liberorum imitatione, mores diuturnos. 
Naturaliter tamen posteritati inefl difpositio magis, 
defe6lus majorum quam vertutes imitari. Sed a te, 
meliora, mi Fili, expe<5lo. Tu enim, petiisti, ut scrip- 
tioni tibi legendum, aliquid, cum ab oculis detraherer, 
committerem. His igitur sequentibus meditatiuncu- 
lis, nihil venit in mentem, tibi idoneus, mihi nihil 
facilius. Qiialia funt addico tibi. Parva ab amicis 
acceptabilia funt dona, multo magis, a filiis piis. Co- 
gitationes aliorum quo nullas nifi vere maternas darem, 
studiose vitavi; quas, magni estimandas, credo, mei 
cauia, futuras, licet seipsis, parvas fuerint. Largiatur 
tibi in hac vita gratiam suam Jehovah, & posthac 
glorise coronam donet, ut in Die judicii, gaudio 
te summo, afpiciam. Sic Deum continue fupplice 


Tua amantifsima Parens, 


Mar. 20. 1664. 

Hsec Epiftola Romano Sermone verfus eft a Si- 
mone Bradftreet hujus Excellentifsimae Faeminae 
Pronepote, cum fequentibus meditatiunculis.* 

* " This epistle was translated into the Roman Language by Simon 
Bradstreet, this most excellent woman s great-grandson, together with the 
following short meditations." 

This Simon Bradstreet was son of the Rev. Simon Bradstreet, of 

Meditations. 75 

Meditationes Divince & Ethiccz. 


7ST nihil occulis vifibile, hominum nullae a6tiones, 
* nullum acquiiitum bonum, nullum praefens uel 
futurum malum, a quibus omnibus animi salutem & 
utilitatem promovere non pofsimus Et ille homo, 
non minus sapiens, quam pius eft, qui tales fructus ab 

eis carpit. 


T)LURIMI queant bene loqui, at paucis bene agere. 

Majores in fpeculatione, quam fumus in actione. 

Ipfe autem revera Chriftianus est qui in utrifque pro- 



TUVENTUS est capiendi, ampliandi aetas media & 
*^ utendi fenectus, optima opportunitas. Juventus 
remifsa, ignorantem facit mediam aetatem, & fere, fen- 
e6lutem, utraeque vacuam reduat. Et cujus eft taritum 
vanitate & mendaciis cibus, cubitum maeftus eft eun- 

Charlestown, Mass., and grandson of the Rev. Simon Bradstreet, of New 
London, Conn. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1728, and was or 
dained minister of the Second Church in Marblehead, Mass., Jan. 4, 1738, 
to fill the place of the Rev. Edward Holyoke, who had been elected Presi 
dent of Harvard College. He is described as " a moft worthy, pious, 
devout chriftian, and faithful paftor," and also as " an excellent fcholar." 
MASS. HIST. COLL., viii. 75-76. 

This Latin translation was probably made in his youth. He died Oct. 


Anne Bradftreef s Works. 


T TT navis qux nimium vela petit fubtimia,* nul- 
^^ lamq; habens vel levem fuburram,f cito everti- 
tur, sic homo multa scientia ac doclrina, fed gratia & 
prudentia parva praeditus, ab imis ruinae profunditati- 
bus non procul abest. 

* Sublimia. 

f Saburram. 


THE " POEMS" are printed from the second edition, which was 
published in Boston, in 1678, and which contained the author s 
corrections, and some unpublished pieces. Fac-similes of the title- 
pages of the first and second editions are given. 

I -3ro2ftl^n3rSrSft^^ 



Lately fprung up in AMERICA. 

Severall Poems, compiled 

with great variety of Wit 

and Learning,full of delight. 
Wherein efpecially is contained a com- 
pleat difcourfe and defcription of 

Seafons of the Tear. 

Together with an Exa6t Epitomie of 
the Four Monarchies, viz. 

/ Affyrian, 
mi j Per/ian* 
The \Grecian, 

( Roman. 

Alfo a Dialogue between Old England and 
New, concerning the late troubles. 

With divers other pleafant and ferious Poems. 

By a Gentlewoman in thofe parts. 

Printed at "London for Stephen Bo-wtell at the figne of the j 
Bible in Popes Head-Alley. 1650. 


! P O E M S 

^ Compiled with great variety of Wit and 
Learning, full of Delight ; 


*& Wherein efpecially is contained a compleat *" 
Difcourfe, and Defcription of 



AGES of Man, & 

SEASONS of the Year. |^ 

Together with an exaft Epitome of ^ 
the three firft Monarchyes 

Viz. The PERSIAN, 


And beginning of the Romane Common-wealth 
to the end of their lajl King : 

With diverfe other pleafant & ferious Poems, 
By a Gentlewoman in New-England. 

Thefecond Edition, Corrected by the Author, 
and enlarged by an Addition of fever al other 
Poems found among/I her Papers 

Bojlon, Printed by John Fojler, 1678. 

Kind Reader : 


jAd I opportunity but to borrow fome of 
the Authors wit, tis poffible I might fo 
trim this curious work with fuch quaint 
expreffions, as that the Preface might be- 
fpeak thy further Perufal; but I fear twill be a fhame 
for a Man that can fpeak fo little, To be feen in the 
title-page of this Womans Book, left by comparing 
the one with the other, the Reader fhould pafs his fen- 
tence that it is the gift of women not only to fpeak 
moft but to fpeak beft; I fhal leave therefore to com 
mend that, which with any ingenious Reader will too 
much commend the Author, unlefs men turn more 
peevifh then women, to envy the excellency of the 
inferiour Sex. I doubt not but the Reader will quickly 
find more then I can fay, and the worft effecl: of his 
reading will be unbelief, which will make him quef- 
tion whether it be a womans work, and afke, Is is 
poffible ? If any do, take this as an anfwer from him 
that dares avow it; It is the Work of a Woman, 

84 Anne BradftreePs Works. 

honoured, and efteemed where me lives, for her 
gracious demeanour, her eminent parts, her pious 
converfation, her courteous difpolition, her exacl: dili 
gence in her place, and difcreet managing of her 
Family [iv] occalions, and more then fo, thefe Poems 
are the fruit but of fome few houres, curtailed from 
her fleep and other refrefhments. I dare adde little 
left I keep thee too long; if thou wilt not believe the 
worth of thefe things (in their kind) when a man 
fayes it, yet believe it from a woman when thou feeft 
it. This only I mail annex, I fear the difpleafure of 
no perfon in the publifhing of thefe Poems but the 
Author, without whofe knowledg, and contrary to her 
expectation, I have prefumed to bring to publick view, 
what fhe refolved in fuch a manner mould never fee 
the Sun; but I found that diverfe had gotten fome 
fcattered Papers, affe6led them well, were likely to 
have fent forth broken pieces, to the Authors preju 
dice, which I thought to prevent, as well as to plea- 
fure thofe that earneftly delired the view of the 

\IVErcury fhew d Apollo, Bartas Book, [v] 

* * Minerva this, and wifht him well to look, 
And tell uprightly which did which excell, 

He view d and view d, and vow d he could not tel. 
They bid him Hemifphear his mouldy nofe, 
With s crackt leering glafles, for it would pofe 
The belt brains he had in s old pudding-pan, 
Sex weigh d, which beft, the Woman, or the Man? 
He peer d and por d, & glar d, & faid for wore, 
Pme even as wife now, as I was before: 
They both gan laugh, and faid it was no mar l 
The Auth refs was a right Du Bartas Girle. 
Good footh quoth the old Don, tell ye me fo, 
I mufe whither at length thefe Girls will go; 
It half revives my chil froft-bitten blood, 
To fee a Woman once, do ought that s good ; 
And chode by Chaucers Boots, and Homers Furrs, 
Let Men look to t, leaft Women wear the Spurrs. 

N. Ward* 

* This clergyman, well known as the eccentric author of " The Simple 
Cobbler of Agawam," had been a neighbor of Mrs. Bradstreet in Ipswich. 
He returned to England in 1647, and may have been concerned in the pub 
lication of her poems. 

To my dear Sifter , the Author of [vi] 

thefe Poems. 

THHough moft that know me, dare (I think) affirm 

I ne re was born to do a Poet harm, 
Yet when I read your pleafant witty flrains, 
It wrought fo flrongly on my addle brains; 
That though my verfe be not fo finely fpun, 
And fo (like yours) cannot fo neatly run, 
Yet am I willing, with upright intent, 
To mew my love without a complement. 
There needs no painting to that comely face, 
That in its native beauty hath fuch grace; 
What I (poor iilly I) prefix therefore, 
Can but do this, make yours admir d the more; 
And if but only this, I do attain 
Content, that my difgrace may be your gain. 

If women, I with women may compare, 
Your works are folid, others weak as Air; 
Some Books of Women I have heard of late, 
Perufed fome, fo witlefs, intricate, 
So void of fenfe, and truth, as if to erre 
Were only wifht (acting above their fphear) 
And all to get, what (filly Souls) they lack, 
Efteem to be the wifeft of the pack; 

Poetical Addreffes to the Author. 87 

Though (for your fake) to fome this be permitted, |~vii] 

To print, yet wifh I many better witted ; 

Their vanity make this to be enquired, 

If Women are with wit and fence infpired: 

Yet when your Works mall come to publick view, 

Twill be affirm d, twill be confirm d by you: 

And I, when ferioufly I had revolved 

What you had done, I prefently refolved, 

Theirs was the Perfons, not the Sexes failing, 

And therefore did be-fpeak a modefl vailing. 

You have acutely in Eliza s ditty,* 

Acquitted Women, elfe I might with pitty, 

Have wifht them all to womens Works to look, 

And never more to meddle with their book. 

What you have done, the Sun mall witnefs bear, , 

That for a womans Work tis very rare ; 

And if the Nine, vouchfafe the Tenth a place, 

I think they rightly may yield you that grace. 

But leaft I fhould exceed, and too much love, 
Should too too much endear d affection move, 
To fuper-adde in praifes, I mall ceafe, 
Leaft while I pleafe myfelf I fhould difpleafe 
The longing Reader, who may chance complain, 
And fo requite my love with deep difdain; 
That I your filly Servant, ftand i th Porch, 
Lighting your Sun-light, with my blinking Torch; 
Hindring his minds content, his fweet repofe, 
Which your delightful Poems do difclofe, 

* See her Elegy "In Honour of that High and Mighty Princefs Queen 
Elizabeth of Happy Memory." 

88 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

When once the Cafkets op ned; yet to you 

Let this be added, then Fie bid adieu, 

If you fhall think, it will be to your fhame [ vm ] 

To be in print, then I muft bear the blame: 

IPt be a fault, tis mine, tis fhame that might 

Deny fo fair an Infant of its right, 

To look abroad; I know your modeft mind, 

How you will blufh, complain, tis too unkind: 

To force a womans birth, provoke her pain, 

Expofe her labours to the Worlds difdain. 

I know you l fay, you do defie that mint, 

That ftampt you thus, to be a fool in print. 

Tis true, it doth not now fo neatly Hand, 

As if twere pollifht with your own fweet hand; 

Tis not fo richly deckt, fo trimly tir d, 

Yet it is fuch as juftly is admir d. 

If it be folly, tis of both, or neither, 

Both you and I, we l both be fools together; 

And he that fayes, tis foolifh, (if my word 

May fway) by my confent fhall make the third, 

I dare out-face the worlds difdain for both, 

If you alone profefs you are not wroth; 

Yet if you are, a Womans wrath is little, 

When thoufands elfe admire you in each Tittle. 

/. W* 

* Both this and the address to the reader were undoubtedly written by 
the Rev. John Woodbridge, first minister of Andover. He was Mrs. Brad- 
street s brother-in-law, having married her sister Mercy. He sailed for 
England in 1647, and was there when the first edition of these poems was 
published. A more particular account of him is given in the Introduction. 

Vfion the Author; by [ix] 
a known Friend. 

TV T Ow I believe Tradition, which doth call 
r- ^ The Mufes, Virtues, Graces, Females all] 
Only they are not nine, eleven nor three] 
Our AutWrefs proves them but one unity. 
Mankind take up fome blujhes on the f core] 
Monopolize perfection no more] 
In your own Arts, confefs your f elves out-done, 
The Moon hath totally eclipsed the Sun, 
Not -with her fable Mantle muffling him; 
But her bright Jilver makes his gold look dim: 
Juft as his beams force our pale lamps to ivink, 
And earthly fires, within their ajhes Jhrink. 

B. W.* 

* These initials, which appeared for the first time in the second edition, 
are thought to be those of the Rev. Benjamin Woodbridge, D.D., brother of 
the Rev. John Woodbridge. He was born in England, and after having 
studied at Magdalen College, Oxford, came to join his brother, and some 
other relations, in this country. He entered Harvard College, and his 
name stands first on the list of graduates. He was among the first set 
tlers of the town of Andover; but he soon returned to England, where 
he succeeded the Rev. William Twiss, D.D., as minister of Newbury, in 

90 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

I cannot wonder at Apollo now, 
That he with Female Laurel crown? d his brow. 
That made him witty: had I leave to chofe, 
My Verfejhould be a page unto your Miife 

Berkshire. He held that position until his death in 1684, a period of about 
forty years. His learning, ability, and goodness have been highly eulo 

I have been unable to discover to whom the initials belong attached to 
the other verses. 

* In the first edition, immediately after these, are the following verses : 

ARME, arme, Soldado s arme, Horfe, 
Horfe, fpeed to your Horfes, 
Gentle-women, make head, they vent 

their plots in Verfes; 
They write of Monarchies, a moft fe- 

ditious word, 
It fignifies Oppremon, Tyranny, and 

Sword : 
March amain to London, they l rife, for 

there they flock, 

But ftay a while, they feldome rife till 
ten a clock. 

R. >. 

Poetical Addreffes to the Author. 91 

In praife of the Author, Miftris Anne Bradftreet, [x] 

Virtues true and lively Pattern, Wife of the 

Worfhipfull Simon Bradftreet Kfq; 

At prefent rejiding in the Occidental farts of the 

World in America, Alias 

WHat golden fplendent STAR is this fo 

One thoufand Miles tivice told, both day and night, 
(from th? Orient firft fprung) now from the Weft 
That Jliines; fwift-vuinged Phoebus, and the reft 
Of all ]Q\??S fiery flames furmounting far 
As doth each Planet, every falling Star; 
By whofe divine and lucid light moft clear 
Natures dark fecret myfteryes appear-, 
Heavens, Earths, admired wonders, noble acJs 
Of Kings, and Princes moft hero ick faffs, 
And what Jre elfe in darknefs feeni 1 d to dye, 
Revives all things fo obvious no W to tff eye, 
That he who thefe it s glittering rayes views o^re, 
Shall fee -what s done in all the -world before. 

N. H. 

92 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Upon the Author. [xi] 

HT^Were extream folly fhould I dare attempt, 

* To praife this Authors worth with complement; 
None but her felf muft dare commend her parts, 
Whofe fublime brain s the Synopfis of Arts. 
Nature and fkill, here both in one agree, 
To frame this Mafter-piece of Poetry: 
Falfe Fame, belye their Sex no more, it can 
Surpafs, or parallel, the beft of Man. 


Another to Mrs. Anne Bradftreet, 
Author of this Poem. 

T Ve read your Poem (Lady) and admire, 

Your Sex to fuch a pitch mould e re afpire; 
Go on to write, continue to relate, 
New Hiftoryes, of Monarchy and State: 
And what the Romans to their Poets gave, 
Be fure fuch honour, and efteem you l have. 

H. S. 

An Anagram. 
Anna Bradeflreate Deer neat An Bartas. 

Bartas like thy fine fpun Poems been, 
That Bartas namewill prove an Epicene. 

Anna Bradftreate Artes bred neat An. 

VP ON [xii] 

Mrs. Anne Bradjtreet 

Her Poems, &c. 

"TV /TAD AM, twice through the Mufes Grove I walkt, 

f^-* 1 Under your blifsfull bowres, I fhrowding there, 

It feem d with Nymphs of Helicon I talkt: 

For there thofe fweet-lip d Sifters fporting were, 

Apollo with his facred Lute fate by, 

On high they made their heavenly Sonnets flye, 

Poiies around they ftrow d, of fweeteft Poefie. 

Twice have I drunk the Ne6tar of your lines, 
Which high fublim d my mean born phantalie, 
Flufht with thefe fhreams of your Maronean wines 
Above my felf rapt to an extalie: 
Methought I was upon Mount Hiblas top, 
There where I might thofe fragrant flowers lop, 
Whence did fweet odors flow, and honey fpangles 

94 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

To Venus fhrine no Altars raifed are, 

Nor venom d fhafts from painted quiver fly, 

Nor wanton Doves of Aphrodites Carr, 

Or fluttering there, nor here forlornly lie, 

Lome Paramours, not chatting birds tell news 

How fage Apollo, Daphne hot purfues, 

Or ftately Jove himfelf is wont to haunt the flews, 

Nor barking Satyrs breath, nor driery clouds [ xn i] 

ExhaPd from Styx, their difmal drops difbil 

Within thefe Fairy, flowry fields, nor fhrouds 

The fcreeching night Raven, with his fhady quill: 

But Lyrick firings here Orpheus nimbly hitts, 

Orion on his fadled Dolphin fits, 

Chanting as every humour, age & feafon fits. 

Here filver fwans, with Nightingales fet fpells, 
Which fweetly charm the Traveller, and raife 
Earths earthed Monarchs, from their hidden Cells, 
And to appearance fummons lapfed dayes, 
There heav nly air, becalms* the fwelling frayes, 
And fury fell of Elements allayes, 
By paying every one due tribute of his praife. 

Poetical AddreJ/es to the Author. 95 

This feem d the Scite of all thofe verdant vales, 
And purled fprings, whereat the Nymphs do play, 
With lofty hills, where Poets rear their tales, 
To heavenly vaults, which heav nly found repay 
By ecchoes fweet rebound, here Ladyes kifs, 
Circling nor fongs, nor dances circle mifs; 
But whilft thofe Syrens fung, I funk in fea of blifs. 

Thus weltring in delight, my virgin mind 

Admits a rape; truth Hill lyes undifcri d, 

Its lingular, that plural feem d, I find, 

Twas Fancies glafs alone that multipli d; 

Nature with Art fo clofely did combine, 

I thought I faw the Mufes trebble trine, 

Which prov d your lonely Mufe, fuperiour to the nine. 

Your only hand thofe Poefies did compofe, 

Your head the fource, whence all thofe fprings did 


Your voice, whence changes fweeteft notes arofe, 
Your feet that kept the dance alone, I trow: 
Then vail your bonnets, Poetaflers all, 
Strike, lower amain, and at thefe humbly fall, 
And deem your felves advanc d to be her Pedeilal. 

96 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 


Should all with lowly Congies Laurels bring, 
Wafte Floraes Magazine to find a wreathe; 
Or Pineus Banks twere too mean offering, 
Your Mufe a fairer Garland doth bequeath 
To guard your fairer front; here tis your name 
Shall ftand immarbled; this your little frame 
Shall great ColoJJus be, to your eternal fame. 

Pie pleafe my felf, though I my felf difgrace, 
What errors here be found, are in Errataes place. 

J. Rogers.* 

* These verses were not in the first edition. Their author was the son 
of the Rev. Nathaniel Rogers, of Ipswich. He was born in England in 
1630, and came to America, with his father, in 1636. He graduated at 
Harvard College in 1649, anc ^ studied both divinity and medicine. He 
preached at Ipswich for some time, but afterwards devoted himself alto 
gether to the practice of medicine. In 1682, he succeeded the Rev. Urian 
Oakes as President of Harvard College. He died suddenly, July 2, 1684, 
the day after Commencement, during an eclipse of the sun. He had re 
quested, in the previous December, that the Commencement exercises 
should be held a day earlier than usual, as he feared the eclipse might inter 
fere with them. MATHER PAPERS. Cotton Mather says, " He was One of 
fo fweet a Temper, that the Title of Delicice humani Generis might have on 
that Score been given him ; and his Real Piety fet off with the Accom- 
plifhments of a Gentleman, as a Gem fet in Gold" MAGNALIA, iv. 
p. 130. 

His wife, Elizabeth Denison, was the only daughter of Major-General 
Daniel Denison and Patience Dudtey, and therefore Mrs. Bradstreet s 

To her moft Honoured Fa 
ther Thomas Dudley Efq; 

tkefe humbly prefented. [i] 

T. D. On 

the four 

-parts of 

the ivorld.\ 

DEar Sir of late delighted with 
the fight 
Of your four Sifters cloth d* in black 

and white, 

Of fairer Dames the Sun, ne r faw the face; 
Though made a pedeftal for Adams Race; 
Their worth fo mines in thefe rich lines you fhow 
Their paralels to finde I fcarcely know 
To climbe their Climes, I have nor ftrength nor fkill 
To mount fo high requires an Eagles quill; 
Yet view thereof did caufe my thoughts to foar; 
My lowly pen might wait upon thefe four 

* We have in the first edition, instead of this, " deckt." The readings 
of the first edition will be designated hereafter, without further comment, 
by notes distinguished by the letters of the alphabet. 

t This was probably a manuscript poem. Nothing further is known 
of it. 


98 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

I bring my four times four,* now meanly clad 

To do their homage, unto yours, full 3 glad: 

Who for their Age, their worth and quality 

Might feem of yours to claim precedency: 

But by my humble hand, thus rudely pen d 

They are, your bounden handmaids to attend 

Thefe fame are they, from whom we being have [2] 

Thefe are of all, the Life, the Nurfe, the Grave, 

Thefe are the hot, the cold, the moift, the dry, 

That fink, that fwim, that fill, that upwards fly, 

Of thefe confifts our bodies, Cloathes and Food, 

The World, the ufeful, hurtful, and the good, 

Sweet harmony they keep, yet jar oft times 

Their difcord doth appear, by thefe harm rimes 

Yours did conteft for wealth, for Arts, for Age, 

My firfh do fhew their good, and then their rage. 

My other foures d do intermixed tell 

Each others faults, and where themfelves excell; 

How hot and dry contend with moift and cold, 

How Air and Earth no correfpondence hold, 

And yet in equal tempers, how they gree 

How divers natures make one Unity 

Something of all (though mean) I did intend 

But fear d you ld judge Du e Bartas was my friend 

I honour him, but dare not wear his wealth 

My goods are true (though poor) I love no ftealth 

* mjfour; and four. 6 moft. c may. 

d four. e one. 

Dedication. 99 

But if I did I durft not fend them you 
Who muft reward a Thief, but with his due. 
I fhall not need, mine innocence to clear 
Thefe ragged lines, will do t, when they appear: 
On what they are, your mild afpecl: I crave 
Accept my heft, my worft vouchfafe a Grave. 

From her that to your felf, more duty owes 
Then water in the boundefs Ocean flows. 

March 20. 1642.* 


* This date does not appear in the first e dition. 

THE [3] 



r I ^O ling of Wars, of Captains, and of Kings, 

"*- Of Cities founded, Common-wealths begun, 
For my mean pen are too fuperiour things : 
Or how they all, or each their dates have run 
Let Poets and Hiftorians fet thefe forth, 
My obfcure Lines 7 fhall not fo dim their worth. 


But when my wondring eyes and envious heart 
Great Bartas fugar d lines, do but read o re 
Fool I do grudg the Mufes did not part 
Twixt him and me that overfluent ilore; 
A Bartas can, do what a Bartas will 
But fimple I according to my fkill. 


From fchool-boyes tongue no rhet rick we expect 
Nor yet a fweet Confort from broken firings, 
Nor perfect beauty, where s a main defect: 
My foolifh, broken, blemifh d Mufe fo fmgs 

/ Verfe. 

Prologue. 10 1 

And this to mend, alas, no Art is able, 
Caufe nature, made it fo irreparable. 

Nor can I, like that fluent fweet tongu d Greek, 

Who lifp d at firft, in future times fpeak plain * 

By Art he gladly found what he did feek 

A full requital of his, ftriving pain 

Art can do much, but this maxime s moft fure [4] 

A weak or wounded brain admits no cure. 

I am obnoxious to each carping tongue 

Who fays my hand a needle better fits, 

A Poets pen all fcorn I ihould thus wrong, 

For fuch defpite they caft on Female wits : 

If what I do prove well, it won t advance, C^1 vC 

They l fay it s ftoln, or elfe it was by chance. 


But fure the Antique Greeks were far more mild 
Elfe of our Sexe, why feigned they thofe Nine 
And poefy made, Calliopes own Child; 
So mongft the reft they placed the Arts Divine, 
But this weak knot, they will full foon untie, 
The Greeks did nought, but play the fools & lye. 

* fpeake afterwards more plaine. 

IO2 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Let Greeks be Greeks, and women what they are 

Men have precedency and ftill excell, 

It is but vain unjuflly to wage warre; 

Men can do beft, and women know it well 

Preheminence in all and each is yours; 

Yet grant fome fmall acknowledgement of ours. 


And oh ye high flown quills that foar the Skies, 
And ever with your prey ftill catch your praife, 
If e re you daigne thefe lowly lines your eyes 
Give Thyme or * Pariley wreath, I ask no bayes, 
This mean and unrefined ure * of mine 
Will make you gliftring gold, but more to fhine. * 

* Give wholfome. ftuffe. 

* The initials, "A. B.," are appended in the first edition. 

The [ S ] 

Four Elements. 

T~^He Fire, Air, Earth and water did contefiV 

* Which was the ilrongeft, nobleft and the beft, 
Who was of greateft ufe and might efl force; 
In placide Terms they thought now to difcourfe,* 
That in due order each her turn fhould fpeak; 
But enmity this amity did break 
All would be chief, and all fcorn d to be under 
Whence iflu d winds & rains, lightning & thunder 
The quaking earth did groan, the Sky lookt black 
The Fire, the forced Air, in funder crack; 
The fea did threat the heav ns, the heavn s the earth, 
All looked like a Chaos or new birth : 
Fire broyled Earth, & fcorched Earth it choaked 
Both by their darings, water fo provoked 
That roaring in it came, and with its fource 
Soon made the Combatants abate their force 

j Fire, Aire, Earth, and Water, did all conteft. 
* Who the moft good could ihew, & who moft rage 
For to declare, themfelves they all ingage. 

104 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

The rumbling biffing, puffing was fo great 

The worlds confufion, it did feem to threat 

Till gentle Air/ Contention fo abated 

That betwixt hot and cold, fhe arbitrated 

The others difference, being lefs did ceafe 

All ftorms now laid, and they in perfect peace 

That Fire fhould firft begin, the reft confent, [6] 

The nobleft and moft active Element." 


Tl 7HAT is my worth (both ye) and all men" 


In little time^ I can but little mow, 
But what I am, let learned Grecians fay 
What I can do well skil d Mechanicks may: 
The benefit all living^ by me finde, 
All forts of Artifts, here r declare your mind, 
What tool was ever fram d, but by my might? 
Ye Martilifts, what weapons * for your fight 
To try your valour by, but it muft feel 

My force ? your fword, & Gun/ your Lance of fteel 

/ But Aire at length. enmity. * Being the moft impatient Element. 
o things. P Where little is. 9 Beings. r Come firft ye Artifts, and. 
* O Martialift ! what weapon. * your Pike, your flint and fteele. 

The Four Elements. 105 

Your Cannon s bootlefs and your powder too 

Without mine aid, (alas) what can they do: 

The adverfe walls not fhak d, the Mines not blown 

And in defpight the City keeps her own; 

But I with one Granado or Petard 

Set ope thofe gates, that fore fo ftrong were bar d 

Ye Hufband-men, your Coulters made by me 

Your Hooes " your Mattocks, & w r hat e re you fee 

Subdue the Earth, and fit it for your Grain 

That fo it might in time requite your pain: 

Though ftrong limb d Vulcan forg d it by his skill 

I made it flexible unto his will; 

Ye Cooks, your Kitchen implements I frame 

Your Spits, Pots, Jacks, what elfe I need not name 

Your dayly^ food I wholfome make, I warm [7] 

Your fhrinking Limbs, which winter s cold doth harm 

Ye Paracelfeans too in vain s your skill 

In Chymiftry, unlefs I help you Still. 

And you Philofophers, if e re you made 

A tranfmutation it was through mine aid. 

Ye filver Smiths, your Ure I do refine 

What mingled lay with Earth I caufe to mine; 

But let me leave thefe things, my flame afpires 

To match on high with the Celeftial fires: 

The Sun an Orb of fire was held of old, 

Our Sages new another tale have told: 

But be he what they will, yet his afpecl: 

A burning fiery heat we find refle6t 

* fhares. v dainty. w lift. 

io6 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

And of the felf fame nature is with mine 

Cold * filler Earth, no witnefs needs but thine : 

How doth his warmth, refrefh thy frozen back^ 

And trim thee brave, in green, after thy black." 

Both man and beaft rejoyce at his approach, 

And birds do ring, to fee his glittering Coach 

And though nought, but Salmander s live in fire 

And fly Pyraufla call d, all elfe expire, 

Yet men and beaft Aftronomers will tell 

Fixed in heavenly Conflellations dwell, 

My Planets of both Sexes whofe degree 

Poor Heathen judg d worthy a Diety: 

There s Orion arm d attended by his dog; 

The Theban flout Alcides with his Club; 

The valiant Perfeus, who Medufa flew, 

The horfe that kil d Belerophon, then flew. 

My Crab, my Scorpion, fifties you may fee [8] 

The Maid with ballance, wain with horfes three, 

The Ram, the Bull, the Lion, and the Beagle, 

The Bear, the Goat, the Raven, and the Eagle, 

The Crown the Whale, the Archer, Bernice Hare 

The Hidra, Dolphin, Boys that water bear, 

Nay more, then thefe, Rivers mongfl flars are found 

Eridanus, where Phaeton was drown d. 

Their magnitude, and height, fhould I recount 

My flory to a volume would amount; 

Out of a multitude thefe few I touch, 


Your wifdome out of little gather much. 

* Good. y backs. * gay. a blacks. 

The Four Elements. 107 

Tie here let pafs, my choler, caufe of wars 

And influence of divers of thofe liars 

When in Conjunction with the Sun do more 

Augment his heat, which was too hot before. 

The Summer ripening feafon I do claim 

And man from thirty unto fifty frame. 

Of old when Sacrifices w r ere Divine, 

I of acceptance was the holy iigne, 

Mong all my wonders which I might recount, 

There s none more ftrange then sEtncts Sulphry mount 

The choaking flames, that from Vefuv^^ls flew 

The over curious fecond Pliny * flew, 

And with the Aflies that it fometimes fhed 

Apulia s jacent parts were covered. 

And though I be a fervant to each man 

Yet by my force, mailer, my mailers can. 

What famous Towns, to Cinders have I turn d ? 

What lailing forts my kindled wrath hath burn d? 

The ilately Seats of mighty Kings by me [9] 

In confufed heaps, of aihes may you fee. 

Wher s Ninus great walPd Town, & Troy of old 

Carthage, and hundred more in ilories told 

Which when they could not be o recome by foes 

The Army, through my help victorious rofe 

And ilately London, (our great Britain^ glory) 

My raging flame did make a mournful ilory, 

* She does not mean, by mistake, the Younger Pliny, but translates the 
cognomen of Secundus, which belonged to both Plinys. 

io8 Anne Bradft reef s Works. 

But maugre all, that I, or foes could do 
That Phoenix from her Bed, is rifen New.* 
Old facred Zion, I demolifh d thee. 
Lo great Diana s Temple was by me, 
And more then bruitifh Sodom, for her luft 
With neighbouring Towns, I did confume to dull 
What mall I fay of Lightning and of Thunder 
Which Kings & mighty ones amaze with wonder, 
Which made a Cczfar, (Romes) the worlds proud 


Foolim Caligula creep under s bed. 
Of Meteors, ignis fatuus and the reft, 
But to leave thofe to th wife, I judge it befl. 
The rich I oft make poor, the ftrong I maime, 
Not fparing Life when I can take the fame; 
And in a word, the world I mall confume 
And all therein, at that great day of Doom; 
Not before then, fhall ceafe, my raging ire 
And then becaufe no matter more for fire 
Now Sifters pray proceed, each in your Courfe 
As I, impart your ufefulnefs and force. 

* This and the three preceding lines were not in the first edition. The 
Great Fire of London did not take place until September, 1666. 

The Four Elements. 109 

Earth. [10] 

r I ^HE next in place Earth judg d to be her due, 
* Sifter (quoth fhee)* I come not fhort of you, 
In wealth and ufe I do furpafs you all, 
And mother earth of old men did me call: 
Such is c my fruitfulnefs, an Epithite, . 
Which none ere gave, or you could claim of right 
Among my praifes this I count not leaft, 
I am th original of man and beaft. 
To tell what fundry fruits my fat foil yields 
In Vineyards, Gardens, Orchards & Corn-fields, 
Their kinds, their tails, their colors & their fmells 
Would fo pafs time I could fay nothing elfe: 
The rich the poor, wife, fool, and every fort 
Of thefe fo common things can make report. 
To tell you of my countryes and my Regions, 
Soon would they pafs not hundreds but legions: 
My cities famous, rich and populous, 
Whofe numbers now are grown innumerous. 
I have not time to think of every part, 
Yet let me name my Grecia, tis my heart. 
For learning arms and arts I love it well, 
But chiefly caufe the Mufes there did dwell. 
He here skip ore my mountains reaching skyes, 
Whether Pyrenean, or the Alpes, both lyes 
On either fide the country of the Gaules 
Strong forts, from SpaniJIi and Italian brawles. 

b Sifter, in worth. c was. 

no Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

And huge great Taurus longer then the reft, [n] 

Dividing great Armenia from the leaft; 

And Hemus whofe fteep fides none foot upon, 

But farewell all for d ear mount Helicon. 

And wondrous high Olimpus, of fuch fame, 

That heav n it felf was oft call d by that name. 

PamaJJus fweet, I dote too much on thee, 

Unlefs thou prove a better friend to me : 

But He leap d ore thefe hills, not touch a dale, 

Nor will I ftay, no not in Tem-pe Vale/ 

He here let go my Lions of Numedia, 

My Panthers and my Leopards of Libia, 

The Behemoth and rare found Unicorn, 

Poyfons fure antidote lyes in his horn, 

And my Hicena (imitates mans voice) 

Out of great -^ numbers I might pick my choice, 

Thoufands in woods & plains, both wild & tame, 

But here or there, I lift now none to name: 

No, though the fawning Dog did urge me fore, 

In his behalf to fpeak a word the more, 

Whofe truft and valour I might here commend; 

But time s too fhort and precious fo to fpend. 

But hark you wealthy^ merchants, who for prize 

Send forth your well-man d mips where fun doth rife, 

After three years when men and meat is fpent, 

My rich Commodityes pay double rent. 

Ye Galenifts, my Drugs that come from thence, 

Do cure your Patients, fill your purfe with pence; 

d skip. e N or ve t expatiate, in Temple vale ; 

f huge. s je worthy. 

The Four Elements. in 

Befides the ufe of roots/ of hearbs and plants, 

That with lefs coil near home fupply your wants. 

But Mariners where got you fhips and Sails, [12] 

And Oars to row, when both my Sifters fails 

Your Tackling, Anchor, compafs too is mine, 

Which guids when fun nor moon nor fbars do mine 

Ye mighty Kings, who for your lafting fames 

Built Cities, Monuments, call d by your names, 

Were thofe compiled heaps of maflfy Hones 

That your ambition laid, ought but my bones f 

Ye greedy mifers, who do dig for gold 

For gemms, for lilver, Treafures which I hold, 

Will not my goodly face your rage fuffice 

But you will fee, what in my bowels lyes ? 

And ye Artificers, all Trades and forts 

My bounty calls you forth to make reports, 

If ought you have, to ufe, to wear, to eat, 

But what I freely yield, upon your fweat? 

And Cholerick Sifter, thou for all thine ire 

Well knowft my fuel, muft maintain thy fire. 

As I ingenuoufly with thanks confefs, 

My cold thy fruitfull heat doth crave no lefs : 

But how my cold dry temper works upon 

The melancholy Conftitution; 

How the autumnal feafon I do fway, 

And how I force the grey-head to obey, 

I mould here make a fhort, yet true Narration, 

But that thy method is mine imitation. 

^ ufe you have. 

ii2 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Now muft I fhew mine adverfe quality, 

And how I oft work mans mortality: 

He fometimes finds, maugre his toiling pain 

Thirties and thorns where he expected grain. 

My fap to plants and trees I muft not grant, [13] 

The vine, the olive, and the figtree want: 

The Corn and Hay do fall before the re mown, 

And buds from fruitfull trees as foon as* blown; 

Then dearth prevails, that nature to fuffice 

The Mother on her tender infant flyes; y 

The hufband knows no wife, nor father fons, 

But to all outrages their hunger runs : 

Dreadfull examples foon I might produce, 

But to fuch Auditors twere of no ufe. 

Again when Delvers dare in hope of gold 

To ope thofe veins of Mine, audacious bold : 

While they thus in mine entrails love * to dive, 

Before they know, they are inter d alive. 

Y affrighted wights appal d, how do ye make, 

When once you feel me your foundation quake? 

Becaufe in the Abbyfle of my dark womb 

Your cities and your felves I oft intomb : 

O dreadfull Sepulcher! that this is true 

Dathan * and all his company well knew, 

* before they r. J The tender mother on her Infant flyes. * feem. 

* The first edition has "Korah" instead of "Dathan." It does not ap 
pear clearly from the account in Numbers, ch. xvi., whether Korah was 
swallowed up in the earth with Dathan and Abiram^ or whether he was 
among those destroyed by the fire. See Patrick s "Commentary," and 
Smith s " Bible Dictionary." 

The Four Elements. 113 

So did that Roman, far more flout then wife, 

Bur ing himfelf alive for honours prize/ 

And fince fair Italy full fadly knowes 

What me hath loft by thefe remed lefs m woes/* 

Again what veins of poyfon in me lye, 

Some kill outright, and fome do ftupifye: 

Nay into herbs and plants it fometimes creeps, 

In heats & colds & gripes & drowzy fleeps: 

Thus I occafion death to man and beaft 

When food they feek, & harm miftruft the leaft. 

Much might I fay of the hot Libian fand* [14] 

Which rife like tumbling * Billows on the Land^ 

Wherein Cambyfes Armie was o rethrown r 

(but windy Sifter, twas when you have blown) 

I le fay no more, but this thing add I muft 

Remember Sons, your mould is of my duft 

And after death whether interr d or burn d 

As Earth at firft fo into Earth return d. 

I This and the preceding line were not in the first edition. 
** my dreadfull. 
After this we find in the first edition, 

And Rome, her Curtius, can t forget I think; 

Who bravely rode into my yawning chinke. 

Again, what veines of poyfon in me lye ; 

As Stibium and unfixt Mercury : 

With divers moe, nay, into plants it creeps ; 

In hot, and cold, and fome benums with fleeps, 
o the Arabian fands ; P mighty. 9 lands : 

r Wherein whole Armies I have overthrown ; 

Anne Bradft reefs Works. 


SCARCE Earth had done, but th angry water mov d 
Sifter (quoth fhe) it had full well behov d 
Among your boaftings to have praifed me 
Caufe of your fruitfulnefs as you mall fee: 
This your neglect mews your ingratitude 
And how your fubtilty, would men delude 
Not one of us (all knows) that s like to thee 
Ever in craving, from the other three; 
But thou art bound to me, above the reft 
Who am thy drink, thy blood, thy fap and beft: 
If I withhold what art thou ? dead dry lump 
Thou bearft nor grafs or plant nor tree, nor ftump 
Thy extream thirft is moiftned by my love 
With fprings below, and fhowres from above 
Or elfe thy Sun-burnt face, and gaping chops 
Complain to th heavens, if I withhold my drops 
Thy Bear, thy Tyger, and thy Lion ftout, 
When I am gone, their fiercenes none needs doubt 
Thy Camel hath no ftrength, thy Bull no force [15] 
Nor mettal s found, in the couragious Horfe 
Hinds leave their calves, the Elephant the Fens 
The wolves and favage beafts, forfake their Dens 
The lofty Eagle, and the Stork fly low, 
The Peacock and the Oftnch, mare in woe, 
The Pine, the Cedar, yea, and Daphnes Tree 
Do ceafe to flourifh in this mifery, 

The Four Elements. 115 

Man wants his bread and wine, & pleafant fruits 

He knows, fuch fweets, lies not in Earths dry roots 

Then feeks me out, in river and in well 

His deadly malady I might expell: 

If I fupply, his heart and veins rejoyce, 

If not, foon ends his life, as did his voyce; 

That this is true, Earth thou canft not deny 

I call thine Egypt) this to verifie, 

Which by my fatting Nile, doth yield fuch ftore 

That me can fpare, when nations round are poor 

When I run low, and not o reflow her brinks 

To meet with want, each woful man be-thinks : 

And fuch I am, in Rivers, fhowrs and fprings 

But what s the wealth, that my rich Ocean brings 

Fifties fo numberlefs, I there do hold 

If thou fhouldft buy, it would exhauft thy gold : 

There lives the oyly Whale, whom all men know 

Such wealth but not fuch like, Earth thou maift fhow 

The Dolphin loving mulick, Arians friend 

The witty s Barbel, whofe craft * doth her commend 

With thoufandsjmore, which now I lift not name 

Thy filence of thy Beafts doth caufe the fame 

My pearles that dangle at thy Darlings ears, [16] 

Not thou, but fhel-fifh yield, as Pliny clears. 

Was ever gem fo rich found in thy trunk, 

As Egy-pts wanton, Cleopatra drunk f 

Or haft thou any colour can come nigh 

The Roman purple, double Tirian Dye? 

* crafty. * wit. 

n6 Anne Brad/1 reefs Works. 

Which Ccefars Confuls, Tribunes all adorn, 

For it to fearch my waves they thought no fcorn. 

Thy gallant rich perfuming Amber-greece 

I lightly carl afhore as frothy fleece : 

With rowling grains of pureft maffie gold, 

Which Spains Americans do gladly hold. 

Earth thou haft not moe countrys vales & mounds 

Then I have fountains, rivers lakes and ponds. 

My fundry feas, black, white and Adriatique, 

Ionian, Baltique and the vaft Atlantique, 

jSiEgean" Cafpian, golden Rivers five, 

Afphaltis lake where nought remains alive: 

But I mould go beyond thee in my v boafts, 

If I fhould name w more feas then thou haft Coafts. 

And be thy mountains n er fo high and fteep, 

I foon can match them with my feas as deep/* 

To fpeak of kinds of waters I neglect, 

My diverfe fountains and their ftrange effe<5t: 

My wholfome bathes, together with their cures ; 

My water Syrens with their guilefull lures. 

Th uncertain caufe of certain ebbs and flows, 

Which wondring Ariftotles wit n er knows. 

Nor will I fpeak of waters made by art, 

Which can to life reflore a fainting heart. 

Nor fruitfull dews, nor drops diftil d from^ eyes, [17] 

Which pitty move, and oft deceive the wife: 


The Ponticke. v thy. w fhew. 

^ But note this maxime in Philosophy : 

Then Seas are deep, mountains are never high. 
y drops from weeping. 

The Four Elements. 117 

Nor yet of fait and fugar, fweet and fmart, 

Both when we lift to water we convert. 

Alas thy fhips and oars could do no good 

Did they but want my Ocean and my flood. 

The wary merchant on his weary beaft 

Tranffers his goods from fouth to north and eaft, 

Unlefs I eafe his toil, and do tranfport 

The wealthy fraight unto his wifhed port. 

Thefe be my benefits, which may fuffice: 

I now muft mew what ill 2 there in me lies. 

The flegmy Conftitution I uphold, 

All humors, tumors which are bred of cold: 

O re childhood and ore winter I bear fway, 

And Lima for my Regent I obey. 

As I with mowers oft times refrefh the earth, 

So oft in my excefs I caufe a dearth, 

And with abundant wet fo cool the ground, 

By adding cold to cold no fruit proves found. 

The Farmer and the Gralier do* complain 

Of rotten fheep, lean kine, and mildew d grain. 

And with my wafting floods and roaring torrent, 

Their cattel hay and corn I fweep down current. 

Nay many times my Ocean breaks his bounds, 

And with aftonifhment the world confounds, 

And fwallows Countryes up, n er feen again, 

And that an ifland makes which once was Main: 

Thus Britain fair 3 (tis thought) was cut from France 

Scicily from Italy by the like chance, 

2 force. * Plowman both. b Thus Albion. 

n8 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

And but one land was Africa and Spain L 

Untill proud c Gibraltar did make them twain. 

Some fay I fwallow d up (fure tis a notion) 

A mighty country in th ? Atlantique Ocean. 

I need not fay much of my hail and fnow, 

My ice and extream cold, which all men know, 

Whereof the firft fo ominous I rain d, 

That Ifraels enemies therewith were brain d: 

And of my chilling fnows^ fuch plenty be, 

That Caucafus high mounts are feldome free. 

Mine ice doth glaze Europes great e rivers o re, 

Till fun releafe, their mips can fail no more. 

All know that-^ inundations I have made, 

Wherein not men, but mountains feem d to wade; 

As when Achaia, all under water flood, 

That for two hundred years it n er prov d good. 

Deucalions great Deluge with many moe, 

But thefe are trifles to the flood of Noe, 

Then wholly perifh d Earths ignoble race, 

And to this day impairs her beauteous face, 

That after times mall never feel like woe, 

Her confirm d fons behold my colour d bow. 

Much might I fay of wracks, but that He fpare, 

And now give place unto our Sifter Air, 

c ftraight. d colds. e big ft. / what. 

The Four Elements. 119 

Air. [19] 

/CONTENT (quoth Air) to fpeak the laft of you, 

\"* Yet am not ignorant*" firft was my due: 

I do fuppofe you l yield without controul 

I am the breath of every living foul. 

Mortals, what one of you that loves not me 

Abundantly more then my Sifters three? 

And though you love Fire, Earth and Water well 

Yet Air beyond all thefe you know t excell. 

I ask the man condemned, that s neer his death, 

How gladly mould his gold purchafe his breath, 

And all the wealth that ever earth did give, 

How freely mould it go fo he might live : 

No earth, 7 thy witching tram were all but vain, 

If my pure air thy fons did not fuftain. 

The famifh d thirfby man that craves fupply, 

His moving reafon is, give leaft I dye, 

So loth he is to go though nature s fpent 

To bid adieu to his dear Element. 

Nay what are words which do reveal the mind, 

Speak who or what they will they are but wind. 

Your drums your trumpets & your organs found, 

What is t but forced air which doth i rebound, 

And fuch are ecchoes and report ofth gun 

That tells afar th exploit which it hath done. 

Your Songs and pleafant tunes they are the fame, 

And fo s the notes which Nightingales do frame. 

Though not through ignorance. k world. muft. 

i2o Anne Brad/I reefs Works. 

Ye forging Smiths, if bellows once were gone [20] 

Your red hot work more coldly would go on. 

Ye Mariners, tis I that fill your fails, 

And fpeed you to your port with wifhed gales. 

When burning heat doth caufe you faint, I cool, 

And when I fmile, your ocean s like a pool. 

I help to ripe the corn, I turn the mill/ 

And with my felf I every Vacuum fill. 

The ruddy fweet fanguine is like to air, 

And youth and fpring, Sages to me compare, 

My moift hot nature is fo purely thin, 

No place fo fubtilly made, but I get in. 

I grow more pure and pure as I mount higher, 

And when I m throughly rarifi d turn fire : 

So when I am condens d, I turn to water, 

Which may be done by holding down my vapour. 

Thus I another body can afTume, 

And in a trice my own nature refume. 

Some for this caufe of late have been fo bold 

Me for no Element longer to hold, 

Let fuch fufpend their thoughts, and filent be, 

For all Philofophers make one of me: 

And what thofe Sages either k fpake or writ 

Is more authentick then our l modern wit. 

Next of my fowles fuch multitudes there are, 

Earths beads and waters fifh fcarce can compare. 

Th Oftrich with her plumes, th Eagle with her eyn 

The Phsenix too (if any be) are mine, 

j I ripe the corne, I turne the grinding mill ; 
k Sages did, or. / their. 

The Four Elements, 121 

The itork, the crane, the partridg, and the phefant 
The Thrum, the wren/" the lark a prey to th pefant. 
With thoufands more which now I may omit [21] 
Without impeachment to my tale or wit. 
As my frelh air preferves all things in life, 
So when corrupt, mortality is rife: 
Then Fevers, Purples, Pox and Peftilence, 
With divers rrioe, Work deadly confequence: 
Whereof fuch multitudes have di d and fled, 
The living fcarce had power to bury dead ; 
Yea fo contagious countryes have we known 
That birds have not Ycapt death as they have flown 
Of murrain, cattle numberlefs did fall. 
Men fear d deftrudlion epidemical. 
Then of my tempefts felt at fea and land$ 
Which neither fhips nor houfes could withfland^ 
What wofull wracks I ve made may well appear, 
If nought were known but that before Algere, 
Where famous Charles the fifth more lofs fuilaind 
Then in his long hot war which Mittain gain d/ 
Again what furious ftorms and Hurricanoes * 
Know weftern Ifles, as Chriftophers, Barbadoes, 

The Pje, the Jay. 
After- this the first edition has, 

How many rich fraught veffells, have I fplit ? 

Some upon fands, fome upon rocks have hit. 

Some have I forc dj to gaine an unknown fhoare j 

Some overwhelm d with waves, and feen no more. 
Again what tempefts, and what hericanoes. 


122 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Where neither houfes, trees nor plants I fpare; 
But fome fall down, and fome fly up with air. 
Earthquakes fo hurtfull, and fo fear d of all, 
Imprifon d I, am the original. 
Then what prodigious lights I fometimes fhow, 
As battles pitcht in th air, as countryes know, 
Their joyning fighting, forcing and retreat, 

That earth appears in heaven, O wonder great! 

Sometimes red^ flaming fwords and blazing ftars. 
Portentous ligns of famines, plagues and wars. 
Which make the mighty Monarchs fear their fates [22] 
By death or great mutation of their States. 
I have faid lefs then did my Sifters three, 
But w r hat s their wrath q or force, the fame s r in me. 
To adde to all I ve faid was my intent, 
But dare not go beyond my Element. 

/ {Trance. q worth. r but more s. 

Of the four Humours in Mans 

r I ^He former four now ending their difcourfe, 

Cealmg to vaunt their good, or threat their force, 
Lo other four ftep up, crave leave to fhow 
The native qualityes that from them* flow: 
But firft they wifely fhew d their high defcent, 
Each eldeft daughter to each Element. 
Choler was own d by fire, and Blood by air, 
Earth knew her black fwarth child, water her fair: 
All having made obeyfance to each Mother, 
Had leave to fpeak, fucceeding one the other: 
But mongft themfelves they were at variance, 
Which of the four ftiould have predominance. 
Choler firft * hotly claim d right by her mother, 
Who had precedency of all the other: 
But Sanguine did difdain what me required, 
Pleading her felf was moft of all deiir d. 
Proud Melancholy more envious then the reft, 
The fecond, third or laft could not digeft. 

* each. t " firft not in the first edition. 

124 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

She was the filenteft of all the four, [23] 

Her wifdom fpake not much, but thought the more 
Mild* Flegme did not conteft for chiefeft* place. 
Only me crav d to have a vacant fpace. 
Well, thus they parle and chide; but to be brie 
Or will they, nill they, Choler will be chief. 
They feing her impetuoiity w 
At prefent yielded to neceffity. 


r I ^O fhew my high x defcent and pedegree, 

Your felves would judge but vain prolixity ; 
It is acknowledged from whence I came, 
It mall fuffice to fhew^ you what I am, 
My felf and mother one, as you mall fee, 
But fhee in greater, I in lefs degree. 
We both once Mafculines, the world doth know, 
Now Feminines awhile, for love we owe 
Unto your Siilerhood, which makes us render 
Our noble felves in a lefs noble gender. 
Though under Fire we comprehend all heat, 
Yet man for Choler is the proper feat: 
I in his heart erecl: my regal throne, 
Where Monarch like I play and fway alone. 

" Cold. * higheft. w imperiofity. 

i great. y tel. 

The Four Humours of Man. 125 

Yet many times unto my great difgrace 

One of your felves are my Compeers in place, 

Where if your rule prove once z predominant, 

The man proves boyifh, fottifh, ignorant: 

But if you yield fubfervience unto me, | 24 | 

I make a man, a man in th high ft degree : 

Be he a fouldier, I more fence his heart 

Then iron Corflet gainft a fword or dart. 

What makes him face his foe without appal, 

To ftorm a breach, or fcale a city wall, 

In dangers to account himfelf more fure 

Then timerous Hares whom Caftles do immure ? 

Have you not heard of worthyes, Demi-Gods ? 

Twixt them and others what is t makes the odds 

But valour? whence comes that? from none of you, 

Nay milkfops at fuch brunts you look but blew, 

Here s lifter ruddy, worth the other two, 

Who much will talk, but little dares me do, 

Unlefs to Court and claw, to dice and drink, 

And there me will out-bid us all, I think, 

She loves a fiddle better then a drum, 

A Chamber well, in field me dares not come, 

She l ride a horfe as bravely as the belt, 

And break a ftaff, provided be in jeft; 

But fhuns to look on wounds, & blood that s fpilt, 

She loves her fword only becaufe its gilt. 

Then here s our fad black Sifter, worfe then you. 

She l neither fay me will, nor will me doe; 

z once grow. 

iz6 Anne Bradftreetfs Works. 

But peevifh Malecontent, mufing fits, 

And by mifpriffions like to loofe her witts : 

If great perfwafions caufe her meet her foe, 

In her dull refolution (he s fo flow, 

To march her pace to fome is greater pain 

Then by a quick encounter to be flain. 

But be fhe beaten, fhe l not run away, [25] 

She l firft advife if t be not beft to flay. 

Now* let s give cold white fifler flegme her right, 

So loving unto all fhe fcorns to fight: 

If any threaten her, fhe l in a trice 

Convert from water to congealed ice: 

Her teeth will chatter, dead and wan s her face, 

And fore fhe be aflaulted, quits the place. 

She dares not challeng, if I fpeak amifs, 

Nor hath fhe wit or heat to blufh at this. 

Here s three of you all fee now what you are, 

Then yield to me preheminence in war. 

Again who fits for learning, fcience, arts ? 

Who rarifies the intellectual parts: 

From whence fine fpirits flow and witty notions : 

But tis b not from our dull, flow fiflers motions : 

Nor fifter fanguine, from thy moderate heat, 

Poor fpirits the Liver breeds, which is thy feat. 

What comes from thence, my heat refines the fame 

And through the arteries fends it o re the frame: 

The vital fpirits they re call d, and well they may 

For when they fail, man turns unto his clay. 

a But. ?> "But tis" not in the first edition. 

The Four Humours of Man. 127 

The animal I claim as well as thefe, 

The nerves, mould I not warm, foon would they freeze 

But flegme her felf is now provoked at this 

She thinks I never mot fo far amifs. 

The brain me challengeth, the head s her feat; 

But know ts a foolim brain that wanteth heat. 

My abfence proves it plain, her wit then flyes 

Out at her nofe, or melteth at her eyes. 

Oh who would mils this influence of thine [26] 

To be diftill d, a drop on every Line? 

Alas/ thou haft no Spirits, thy Company 

Will feed a dropfy, or a Tympany, 

The Palfy, Gout, or Cramp, or fome fuch dolour: 

Thou waft not made, for Souldier or for Scholar; 

Of greazy paunch, and bloated d cheeks go vaunt, 

But a good head from thefe are diflbnant. 

But Melancholy, wouldft have this glory thine, 

Thou fayft thy wits are ftaid, fubtil and fine; 

Tis true, when I am Midwife to thy birth 

Thy felf s as dull, as is thy mother Earth: 

Thou canft not claim the liver, head nor heart 

Yet haft the e Seat affign d, a goodly part 

The fmke of all us three, the hateful Spleen 

Of that black Region, nature made thee Queen ; 

Where pain and fore obftruction thou doft work, 

Where envy, malice, thy Companions lurk. , 

If once thou rt great, what follows thereupon 

But bodies wafting, and deftru6lion f 

c No, r.o. ^ palled. * thy. 

128 Anne Bradftreef** Works. 

So bafe thou art, that bafer cannot be> 

Th excrement aduftion of me. 

But I am weary to dilate your fhame, 

Nor is t my pleafure thus to blur your name, 

Only to raife my honour to the Skies, 

As objects belt appear by contraries. 

But 7 Arms, and Arts I claim, and higher things, 

The princely qualities befitting Kings, 

Whofe profound^ heads I line with policies, 

They r held for Oracles, they are fo wife, 

Their wrathful looks are death their words are laws [27] 

Their Courage it foe, friend, and Subject awes; 

But one of you, would make a worthy King 

Like our fixth Henry (that fame virtuous h thing) 

That when a Varlet ftruck him o re the fide, 

Forfooth you are to blame, he grave reply d. 

Take Choler from a Prince, what is he more 

Then a dead Lion, by Beafts triumph d o re. 

Again you know, how I a6l every part 

By th influence, I Hill fend from the heart: 

It s nor your Mufcles, nerves, nor this nor that 

Do s ought without my lively heat, that s flat: 

Nay th ftomack magazine to all the reft 

Without my boyling heat cannot digeft: 

And yet to make my greatnefs, ftill more great 

What differences, the Sex? but only heat. 

/ Thus. g Serene. * worthy. 

After this the first edition has, 

The fpongy Lung s, I feed with frothy blood. 
They coole my heat, and fo repay mv good. 

The Four Humours of Man. 1 29 

And one thing more, to clofe up my narration 
Of all that lives, I caufe the propagation. 
I have been fparings what I might have faid 
I love no boafting, that s but Childrens trade. 
To what you now mail fay I will attend, 
And to your weaknefs gently condefcend. 


Sifters, give me leave, as is my place 
To vent my grief, and wipe off my difgrace : 
Your felves may plead your wrongs are no whit lefs 
Your patience more then mine, I muft confefs 
Did ever fober tongue fuch language fpeak, [28] 

Or honefty fuch tyes unfriendly break? 
Doft know thy felf fo well us fo amifs ? 
Is t arrogance j or folly caufe th this ? 
He only fhew the wrong thou ft done to me, 
Then let my lifters right their injury. 
To pay with railings is not mine intent, 
But to evince the truth by Argument: 
I will analyfe this thy proud relation 
So full of boafting and prevarication, 
Thy foolifti * incongruityes He mow, 
So walk thee till thou rt cold, then let thee go. 

j ignorance. k childiib. 


136 Anne Bradft reel s Works. 

There is no Souldier but thy felf (thou fayeft,) 

No valour upon Earth, but what thou haft 

Thy filly l provocations I defpife, 

And leave t to all to judge, where valour lies 

No pattern, nor no pattron will I bring 

But David, Judatts moft heroick King, 

Whofe glorious deeds in Arms the world can tell, 

A rofie cheek Mufitian thou know ft well ; 

He knew well how to handle Sword and Harp, 

And how to ftrike full fweet, as well as fharp, 

Thou laugh ft at me for loving merriment, 

And fcorn ft all Knightly fports at Turnament. 

Thou fayft I love my Sword, becaufe it s gilt, 

But know, I love the Blade, more then the Hill, 

Yet do abhor fuch temerarious deeds, 

As thy unbridled, barbarous Choler breeds : m 

Thy rudenefs counts good manners vanity, 

And real Complements bafe flattery. 

For drink, which of us twain like it the belt, [29] 

He go no further then thy nofe for teft: 

Thy other feoffs, not worthy of reply 

Shall vanifh as of no validity: 

Of thy black Calumnies this is but part, 

But now He mew what fouldier thou art. 

And though thou ft us d me with opprobrious fpight 

My ingenuity mufl give thee right. 

Thy choler is but rage when tis moft pure, 

But ufefull when a mixture can endure ; 

foolifh. m yeelds. 

The Four Hutu ours of Man. 131 

As with thy mother tire, fo tis with thee, 

The beft of all the four when they agree : 

But let her leave the reft, then n I prefume 

Both them and all things elfe me would conlume. 

VVhilft us for thine affociates thou tak ft, 

A Souldier moft compleat in all points mak ft: 

But when thou fcorn ft to take the help we lend, 

Thou art a Fury or infernal Fiend. 

Witnefs the execrable deeds thou ft done, 

Nor {paring Sex nor Age, nor Sire nor Son; 

To fatisfie thy pride and cruelty, 

Thou oft haft broke bounds of Humanity, 

Nay fhould I tell, thou would ft count me no blab, 

How often for the lye, thou ft given the ftab. 

To take the wall s a fin of fo high rate, 

That nought but death * the fame may expiate, 

To crofs thy will, a challenge doth deferve 

So fhed ft that blood/ thou rt bounden to preferve 

Wilt thou this valour, Courage, Manhood call : 

No, know tis pride moft diabolibal. 

If murthers be thy glory, tis no lefs, [30] 

He not envy thy feats, nor happinefs: 

But if in fitting time and place gainft foes 

For countreys good thy life thou dar ft expofe, 

Be dangers n er fo high, and courage great, 

He praife that prowefs, fury/ Choler, heat : 

But fuch thou never art when all alone, 

Yet fuch when we all four are joyn d in one. 

and. will. . P blood. 

7 So fpils that life. r that fury, valour. 

132 Anne Bmd/l reefs Works. 

And when fuch thou art, even fuch are we, 

The friendly Coadjutors ftill of thee. 

Nextly the Spirits thou doft wholly claim, 

Which nafral, vital, animal we name: 

To play Philofopher I have no lift, 

Nor yet Phyiitian, nor Anatomift, 

For acting thefe, 1 have no will nor Art, 

Yet fhall with Equity, give thee thy part 

For natural/ thou doft not much conteft; 

For there is none (thou fayft) if fome not belt; 

That there are fome, and beft, I dare averre 

Of greateft ufe, if reafon do not erre : * 

What is there living, which do nt firft v derive 

His Life now Animal, from vegetive : 

If thou giv ft life, I give the w nouriihment, 

Thine without mine, is not, tis evident: 

But I without thy help, can give a growth 

As plants trees, and fmall Embryon know th 

And if vital Spirits, do flow from thee 

I am as fure, the natural, from me : 

Be * thine the nobler, which I grant, yet mine 

Shall juftly claim priority of thine. 

I am the fountain which thy Ciftern fills [31] 

Through warm blew Conduits of my venial rills : 

What hath the heart, but what s fent from the liver 

If thou rt the taker, I muft be the giver. 

s th natural. t are. 

More ufeful then the- reft, don t realbn erre ; 

* cannot. m thee. x Bu t. 

The Four Humours of Man. 

Then never boait of what thou doft receive : 

For of fuch glory I fhall thee bereave. 

But why the heart fhould be ufurp d by thee, 

I muft confefs feems fomething^ ftrange to me : 

The fpirits through thy heat made perfe6t are/ 

But the Materials none of thine, that s clear: 

Their wondrous mixture is of blood and air, 

The firft my felf, fecond my mother a fair. 

But He not force retorts, nor do thee wrong, 

Thy fi ry yellow froth is mixt among, 

Challeng not all, caufe part we do allow; 

Thou know ft I ve there to do as well as thou: 

But thou wilt fay I deal unequally, 

Their lives the irafcible faculty, 

Which without all difpute, is Cholers own ; 

Belides the vehement heat, only there known 

Can be imputed, unto none but Fire 

Which is thy felf, thy Mother and thy Sire 

That this is true, I eafily can affent 

If ftill you take along my Aliment; 

And let me be your partner which is due, 

So fhall I give the dignity to you : 

Again, Stomacks Concoction thou doft claim., 

But by what right, nor do ft, nor canft thou name 

Unlefs as heat, it be thy faculty, 

And fo thou challengeft her property/ 

y is fomewhat. z are made perfect there. filler. 

^ It is her own heat, not thy faculty, 
Thou do it unjullly claime, her property. 

134 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

The help fhe needs, the loving liver lends, [32] 

Who th benefit o th whole ever intends 

To meddle further I lhall be but ftient, 

Th reft to our Sifters is more pertinent; 

Your flanders thus refuted takes no place, 

Nor what you ve faid, doth argue my difgrace/ 

Now through your leaves, fome little time PI fpend 

My worth. in humble manner to commend 

This, hot, moift nutritive humour of mine 

When tis untaint, pure, and moft genuine 

Shall chiefly d take the e place, as is my due 

Without the leaft indignity to you. 

Of all your qualities I do partake, 

And what you Jingle are, the whole I make 

Your hot, moift, cold, dry natures are but four, 

I moderately am all, what need I more; 

As thus, if hot then dry, if moifb, then cold, 

If this you cann t difprove/" then all I hold 

My virtues hid, Pve let you dimly fee 

My fweet Completion proves the verity. 

This Scarlet die s a badge of what s within 

One touch thereof, fo beautifies the skin: 

Nay, could I be, from all your tangs but pure 

Mans life to boundlefs Time might ftill endure. 

But here one thrufts her heat, wher ts not requir d 

So fuddenly, the body all is fired, 

And of the calme fweet temper quite bereft, 

Which makes the Manfion, by the Soul foon left. 

c Though caft upon my guiltleffe blufhing face ; 

d firftly. e her. / If this can t be difprov d. 

The Four Humours of Man. 135 

So Melancholy feizes^ on a man. 

With her unchearful vifage, fwarth and wan, 

The body dryes, the mind fublime doth fmother, [33] 

And turns him to the womb of s earthy mother: 

And flegm likewife can mew her cruel art, 

With cold diflempers to pain every part: 

The lungs me rots, the body wears away, 

As if fhe d leave no flefh to turn to clay, 

Her languifhing difeafes, though not quick 

At length demolifhes the Faberick, 

All to prevent, this curious care I take, 

In th laft concoction fegregation make 

Of all the perverfe humours from mine own, 

The bitter choler moft malignant known 

I turn into his Cell clofe by my lide 

The Melancholy to the Spleen t abide: 

Likewife the whey, fome ufe I in the veins, 

The overplus I fend unto the reins: 

But yet for all my toil, my care and skill, 

Its dootn d by an irrevocable will 

That my intents mould meet with interruption, 

That mortal man might turn to his corruption. 

I might here fhew the noblenefs of mind 

Of fuch as to the fanguine are inclined, 

They re liberal, pleafant, kind and courteous, 

And like the Liver all benignious. 

For arts and fciences they are the fitteft; 

And maugre Choler ilill they are the wittieft: 

g ceafes. 

1 36 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

With an ingenious working Phantalie, 

A moft voluminous large Memory, 

And nothing wanting but Solidity. 

But why alas, thus tedious fhould I be, [34] 

Thoufand examples you may daily fee. 

If time I have tranfgreft, and been too long, 

Yet could not be more brief without much wrong; 

I ve fcarce wip d off the fpots proud choler cafl, 

Such venome lies in words, though but a blaft: 

No braggs i ve us d, to you I dare appeal, 

If modefty my worth do not conceal. 

I ve us d no bittererfs nor taxt your name, 

As I to you, to me do ye the fame. 


T TE that with two Affailants hath to do, 
* * Had need be armed well and active too. 
Efpecially when friendlhip is pretended, 
That blow s moft deadly where it is intended. 
Though choler rage and rail, Pie not do fo. 
The tongue s no weapon to affault a foe: 
But fith we fight with words, we might be kind 
To fpare our felves and beat the whiftling wind, 
Fair rolie fifter, fo might ft thou fcape free; 
Fie flatter for a time as thou didft me: 

The Four Humours of Man. 137 

But when the firft offender I have laid, 
Thy foothing girds fhall fully be repaid. 
But Choler be thou cool d or chaf d, Fie venter, 
And in contentions lifts now juftly enter .* 
What mov d thee thus to vilifie my name, 
Not paft all reafon, but in truth all fhame : 
Thy fiery fpirit fhall bear away this prize, [35] 

To play fuch furious pranks I am too wife: 
If in a Souldier rafhnefs be fo precious, 
Know in a General tis mofl pernicious. 
Nature doth teach to fhield the head from harm, 
The blow that s aim d thereat is latcht by th arm. 
When in Batalia my foes I face 
I then command proud Choler ftand thy place, 
To ufe thy fword, thy courage and thy art 
There to defend my felf, thy better part. 
This warinefs count not for cowardize, 
He is not truly valiant that s not wife. 
It s no lefs glory to defend a town, 
Then by affault to gain one not our own; 
And if Marcellus bold be call d Romes fword, 
Wife Fabius is her buckler all accord: 
And if thy haft my flownefs mould not temper, 
Twere but a mad irregular diftemper; 
Enough of that by our lifters heretofore, 
He come to that which wounds me fomewhat more 
. ~..^( : V ri - ,.- .- .- - - : 

A After this the first edition has, 

Thy boafted valour ftoutly s been repell d, 
If not as yet, by me, thou (halt be quell d : 

138 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Of learning, policy thou wouldft bereave me, 

But s not thine ignorance fhall thus deceive me : 

What greater Clark or Politician lives, 

Then he whofe brain a touch my humour gives ? 

What is too hot my coldnefs doth abate, 

What s diffluent I do confolidate. 

If I be partial judg d or thought to erre, 

The melancholy fnake fhall it aver, 

Whofe cold dry head j more fubtilty doth yield, 

Then all the huge beafts of the fertile field. 

Again* thou doft confine me to the fpleen, [36] 

As of that only part I were the Queen, 

Let me as well make thy precincts the Gall, 

So prifon thee within that bladder fmall: 

Reduce the man to s principles, then fee 

If I have not more part then all you three : 

What is within, without, of theirs or thine, 

Yet time and age fhall foon declare it mine. 

When death doth feize the man your ftock is loft, 

When you poor bankrupts prove then have I moft. 

You l fay here none fhall e re difturb my right, 

You high born from that lump then take your flight. 

Then who s mans friend, when life & all forfakes ? 

His Mother mine, him to her womb retakes: 

Thus he is ours, his portion is the grave, 

But while he lives, Fie fhe.w what part I have: 

And firft the firm dry bones I juftly claim, 

The flrong foundation of the flately frame: 

Thole. j heads. * Thirdly- 

The Four Humours of Man. 139 

Likewife the ufefull Slpeen, though not the beft, 

Yet is a bowel call d well as the reft : 

The Liver, Stomack, owe their l thanks of right, 

The rirft it drains, of th laft quicks appetite. 

Laughter (tho thou fay malice) flows from hence, 

Thefe two in one cannot have refidence. 

But thou moft groily doft miftake to think 

The Spleen for all you three was made a fink, 

Of all the reft thou ft nothing there to do, 

But if thou haft, that malice is m from you. 

Again you often touch my fwarthy hue, 

That black is black, and I am black tis true; 

But yet more comely far I dare avow, [37] 

Then is thy torrid nofe or brazen brow. 

But that which fhews how high your fpight is bent 

Is charging me to be thy excrement: 

Thy loathfome imputation I defie, 

So plain a (lander needeth no reply. 

When by thy heat thou ft bak d thy felf to cruft, 

And fo art call d black Choler or aduft, 

Thou witlefs think ft that I am thy excretion, 

So mean thou art in Art as in difcretion:* 

But by your*leave Fie let your greatnefs fee 

What Officer thou art to us all three, 

The Kitchin Drudge, the cleanfer of the links 

That cafts out all that man e re eats or drinks : 

I owes it. ** comes. 

Thou do ft aflume my name, wel be it jufl ; 
This tranfmutation is, but not excretion, 
Thou wants Philofophv, and jet difcretion. 

140 Anne Brad/lreet s Works. 

If any doubt the truth whence this fhould come, 

Shew them thy paflage to th Duodenum;* 

Thy biting quality Hill irritates, 

Till filth and thee nature exonerates: 

If there thou rt ftopt, to th Liver thou turn ft in, 

And thence with jaundies faffrons all the skin. 

No further time He fpend in confutation, 

I truft I ve clear d your ilanderous imputation. 

I now fpeak unto all, no more to one, 

Pray hear, admire and learn inftru6t.ion. 

My virtues yours furpafs without compare, 

The firfh my conilancy that jewel rare : 

Choler s too ram this golden gift to hold, 

And Sanguine is more fickle manifold, 

Here, there her reftlefs thoughts do ever fly, 

Conftant in nothing but unconftancy. 

And what Flegme is, we know, like to her mother, [3 8] 

Unftable is the one, and fo the other; 

With me is noble patience alfo found, 

Impatient Choler loveth not the found, 
What fanguine is, me doth not heed nor care, 
Now up, now down, tranfported like the Air : 
Flegme s patient becaufe her nature s tairfe; 
But I, by virtue do acquire the fame. 
My Temperance, Chaftity is eminent, 
But thefe with you, are feltfome refident; 
Now could I ftain my ruddy Sifters face 
With deeper red/ to fhew you her dfgrace, 

* bittering. / purple dye. 

The Four Humours of Man. 141 

But rather I with lilence vaile her fhame 

Then caufe her blufh, while I relate q the fame. 

Nor are ye free from this inormity, 

Although me bear the greateft obloquie, 

My prudence, judgement, I might now reveal 

But wifdom tis my wifdome to conceal. 

Unto difeafes not inclin d as you, 

Nor cold, nor hot, Ague nor Plurifie, 

Nor Cough, nor Quinfey, nor the burning Feaver, 

I rarely feel to acl: his fierce endeavour; 

My iicknefs in conceit chiefly doth lye, 

What I imagine that s my malady. 

Chymeraes ftrange are in my phantafy, 

And things that never were, nor mall I fee 

I love not talk, Reafon lies not in length, 

Nor multitude of words argues our ilrength; 

I ve done pray fifber Flegme proceed in Courfe, 

We mall expect much found, but little force. 

Flegme. [39] 

T)ATIENT I am, patient i d need to be, 

To bear with the injurious taunts of three, 
Though wit I want, and anger I have lefs, 
Enough of both, my wrongs now to exprefs 

q dilate. 

142 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

I ve not forgot, how bitter Choler fpake 

Nor how her gaul on me fhe caufelefs brake ; 

Nor wonder twas for hatred there s not fmall, 

Where oppofition is Diametrical. 

To what is Truth I freely will afient, 

Although my Name do fuffer detriment, 

What s flanderous repell, doubtful difpute, 

And when I ve nothing left to fay be mute. 

Valour I want, no Souldier am tis true, 

Pie leave that manly Property to you; 

I love no thundring guns, r nor bloody wars, 

My polifh d Skin was not ordain d for Skarrs: 

But though the pitched field I ve ever fled, 

At home the Conquerours have conquered. 

Nay, I could tell you what s more true then meet, 

That Kings have laid their Scepters at my feet; 

When Sifter fanguine paints my Ivory face : 

The Monarchs bend and fue, but for my grace 

My lilly white when joyned with her red, 

Princes hath flav d, and Captains captived, 

Country with Country, Greece with AJia fights 

Sixty nine Princes, all flout Hero Knights. 

Under Troys walls ten )^ears will wear J away, [40] 

Rather then loofe one beauteous Helena. 

But twere as vain, to prove this truth of mine 

As at noon day, to tell the. Sun doth mine. 

Next difference that twixt us twain doth lye 

Who doth poflefs the brain, or thou or I ? 

r Drums. s wafte. 

The Four Humours of Man. 143 

Shame forc d the fay, the matter that was mine, 

But the Spirits by which it a6ts are thine : 

Thou fpeakeft Truth, and I can fay no lefs, 

Thy heat doth much, I candidly confefs; 

Yet without oftentation I may fay, 

I do as much for thee another way:* 

And though I grant, thou art my helper here, 

No debtor I becaufe it s paid elfe where. 

With all your flourifhes, now Sifters three 

Who is t that dare, or can, compare with me, 

My excellencies are fo great, fo many, 

I am confounded; fore I fpeak of any: 

The brain s the nobleft member all allow, 

Its form and Scituation will avow, 

Its Ventricles, Membranes and wondrous net, 

Galen, Hippocrates drive to a fet; 

That Divine OfTpring* the immortal Soul 

Though it in all, and every part be whole, 

Within this ftately place of eminence, 

Doth doubtlefs keep its mighty relidence. 

And furely, the Soul fenlitive here lives, 

Which life and motion to each creature gives, 

The Conjugation of the parts, to th braine 

Doth mew, hence flow the pow rs which they retain 

Within this high Built Cittadel, doth lye [41] 

The Reafon, fancy, and the memory; 

t But jet thou art as much, I truly fay, 

Beholding unto me another way. 
E fie nee. 

144 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

The faculty of fpeech doth here abide, 

The Spirits animal, from hence do Hide: 

The five fnoft noble Senfes here do dwell; 

Of three it s hard to fay, which doth excell. 

This point now to difcufs, longs not to me, 

Pie touch the fight, great lt wonder of the three ; 

The optick Nerve, Coats, humours all are mine, 

The watry, glaflie, and the Chryftaline; 

O mixture ftrange ! O colour colourlefs, 

Thy perfect temperament who can exprefs : 

He was no fool who thought the foul lay there, 

Whence her affections pafiions fpeak fo clear. 

O good, O bad, O true, O traiterous eyes 

What wonderments within your Balls there lyes, 

Of all the Senfes fight fhall be the Queen; 

Yet fome may wifh, O had mine eyes ne re feen. 

Mine, likewife is the marrow, of the back, 

Which runs through all the Spondles of the rack, 

It is the fubftitute o th royal brain, 

All Nerves, except feven pair, to it retain. 

And the ftrong Ligaments from hence arife, 

Which joynt to joynt, the 1 intire body tyes. 

Some other parts there iffue from the Brain, 

Whofe worth and ufe to tell, I muft refrain: 

Some curious v learned Crooke* may thefe reveal 

But modefty, hath charg d me to conceal 

Here s my Epitome of excellence: 

For what s the Brains is mine by Confequence. 

worthy. * See Introduction. 

The Four Humours of Man. 145 

A foolifh brain (quoth w Choler) wanting heat [42] 

But a mad one fay I, where tis too great, 

Phrenfie s worfe then folly, one would more glad 

With a tame fool converfe then with a mad; 

For learning then my brain * is not the fittefl, 

Nor will I yield that Choler is 2 the wittieft. 

Thy judgement is unfafe, thy fancy little, 

For memory the fand is not more brittle; 

Again, none s fit for Kingly ftate a but thou, 

If Tyrants be the beft, I le it allow: 

But if love be as requifite as fear, 

Then thou and I muft make a mixture here. 

Well to be brief, I hope now Cholers laid, 

And Pie pafs by what Sifter fanguine faid. 

To Melancholy I le make no reply, 

The worffc me faid was infbability, 

And too much talk, both which I here confefs 

A warning good, hereafter Fie fay lefs. 

Let s now be friends; its time our fpight were fpent, 

Left we too late this rafhnefs do repent, 

Such premifes will force a fad conclufion, 

Unlefs we agree, all falls into confufion. 

Let Sangine with her hot hand Choler hold, 

To take her moift my moifture will be bold : 

My cold, cold melancholy b hand fhall clafp; 

Her dry, dry Cholers other hand fhall grafp. 

w faith. x Then, my head for learning. 

y Ne re did I heare. * was. 

a place. b Melanchollies. 


146 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Two hot, two moift, two cold, two dry here be, 

A golden Ring, the Pofey VNITY. 

Nor jarrs nor feoffs, let none hereafter fee, 

But all admire our perfect Amity 

Nor be difcern d, here s water, earth, air, fire, [43] 

But here a compact body, whole intire. 

This loving counfel pleas d them all fo well 

That flegm was judg d for kindnefs to excell. 

Of the Jour Ages 
of Man. 

O now four other a6t c upon the ftage, 

Childhood and Youth, the Manly & Old age; 
The firft fon unto flegm, Grand-child to water, 
Unftable, fupple, cold and moiil s his nature. 
The fecond frolick, claims his pedegree 
From blood and air, for hot and moifl is he. 
The third of fire and Choler is composed 
Vindicative and quarrelfome difpos d. 
The laft of earth, and heavy melancholy, 
Solid, hating all lightnefs and all folly. 
Childhood was cloth d in white & green d to mow 
His fpring was intermixed with fome fnow: 
Upon his head nature a Garland fet 
Of Primrofe, Daizy & the Violet. 

Such cold mean flowrsthe fpring puts forth betime[44] 
Before the fun hath throughly heat 7 the clime. 
His Hobby ftriding did not ride but run, 
And in his hand an hour-glafs new begun, 

c aits. d given. (as thefe) bloflbme. / warm fl. 

148 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

In danger every moment of a fall, 

And when tis broke then ends his life and all : 

But if he hold till it have run its laft, 

Then may he live out*" threefcore years or paft. 

Next Youth came up in gorgeous attire, 

(As that fond age doth moft of all deiire) 

His Suit of Crimfon and his fcarfe of green, 

His pride in s countenance was quickly feen, 

Garland of rofes, pinks and gilli-flowers 

Seemed on s head to grow bedew d with mowers: 

His face as frefh as is Aurora fair, 

When blufhing me firft gins to light h the air. 

No wooden horfe, but one of mettal try d, 

He feems to fly or fwim, and not to ride. 

Then prancing on the ftage, about he wheels, 

But as he went death waited at his heels. 

The next came up in a much graver fort, 

As one that cared for a good report, 

His fword by s lide, and choler in his eyes, 

But neither us d as yet, for he was wife : 

Of Autumns fruits a basket on his arm, 

His golden God in s purie, which was his charm. 

And lafl of all to acl: upon this ftage 

Leaning upon his fbaff came up Old Age, 

Under his arm a fheaf of wheat he bore, 

An harveft of the beft, wh#t needs he more ? 

In s other hand a glafs ev n almoft run, [4=;] 

Thus writ about This out then am I done. 

K til. h red. * more. 

The Four Ages of Man. 149 

His hoary hairs, and grave afpet made way, 
And all gave ear to what he had to fay. 
Thefe being met each in his equipage 
Intend to fpeak according to their age: 
But wife Old age did with all gravity 
To childim Childhood give precedency, 
And to the reft his reafon mildly told, 
That he was young before he grew fo old. 
To do as he each one 7 full foon afTents, 
Their method was that of the Elements, 
That each mould tell what of himfelf he knew, 
Both good and bad, but yet no more then s true. 
With heed now flood three ages of frail man, 
To hear the child, who crying thus began ; 


A H me ! conceiv d in fin and born with forrow, 
^ ^ A nothing, here to day and gone to morrow, 
VVhofe mean beginning blufhing can t reveal, 
But night and darknefs muft with fhame conceal. 
My mothers breeding licknefs I will fpare, 
Her nine moneths weary burthen not declare. 
To mew her bearing pains,* I fhould do wrong, 
To tell thofe pangs which can t be told by tongue: 

j the reft. * pangs. * that paine. 

150 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

With tears into the world I did arrive, 

My mother ftill did wafte as I did thrive, 

Who yet with love and all alacrity, [46] 

Spending, was willing to be fpent for me. 

With wayward cryes I did difturb her reft, 

Who fought ftill to appeafe me with the brealt: 

With weary arms me danc d and By By fung, 

When wretched I ingrate had done the wrong. 

When infancy was paft, my childifhnefs 

Did a<5t all folly that it could exprefs, 

My lillinefs did only take delight 

In that which riper age did fcorn and flight. 

In Rattles, Baubles and fuch toyifh ftuff, 

My then ambitious thoughts were low enough : 

My high-born foul fo ftraightly was confin d, 

That its own worth it did not know nor mind: 

This little houfe of flefh did fpacious count, 

Through ignorance all troubles did furmount; 

Yet this advantage had mine ignorance 

Freedom from envy and from arrogance. 

How to be rich or great I did not cark, 

A Baron or a Duke ne r made my mark, 

Nor ftudious was Kings favours how to buy, 

With coftly prefence or bafe flattery: 

No office coveted wherein I might 

Make ftrong my felf and turn alide weak right: 

No malice bare to this or that great Peer, 

Nor unto buzzing whifperers gave ear: 


The Four Ages of Man. 15 1 

I gave no hand nor vote for death or life, 

I d nought to do twixt King 71 and peoples ftrife. 

No Statift I, nor Martilift in th field, 

Where ere I went mine innocence was fhield. 

My quarrels not for Diadems did rife, [47] 

But for an apple, plum, or fome fuch prize: 

My flrokes did caufe no blood no wounds or skars. 

My little wrath did end p foon as my Warrs : 

My Duel was no challeng nor did feek 

My foe mould weltring in his bowels reek. 

I had no fuits at law neighbours to vex, 

Nor evidence for lands did me perplex. 

I fear d no ftorms, nor all the wind that blowes, 

I had no mips at fea; nor fraights to loofe. 

I fear d no drought nor wet, I had no crop, 

Nor yet on future things did fet 9 my hope. 

This was mine innocence, but ah! the feeds 

Lay raked up of all the curfed weeds 

Which fprouted forth in mine enfuing age, 

As he can tel that next comes on the ftage: 

But yet let me relate before I go 

The lins and dangers I am fubjedt to, 

Stained from birth with Adams finfull fa6l, 

Thence I began to fin as foon as a6t: 

A perverfe will, a love to what s forbid, 

A ferpents fling in pleafing face lay hid : 

A lying tongue as foon as it could fpeak, 

And fifth Commandment do daily break. 

Prince. death. P ceafe. 1 place. 

152 Anne Bradftreef s Works. 

Oft ftubborn, peevifh, fallen, pout and cry, 

Then nought can pleafe, and .yet I know not why. 

As many are r my fins, fo dangers too ; 

For fin brings forrow, ficknefs death and woe: 

And though I mifs the toffings of the mind, 

Yet griefs in my frail flefh I ftill do find. 

What gripes of wind mine infancy did pain, [48] 

What tortures I in breeding teeth fuftain ? 

What crudityes my ftomack cold hath bred, 

Whence vomits, flux and worms have iflued? 

What breaches, knocks and falls I daily have, 

And fome perhaps I carry to my grave, 

Sometimes in fire, fometimes in water fall, 

Strangly prefev d, yet mind it not at all : 

At home, abroad my dangers manifold, 

That wonder tis, my glafs till now doth hold. 

Pve done; unto my elders I give way, 

For tis but little that a child can fay. 


TV /TY goodly cloathing, and my beauteous skin 

Declare fome greater riches are within: 
But what is beft Fie firft p refent to view, 
And then the worfl in a more ugly hue: 

r was. 

77/ e Fo u r Ages of Ma n. 153 

For thus to doe we on this ftage affemble, 

Then let not him that hath moil craft diffemble. 

My education and my learning fuch, 

As might my felf and others profit much ; 

With nurture trained up in virtues fchools 

Of fcience, arts and tongues I know the rules, 

The manners of the court I alfo s know, 

And fo likewife * what they in th Country doe. 

The brave attempts of valiant knights I prize, 

That dare fcale walls and forts * rear d to the skies. 

The fnorting Horfe, the trumpet, Drum I like, [49] 

The glitfring fword, the Fiftol and the Pike: " 

I cannot lye intrench d before a town, 

Nor wait till good fuccefs w our hopes doth crown : 

I fcorn the heavy Corflet, musket-proof; 

I fly to catch the bullet thats aloof. 

Though thus in field, at home to all molt kind, 

So affable, that I can x fuit each mind. 

I can infinuate into the breafl, 

And by my mirth can raife the heart depreft: 

Sweet mufick raps my brave harmonious foul, 

My high thoughts elevate beyond the pole : y 

My wit, my bounty, and my courtefie, 

Make all to place their future hopes on me. 

* likewife, t Not ignorant. u That dare climbe Battlements. 

v and wel advanced Pike ; w advice. x do. 

y Sweet Mufick rapteth my harmonious Soul, 
And elevates my thoughts above the Pole. 


Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

This is my beft, but Youth is known, Alas! 

To be as wild as is the fnuffing Afs : 

As vain as froth, or vanity can be, 

That who would fee vain man, may look on me. 

My gifts abusd, my education loft, 

My wofull Parents longing hopes are z croft, 

My wit evaporates in merriment, 

My valour in fome beaftly quarrell s fpent: * 

My luft doth hurry me to all that s ill: 

I know no law nor reafon but my will. 

Sometimes lay wait to take a wealthy purfe, 

Or ftab the man in s own defence (that s worfe) 

Sometimes I cheat (unkind) a female heir 

Of all at once, who not fo wife as fair 

Trufteth my loving looks and glozing tongue, 

Untill her friends, treafure and honour s gone. 

Sometimes I fit carouling others health, [5] 

Untill mine own be gone, my wit and wealth. 

From pipe to pot, from pot to words and blows, 

For he that loveth wine, wanteth no woes. 

Whole b nights with Ruffins, Roarers Fidlers fpend, 

To all obfcenity mine ears I lend : c 

All Counfell hate, which tends to make me wife, 

And deareft friends count for mine enemies. 

* all. 

After this the first edition has, 

Martial deeds I love not, caufe they re vertuous, 
But doing fo, might feem magnanimous. 

* Dajcs. c bend. 

The Four Ages of Man. 

If any care I take tis to be fine, 

For fure my fuit, more then my virtues mine 

If time from leud Companions I can fpare, 

Tis fpent to curie, and pounce my new-bought hair/ 

Some new * Adonis I do ftrive to be ; 

Sardanapalus now furvives in me. 

Cards, Dice, and Oathes concomitant I love, 

To playes, to mafques, to Taverns ftill I move. 

And in a word, if what I am you d hear, 

Seek out a Brittifk bruitifh Cavaleer: 

Such wretch, fuch Monfter am I, but yet more, 

I have no heart at all this to deplore/ 

Remembring not the dreadfull day of doom, 

Nor yet that heavy reckoning foon to come. 

Though dangers do attend me every hour, 

And gaftly Death oft threats me with his^ power, 

Sometimes by wounds in idle Combates taken, 

Sometimes with Agues all my body Ihaken: 

Sometimes by fevers, all my moifture drinking, 

My heart lies frying, & mine eyes are finking, 

Sometimes the Quinfey, h painfull Pleuriiie, 

With fad affrighrs of death doth menace me: 

*. If any time from company I fpare, 
Tis fpent in curling, frifling up my hair ; 

* young. 

/ I want a heart all this for to deplore. 
Thus, thus alas ! I have mifpent my time, 
My youth, my beft, my ftrength, my bud, and prime : 

f her. * Cough, Stitch. 

156 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Sometimes the two fold Pox me fore beimarrs [51] 

With outward marks, & inward loathfome fcarrs, 

Sometimes the Phrenzy llrangly mads my brain, 

That oft for it in Bedlam I remain. 

Too many my difeafes to recite, 

That wonder tis, I yet behold the light, 

That yet my bed in darknefs is not made, 

And I in black oblivions Den now y laid. 

Of aches full my bones, of woe my heart, 

Clapt in that prifon, never thence to ftart/ 

Thus I have faid, and what I ve been, l you fee 

Childhood and Youth are vain ye m vanity. 

Middle Age. 

/CHILDHOOD and Youth (forgot) I ve fometimes 
^ feen 

And now am grown more ftaid who have bin green 
What they have done, the fame was done by me, 
As was their praife or fhame, fo mine muft be. 

* Sometimes the loathfome Pox, my face be-mars, 
With ugly marks of his eternal fears ; 

j long. 

* Of Marrow ful my bones,^of Milk my breafts, 
Ceas d * by the gripes of Serjeant Death s Arrefts : t 

1 faid. m yea. 

* See p 135, note^-. 

t " - (as this fell sergeant, death, 

Is strict in his arrest)." HAMLET, v. 2. 

Th e Fo u r Ages of ML ui. 157 

Now age is more; more good you may" expert, 

But more mine age, the more is my defect.* 

When my wild oates were fown & ripe and mown 

I then received an harveft of mine own. 

My realbn then bad judge how little hope 

My empty feed fhould yield a better crop: 

Then with both hands I grafpt the world together 

Thus out of one extream into another: 

But yet laid hold on virtue feemingly, 

Who climbs without hold climbs dangeroufly: 

Be my condition mean, I then take pains [52] 

My Family to keep, but not for gains. 

A Father I, for children muft provide; 

But if none, then for kindred near ally d. 

If rich, I m urged then to gather more, 

To bear a port 7 i th world, and feed the poor. 

If noble, then mine honour to maintain, 

If not, riches r nobility can gain. 

For time, for place, likewife for each Relation 

I wanted not, my ready allegation. 

Yet all my powers for felf ends are not fpent, 

For hundreds blefs me for my bounty lent/ 

Whofe backs * I ve cloth d, and bellyes I have fed 

With mine own fleece, & with my houfhold bread, 


After this the first edition has, 

But what s of worth, your eyes flial firft behold, 

And then a world of drofle among my gold. 
P Such. <7 me out. yet wealth. 

s fent. * loynes. 

158 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 


Yea, juftice have I done, was I in place, 

To chear the good, and wicked to deface. 

The proud I crufh t, th opprefled I fet free, 

The lyars curb d, but nourifht verity. 

Was I a Pailor, I my Flock did feed, 

And gently lead the Lambs as they had need. 

A Captain I, with Skill I train d rny Band, 

And fhew d them how in face of Foes to Hand. 

A Souldier I, with fpeed I did obey 

As readily, as could my leader fay. 

Was I a labourer, I wrought all day 

As cheerfully as e re I took my pay. 

Thus hath mine Age in all fometimes done well, 

Sometimes again, mine Age u been worfe then Hell. 

In meannefs, greatnefs, riches, poverty, 

Did toyle, did broyle, oppreff d, did fbeal and lye. 

Was I as poor as poverty could be, [53] 

Then bafenefs was Companion unto me. 

Such fcum as hedges and high-ways do yield, 

As neither fow, nor reap, nor plant, nor build, 

If to Agriculture I was ordain d, 

Great labours, forrows, Croffes I fuftain d. 

The early Cock did fummon but in vain 

My wakeful thoughts up to my painful gain : v 

My weary Beaft reft from his toyle can find, 

But if I reft the more diftreft my mind. 

* Sometimes mine age (in all). 
v After this the first edition has, 

For reftlefie day and night, I m rob d of fleep, 

By cankered care, who centinel doth keep. 

The Four Ages of Man. 

If happinefs my fordidnefs hath found, 

? Twas in the Crop of my manured ground. 

My thriving Cattle and my new-milch-Cow, 

My fleeced Sheep, and fruitful farrowing Sow: w 

To greater things I never did afpire, 

My dunghil thoughts or hopes could reach no higher. 

If to be rich or great it was my fate, 

How was I broyl d with envy and with hate? 

Greater then was the great ft was my deiire, 

And thirft for honour, fet my heart on fire : * 

And by Ambition s y fails I was fo carried, 

That over Flats and fands, and Rocks I hurried, 

Oppreft and funk, and ftav d z all in my way 

That did oppofe me, to my longed Bay. 

My thirft was higher then nobility, 

I oft long d fore to tail on Royalty: 

Then Kings muft be depos d or put to flight, 

I might poflefs that Throne which was their right ;* 

There fet, I rid my felf ftraight out of hand 

Of fuch Competitors, as might in time withftand. 

> My fatted Oxe, and my exuberous Cow, 

My fleeced Ewe, and ever farr owing Sow. 
* And greater ftil, did fet my heart on fire. 

If honour was the point, to which I fteer d ; 

To run my hull upon difgrace I fear d. 
y But by ambitious. z fact. 

Instead of this and the preceding line, the first edition has, 

Whence poyfon, Piftols, and dread inftruments, 

Have been curft furtherers of mine intents. 

Nor Brothers, Nephewes, Sons, nor Sires I ve fpar d, 

When to a Monarchy, my way they barr d. 
t Of fuch as might my fon, or his withftand. 

160 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Then thought my ftate firm founded fure to laft, [54] 

But in a trice tis ruin d by a blaft, 

Though cemented with more then noble bloud, 

The bottom nought, and fo no longer Hood/ 

Sometimes vain glory is the only baite 

Whereby my empty Soul is lur d and caught. 

Be I of wit/ of learning, and of parts, 

I judge I mould have room in all mens hearts. 

And envy gnaws if any do furmount, 

I hate, not to be held in high ft account/ 

If Bias like I m ftript unto my skin, 

I glory in my wealth I have within.* 

Thus good and bad, and what I am you fee, 

Now in a word, what my difeafes be. 

The vexing Hone in bladder and in reins, 

The Strangury torments me with fore pains/ 

The windy Cholick oft my bowels rend, 

To break the darkfome prifon where it s pen d. 

The Cramp and Gout^ doth fadly torture me, 

And the reftraining, lame Sciatica. 

The Aftma, Megrim, Palfy, Lethargic, 

The quartan Ague, dropfy, Lunacy : h 

c Instead of this and the three preceding lines, the first edition has, 

Then heapt up gold, and riches as the clay; 

Which others fcatter, like the dew in May. 
d worth. e I hate for to be had, in fmall account. 

/ Torments me with intollerable paines ; 
e The knotty Gout. 
A The Quinfie, and the Feavours, oft diftafte me, 

And the Confumption, to the bones doth wafte me; 
* "Omnia mea porto mecum." BIAS, afud Cic. Parad. I. i. 8. 

The Four Ages of Man. 161 

Subject to all diilempers (that s the truth) 
Though fome more incident, to Age or Youth. 
And to conclude, I may not tedious be, 
Man at his bed eftate is vanity. 

Old Age. 

"\ T 7HAT you have been, ev n fuch have I before: 

* * And all you fay, fay I, and fomewhat more. 
Babes innocence, youths wildnefs I have feen, [55] 
And in perplexed middle Age have been: 
Sicknefs, dangers, and anxieties have paft, 
And on this ftage am come to a6t my laft. 
I have been young, and ftrong, and wife as you : 
But now Bis pueri fenes, is too true. 
In every Age I ve found much vanity, 
An end of all perfection now I fee. 
It s not my valour, honour, nor my gold, 
My ruin d houfe now falling can uphold. 
It s not my learning Rhetorick wit fo large, 
Hath now the power, death s warfare to difcharge. 
It s not my goodly fbate/ nor bed of downe 
That can refrefh, or eafe, if Confcience frown. 
Nor from Alliance can I now have hope, 
But what I have done well, that is my prop; 

Difeafes. J houfe. 


1 62 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

He that in youth is godly, wife and fage, 

Provides a ftaff then to fupport his Age. 

Mutations great, fome joyful and fome fad, 

In this fhort pilgrimage I oft have had. 

Sometimes the Heavens with plenty fmiFd on me 

Sometime again rain d all Adverfity. 

Sometimes in honour, fometimes in difgrace, 

Sometime an Abject, then again in place. 

Such private changes oft mine eyes have feen, 

In various times of fbate I ve alfo been. 

I ve feen a Kingdome flourifh like a tree, 

When it was rul d by that Celefttal me ;* 

And like a Cedar, others fo furmount: 

That but for fhrubs they did themfelves account. 

Then faw I France and Holland, fav d Cales won,f [56] 

And Philip and Albertus half undone. 

I faw all peace at home, terror to foes, 

But ah, I faw at laft thofe eyes to clofe, 

And then methought the day k at noon grew dark 

When it had loft that radiant Sun-like Spark: 

* Queen Elizabeth. 

f It is difficult to explain this reference unless the destruction of the Span 
ish Armada in 1588 is meant. While it was at anchor before Calais, it was 
scattered and put to flight by a successful stratagem of the English admiral. 
The Englim thus gained an advantage which they soon followed up to 
victory. It can hardly refer to the surprise of Calais in 1596, by Albert, 
Archduke of Austria, who had recently been made Governor of the Neth 
erlands by Philip II. of Spain. The various successes of Elizabeth may, 
perhaps, be said to have " half undone" Philip and Albert. 

k world. 

The Four Ages of Man. 163 

In midft of griefs I law our l hopes revive, 

(For twas our hopes then kept our hearts alive) 

We chang d our queen for king * under whofe rayes 

We joy d in many bleft and profperous dayes. 

I ve feen a Prince, the glory of our land 

In prime of youth feiz d by heavens angry hand, 

Which fil d our hearts with fears, with tears our eyes, 

Wailing his fate, & our own deftinies.f 

I ve feen from Rome an execrable thing, 

A Plot to blow up Nobles and their King, 

But faw their horrid fact foon difappointed, 

And Land & Nobles fav d with their anointed. J 

I ve Princes feen to live on others lands; 

A royal one by gifts from flrangers hands 

Admired for their magnanimity, 

Who loft a Prince-dome and a Monarchy. 

I ve feen deligns for Ree and Rochel croft, || 

And Poor Palatinate for ever loft. 

1 ibme. 

* James I. 

t Henry, Prince of Wales, died suddenly Nov. 6, 1612, in his nineteenth 
year. He was very popular, and his death was greatly lamented, espe 
cially by the more religious party, whose friend he was. 

\. Gunpowder Plot. 

The Elector Palatine Frederick V., who had married the Princess 
Elizabeth, daughter of James I., accepted the crown from the revolted states 
of Bohemia in 1619. He did not long enjoy this dangerous honor, but was 
beaten by the Austrians in the battle of Prague, Nov. 9, 1620, and was 
obliged, with his family, to take refuge in Holland. He soon after lost also 
his hereditary possessions, and passed the rest of his life as a needy exile, 
wandering from court to court. The- Reformed Religion in Bohemia fell 
with him ; an event which caused the greatest sorrow to all Protestants. 

|| Buckingham made an unsuccessful attempt to take the Isle de Rhc, in 

164 Anne Bradftreetfs Works. 

I ve feen unworthy men advanced high, 

(And better ones fuffer extremity) 

But neither favour, riches, title, State, 

Could length their dayes or once reverfe their fate 

I ve feen one ftab d,* and fome to loofe their heads f 

And others fly, ftruck both with gilt and dread. 

I ve feen and fo have you, for tis but late, [57] 

The defolation of a goodly State, 

Plotted and afted fo that none can tell, 

Who gave the counfel, but the Prince of hell, 

Three hundred thoufand ilaughtered innocents, 

By bloudy Popifh, hellilh mifcreants : 

Oh may you live, and fo you will I truft 

To fee them fwill in bloud untill they burlt.J 

I ve feen a King by force thruft from his throne, 

And an Ufurper|| fubt ly mount thereon. 

front of La Rochelle, in 1627. Instead of " Rochel" the first edition has 
" Cades" referring to the failure of a naval expedition under the command 
of Sir Edward Cecil, which sailed in October, 1625, to capture some Span 
ish treasure ships in the bay of Cadiz. 

* Buckingham. 

t The Earl of Strafford, Archbishop Laud, and Charles I. 

% Whoever has read of the massacre and inhuman atrocities connected 
with the Insurrection in Ireland in 1641 will not be surprised at the strong 
language of the author. As to the number of those killed, Hume says, 
"By some computations, those who perished by all these cruelties are sup 
posed to be a hundred and fifty or two hundred thousand : by the most 
moderate, and probably the most reasonable account, they are made to 
amount to forty thousand, if this estimation itself be not, as is usual 
in such cases, somewhat exaggerated." HISTORY OF ENGLAND, chap. 

Charles I. || Cromwell. 

The Four Ages of Man. 165 

I ve feen a ilate unmoulded, rent in twain, 
But ye may live to fee t made up again. 
I ve feen it plunder d, taxt and foak d in bloud, 
But out of evill you may fee much good. 
What are my thoughts, this is no time to fay. 
Men may more freely fpeak another day.* 

* In the first edition there is a different version of the events related in 
the passage beginning with line 3, page 163 (" We changed our queen 
for king," &c.), and ending here. It will be observed in this and many 
other places, that the author, in preparing her poems for republication, had 
regard to the political changes which had taken place. Charles II. had 
been restored, and it was necessary to be loyal or silent. 

I faw hopes dafht, our forwardneffe was fhent, 

And filenc d we, by Adi of Parliament. 

I ve feen from Rome, an execrable thing, 

A plot to blow up Nobles, and their King; 

I ve feen delignes at Ree, and Cades croft, 

And poor Palatinate for ever loft; 

I ve feen a Prince, to live on others lands, 

A Koyall one, by almes from Subjects hands, 

I ve feen bafe men, advanc d to great degree, 

And worthy ones, put to extremity : 

But not their Princes love, nor ftate fo high 

Could once reverfe, their Ihamefull deftiny. 

I ve feen one ftab d, another loofe his head ; 

And others fly their Country, through their dread. 

I ve feen, and fo have ye, for tis but late, 

The defolation, of a goodly State. 

Plotted and adted, fo that none can tell, 

Who gave the counfel, but the Prince of hell. 

I ve feen a land unmoulded with great paine. 

But yet may live, to fee t made up again : 

I ve feen it maken, rent, and foak d in blood, 

But out of troubles, ye may fee much good. 

166 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Thefe are no old-wives tales, but this is truth, 

We old men love to tell what s done in youth. 

But I return from whence I ftept awry, 

My memory is bad,** my brain is dry: 

Mine Almond tree, grey hairs, doe flourim now, 

And back once ftraight, apace begins to bow: 

My grinders now are few, my fight doth fail, 

My skin is wrinkled, and my cheeks are pale, 

No more rejoyce at muficks pleaiing noife, 

But waking glad to hear the cocks fhrill voice: n 

I cannot fcent favours of pleafant meat, 

Nor fapors find in what I drink or eat: 

My arms and hands once ftrong have loft their might 

I cannot labour, much lefs can I fight/ 

My comely legs as nimble as the Roe * [58] 

Now ftiff and numb, can hardly creep or goe, 

My heart fometimes as fierce as Lion bold, 

Now trembling is, all^ fearful fad and cold; 

My golden Bowl and filver Cord e re long 

Shall both be broke, by racking death fo ftrong: 

Then fhall I go whence I mall come no more, 

Sons, Nephews, leave my farewel q to deplore. 

In pleafures and in labours I have found 

That Earth can give no confolation found ; 

} " Ihort. 

" But do awake, at the cocks clanging vojce. 

" nor I cannot fight. P trembling, and. 

* i Chron. xii. 8; Cant. ii. 9 and 17. 

<] death for. 

The Four Ages of Man. 167 

To great to rich, to poor, to young, to old, 
To mean, to noble, fearful or to bold: 
From King to begger, all degrees mall find 
But vanity vexation of the mind. 55 
Yea, knowing much, the pleafants life of all, 
Hath yet among thofe fweets r fome bitter gall ; 
Though reading others works doth much refrem, 
Yet ftudying much brings wearinefs to th flefh : 
My ftudies, labours, readings all are done, 
And my laft period now ev n almoft run. 
Corruption my Father I do call, 
Mother and Sifters both, the worms that crawle 
In my dark houfe, fuch kindred I have flore, 
Where I mall reft till heavens fhall be no more, 
And when this flefh fhall rot and be confum d, 
This body by this Soul fhall be aflum d: 
And I fhall fee with thefe fame very eyes, 
My ftrong Redeemer coming in the Skies. 
Triumph I fhall o re lin, o re death, o re Hell, 
And in that hope I bid you all farewel. 

* Eccl. xii. 1-8. 
r that fweet. 

The Jour Seafons of [59] 
the Tear. 


\ Nother four I ve left yet to bring on, 
* * Of four times four the laft Quaternion, 
The Winter, Summer, Autumn & the Spring, 
In feafon all thefe Seafons I mall bring: 
Sweet Spring like man in his Minority, 
At prefent claim d, and had priority. 
With fmiling face and garments fomewhat green, 
She trim d her locks, which late had froiled been, 
Nor hot nor cold, me fpake, but with a breath, 

Fit to revive, the nummed earth from death/ 


* yet for. 

* Instead of this and the three preceding lines the first edition has, 

With fmiling Sun-fhine face, and garments green, 
She gently thus began, like fonie fair Queen. 

The Four Seafons. 169 

Three months (quoth fhe)* are lotted to my mare 

March, April, May of all the reft moft fair. 

Tenth of the firft, Sol into Aries enters. 

And bids defiance to all tedious winters, 

CrofTeth the Line, and equals night and day, 

(Stil adds to th laft til after pleafant May) 

And now makes glad the darkned* northern wights 

Who for fome months have feen but ftarry lights. 

Now goes the Plow-man to his merry toyle, 

He might 7 " unloofe his winter locked foyl: 

The Seeds-man too, doth lavifh out his grain, 

In hope the more he cafts, the more to gain : 

The Gardner now fuperfluous branches lops, [60] 

And poles erects for his young * clambring hops. 

Now digs then fowes his herbs, his flowers & roots 

And carefully manures his trees of fruits. 

The Pleiades their influence now give, 

And all that feem d as dead afrefh doth live. 

The croaking frogs, whom nipping winter kil d 

Like birds now chirp, and hop about the field, 

The Nightingale, the black-bird and the Thrum 

Now tune their layes, on fprayes of every bum. 

The wanton frisking Kid, and foft-fleec d Lambs 

Do^ jump and play before their feeding Dams, 

The tender tops of budding grafs they crop, 

They joy in what they have, but more in hope: 

there are. "" thofe blinded. For to. 

-* green. y Now. 

170 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

For though the froft hath loft his binding power, 

Yet many a fleece of fnow and ftormy fhower 

Doth darken Sot s bright eye, makes us remember 

The pinching North-weft wind of cold" December. 

My fecond moneth is April, green and fair, 

Of longer dayes, and a more temperate Air: 

The Sun in Taurus keeps his relidence/ 

And with his warmer beams glanceth from thence 

This is the month whofe fruitful fhowrs produces 

All fet and fown c for all delights and ufes: 

The Pear, the Plum, and Apple-tree now flourifh 

The grafs grows long the hungry beaft d to nourifh. 

The Primrofe pale, and azure violet 

Among the virduous grafs hath nature fet, 

That when the Sun on s Love (the earth) doth mine 

Thefe might as lace fet out her garment fine. 

The fearfull bird his little houfe now builds [61] 

In trees and walls, in Cities and in fields. 

The outlide ftrong, the infide warm and neat; 

A natural Artificer compleat. 

* face. Nor-weft cold, of fierce. 

* The Sun now keeps his porting refidence 

In Taurus Signe, yet hafteth ftraight from thence ; 
For though in s running progrefle he doth take 
Twelve houfes of the oblique Zodiack 
Yet never minute ftil was known to Hand, 
But only once at Jo/hucCs ftrange command ; 
c All Plants, and Flowers. d the tender Lambs. 

The Four Seafons. 1 7 1 

The clocking hen her chirping chickins* leads 
With wings & beak defends them from the gleads 
My next and laft is fruitfull pleafant May, 
Wherein the earth is clad in rich aray, 
The Sun now enters loving Gemini, 
And heats us with the glances of his eye, 
Our thicker 7 rayment makes us lay afide 
Left by his fervor we be torrifi d/ 
All flowers the Sun now with his beams difclofes/* 
Except the double pinks and matchlefs Rofes. 
Now fwarms.the bufy, witty/ honey-Bee, 
VVhofe praife deferves a page from more then me 
The cleanly Hufwifes Dary s now in th prime, 
Her fhelves and firkins fill d for winter time. 
The meads with Cowflips, Honey-fuckles dight, 
One hangs his head, the other ftands upright: 
But both rejoyce at th heavens clear fmiling face, 
More at her fhowers, which water them a fpace. 
For fruits my Seafon yields the early Cherry, 
The hafty Peas, and wholfome cooP Strawberry. 
More folid fruits require a longer time, 
Each Seafon hath his fruit, fo hath each Clime: 
Each man his own peculiar excellence, 
But none in all that hath preheminence. 

e chipping brood now. 

/ Winter. g terrifi d. 

* All flowers before the fun-beames now dileloies, 

* buzzing. j red. 

172 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Sweet fragrant Spring, with thy fhort pittance fly* 
Let fome defcribe thee better then can I. 
Yet above all this priviledg is thine, [62 | 

Thy dayes ftill lengthen without leaft decline : 


T T 7HEN Spring had done, the Summer did 7 begin, 

With melted tauny face, and garments thin, 
Refembling Fire, Choler, and Middle age, 
As Spring did Air, Blood, Youth in s equipage. 
Wiping the fweat from of her face that ran, 
With hair all wet (he puffing thus began; 
Bright June, July and Auguft hot are mine, 
In th firft Sol doth in crabbed Cancer mine. 
His progrefs to the North now s fully done, 
Then retrograde muft be" my burning Sun, 
Who to his fouthward Tropick ftill is bent, 
Yet doth his parching heat but more augment 
Though he decline, becaufe his flames fo fair, 
Have throughly dry d the earth, and heat the air." 

k Instead of this and the following line, the first edition has, 
Some fubject, mallow braines, much matter yeelds, 
Sometime a theame that * large, proves barren fields. 
Melodious Spring, with thy mort pittance rlye, 
In this harlh ftrain, I find no melody, 

1 mutt. m brow. now is. 

<> The reafon why, becaufe his flames fo faire. 
Hath formerly much heat, the earth and a ire. 

The Four Seafons. 173 

Like as an Oven that long time hath been heat. 
Whole vehemency at length doth grow fo great, 
That if you do withdraw^ her burning ftore, 
Tis ? for a time as fervent as before. 
Now go thofe frolick Swains, the Shepherd Lads 
To warn the"" thick cloth d flocks with pipes full glad 
In the cool ftreams they labour with delight 
Rubbing their dirty coats till they look white : 
Whofe fleece when finely* fpun and deeply dy d 
With Robes thereof Kings have been dignifi d. 
Bleft ruflick Swains, your pleafant quiet life, [63] 
Hath envy bred in Kings that were at ftrife/ 
Carelefs of worldly wealth you fing" and pipe, 
Whilft they r imbroyPd in wars & troubles rife: u 
Which made great Bajazet cry out in s woes, 
Oh happy fhepherd which hath not to lofe. 
Orthobulus, nor yet Sebaftia great, 
But whift leth to thy flock in cold and heat* 

/ remove. 9 She s. * their. s purely. 

t Instead of this and the preceding line, the first edition has, 
Mongft all je fhepheards never but one man, 
Was like that noble, brave Archadian. 
Yet hath your life, made kings the fame envy, 
Though you repofe on graffe under the skye. 
lit. v ripe. 

* " Moft of the Latine hiftories report, that when Tamerlane had taken 
SEBASTIA, hee put all the men to the fword, and bringing the women and 
children into the fields without the citie, there ouer-ran them with his 
horfemen, excepting fome few which were referued for prifoners. As alfo 
that Baiazct there loft his eldeft fonne Erthogrul (of fome called Ortho- 
bules) whole death with the lolle of the citie fo much grieued him (as is 

174 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Viewing the Sun by day, the Moon by night 

EndimwnS) Dianaes dear delight, 

Upon the grafs refting your healthy limbs, 

By purling Brooks looking how fifties fwims. 

If pride within your lowly Cells ere haunt, 

Of him that was Shepherd then King go vaunt.* 

This moneth the Rofes are diftil d in glafles, 

VVhofe fragrant fmel all made perfumes furpalTes 

The Cherry, Goofeberry are now in th prime, 

And for all forts of Peafe, this is the time. 

July my next, the hott ft in all the year, 

The fun through Leo now takes * his Career, 

VVhofe flaming breath doth melt us from afar, 

Increafed by the ftar Canicular. 

This Month from Julius Ccefar took its name, 

By Romans celebrated to his fame. 

Now go the Mowers to their flaming toyle, 

The Meadowes of their riches^ to difpoyle, 

reported) that marching with his great armie againft Tamerlane, and by 
the way hearing a country Ihepheard merrily repoling himfelf with his 
homely pipe, as he fat vpon the fide of a mountaine feeding his poore 
flock; ftanding ftill a great while liftening vnto him, to the great admira 
tion of many, at laft fetching a deepe figh, brake forth in thefe words : O 
happie fhepheard, which haddeft neither Orthobules nor SEBASTIA to loofe : 
bewraying therein his owne difcontentment, and j r et withal mewing, That 
worldly blifle confifteth not fo much in poflefling of much, fubject vnto 
danger, as joying a little contentment deuoid of feare." THE GENERALL 
1610. p. 216. Bajazet I. became Sultan of the Turks in 1389, and died 
in 1403. 

* This and the three preceding lines are not in the first edition. 

w fcent. x hath. y burden. 

The Four Seafons. 175 

With weary ftrokes, they take all in their way, 
Bearing the burning heat of the long day. 
The forks and Rakes do follow them amain. 
Which makes the aged fields look young again. 
The groaning Carts do bear away this prize. [64 | 
To Stacks and Barns where it for Fodder lyes. 
My next and laft is Auguft fiery hot 
(For much, the South-ward Sun abateth not) 
This Moneth he keeps with Virgo for a fpace, 
The dryed Earth is parched with his face. 
Auguft of great Auguftus took its name, 
Romes fecond Emperour of lafting* fame, 
With fickles now the bending* Reapers goe 
The ruffling trefs of terra down to mowe; 
And bundles up in fheaves, the weighty wheat, 
Which after Manchet makes 3 for Kings to eat: 
The Barly, Rye and Peafe mould firft had place, 
Although their bread have not fo white a face. 
The Carter leads all home with whiftling voyce, 
He plow d with pain, but reaping doth rejoyce ; 
His fweat, his toyle, his careful wakeful nights, 
His fruitful Crop abundantly requites. 
Now s ripe the Pear, Pear-plumb, and Apricock, 
The prince of plumbs, whofe ftone s as hard as Rock 
The Summer feems but fhort, the Autumn hafts d 
To make his fruits, of moft delicious tafts 

z peaceful. painful. 

* made. c The Barley, and the Rye. 

d The Summer s fhort, the beauteous Autumne haftes. 

176 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Like good old Age, whofe younger juicy Roots 
Hath ftill afcended, to bear goodly fruits. 
Until his head be gray, and ftrength be gone. 
Yet then appears the worthy deeds he th done : 
To feed his boughs exhaufhed hath his lap, 
Then drops his fruits into the eaters lap. 

Autumn. [65] 

Autumn moneths September is the prime, 
Now day and night are equal in each Clime, 
The twelfth 7 of this Sol rifeth in the Line, 
And doth in poizing Libra this month mine. 
The vintage now is ripe, the grapes are preft, 
Whofe lively liquor oft is curf d and blefb: 
For nought fo good, but it may be abufed, 
But its a precious juice when well its ufed. 
The raifins now in clufters dryed be, 
The Orange, Lemon dangle on the tree: 
The Pomegranate, the Fig are ripe alfo, 
And Apples now their yellow fides do mow. 
Of Almonds,^ Quinces, Wardens, and of Peach, 
The feafon s now at hand of all and each. 


Sure at this time, time firft of all began, 
And in this moneth was made apofbate Man: 

up in. / tenth, f Of Medlar. 

The Four Seafons. 177 

For then in Eden was not only feen, 

Boughs full of leaves, or fruits unripe or* green, 

Or withered flocks, which were all dry and dead, 

But trees with goodly fruits replenifhed; 

Which fhews nor Summer, Winter nor the Spring 

Our Grand-Sire y was of Paradice made King: 

Nor could that temp rate Clime fuch difference make, 

If fcited as the mofl Judicious take/ 

October is my next, we hear in this 

The Northern winter-blafls begin to hifs. 

In Scorpio refideth now the Sun, [66] 

And his declining heat is almofl done. 

The fruitlefs / Trees all withered now do fland, 

Whofe faplefs yellow leavs, by winds are fan d, 

Which notes when youth and ftrength have pafl their 


Decrepit age mufl alfo have its time. 
The Sap doth flily creep towards the Earth 
There refls, until the Sun give it a birth. 
So doth old Age ftill tend unto his grave, 
Where alfo he his winter time mufl have; 
But when the Sun of righteoufnefs draws nigh, 
His dead old flock, fhall mount again on high. 
November is my lafl, for Time doth hafle, 
We now of winters fharpnefs gins to tafl. 

h but raw, and. " which were" is not in the first edition. 

J Great Adam. k These two lines are not in the first edition. 

1 fruitful. 

178 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

This moneth the Sun s in Sagitarius, 

So farre remote, his glances warm not us. 

Altnoft at fhorteft is the fhorten d day, 

The Northern pole beholdeth not one ray. 

Now Greenland, Groanland^* Finland \ Lapland, fee 

No Sun, to lighten their obfcurity: 

Poor wretches that in total darknefs lye, 

With minds more dark then is the darkened Sky." 

Beaf, Brawn, and Pork are now in great requeft, 

And folid meats our ilomacks can digeft. 

This time warm cloaths, full diet, and good fires, 

Our pinched flelh, and hungry mawes* requires: 

Old, cold, dry Age and Earth Autumn refembles, 

And Melancholy which moft of all diflembles. 

I muft be fhort, and fhorts, the fhort ned day, 

What winter hath to tell, now let him fay. 

Winter. [67] 

, moift, young flegmy winter now doth lye 
In fwadling Clouts, like new born Infancy 
Bound up with frofts, and furr d with hail & fnows, 
And like an Infant, ftill it" taller grows; 

* Groen-land [or Gronland, Dan. } in the first edition. 

** After this the first edition has, 

This month is timber for all ufes fell d, 

When cold, the fap to th roots hath low fl repell d ; 

empty panch. o he. 

The Four Seafons. 179 

December is my firft, and now the Sun 

To th Southward Tropick, his fwift race doth * run: 

This moneth he s hous d in horned Capricorn, 

From thence he gins to length the fhortned morn, 

Through Chriftendome with great Feafbivity, 

Now s held, (but gheft) for bleft* Nativity. 

Cold frozen January next comes in, 

Chilling the blood and fhrinking up the skin; 

In Aquarius now keeps the long wifhf Sun, 

And Northward his unwearied Courfe* doth run: 

The day much longer then it was before, 

The cold not leflened, but augmented more. 

Now Toes and Ears, and Fingers often freeze, 

And Travellers their nofes fometimes leefe. 

Moift fnowie February is my laft, 

I care not how the winter time doth hafte. 

In Pifces now the golden Sun doth mine, 

And Northward flill approaches to the Line, 

The Rivers gin to ope, the fnows to melt, 

And fome warm glances from his face are felt; 

Which is increafed by the lengthen d day, 

Until by s heat, he drive all cold away, 

And thus the year in Circle runneth round: [68] 

Where firft it did begin, in th end its found." 

/ hath. g a Gueft, (but bleft). r the loved. 

J race. * the Sun. 

u These two lines are not in the first edition. 

180 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

My Subjects bare, my Brain is bad. 
Or better Lines you Jhould have had : 
The firft fell in fo naf rally, 
I knew not how to pafs it by\ v 
The laft, though bad I could not mend, 
Accept therefore of -what is petfd, 
And all the faults that you Jhall fpy 
Shall at your feet for pardon cry.* 

v I could not tell how to paffe t by. 
* This is signed in the first edition, 

Your dutifull Daughter. 

A. B. 

The four Monarchyes, [6 9 ] 
the AJJyrian being the firft, 

beginning under Nimrod, 131. Years 
after the Flood, 

T \ 7Hen time was young, & World in Infancy, 

Man did not proudly ftrive for Soveraignty 
But each one thought his petty Rule was high, 
If of his houfe he held the Monarchy. 
This was the golden Age, but after came 
The boifterous fon of Chus* Grand-Child to Ham, 
That mighty Hunter, who in his ftrong toyles 
Both Beafts and Men fubje6ted to his fpoyles : 
The ftrong foundation of proud Babel laid, 
Erech, Accad, and Culneh alfo made. 
Thefe were his firft, all flood in Shinar land, 
From thence he went Affyria to command, 
And mighty Niniveh, he there begun, 
Not finifhed till he his race had run. 

" Proudly" is not in the first edition. 

x Sons of Cufli. 

1 82 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Refen, Caleh, and Rehoboth likewife 

By him to Cities eminent did rife. 

Of Saturn, he was the Original, [70] 

Whom the fucceeding times a God did call, 

When thus with rule, he had been dignifi d, 

One hundred fourteen years he after dy d. 


REAT Nimrod dead, Belus the next his Son 

Confirms the rule, his Father had begun ; 
Whofe ats and power is not for certainty 
Left to the world, by any Hiftory. 
But yet this blot for ever on him lies, 
He taught the people firft to Idolize : 
Titles Divine he to himfelf did take, 
Alive and dead, a God they did him make. 
This is that Bel the Chaldees worfhiped, 
Whofe Priefts in Stories oft are mentioned; 
This is that Baal to whom the Ifraelites 
So oft profanely offered facred Rites : 
This is Beelzebub God of Ekronites, 
Likewife Baalpeor of the Mohabites, 
His reign was fhort, for as I calculate, 
At twenty five ended his Regal date. 

Th e Four Mon a rch ies. 1 8 3 


T TIS Father dead, Ninus begins his reign, 

-* -* Transfers his feat to the Affyrian plain ; 

And mighty Nineveh more mighty made, 

Whofe Foundation was by his Grand-fire laid: 

Four hundred forty Furlongs wall d about, 

On which flood fifteen hundred Towers flout. 

The walls one hundred fixty foot upright, [71] 

So broad three Chariots run abrefl there might. 

Upon the pleafant banks of Tygris floud 

This flately Seat of warlike Ninus flood: 

This Ninus for a God his Father canonized, 

To whom the fottifh people facrificed. 

This Tyrant did his Neighbours all opprefs, 

Where e re he warr d he had too good fuccefs. 

Barzanes the great Armenian King 

By force and fraud did under Tribute bring.^ 

The Median Country he did alfo gain, 

Thermits 2 their King he caufed to be flain; 

An Army of three millions he led out 

Againfl the Battrians (but that I doubt) 

Zoreafter their King he likewife flew, 

And all the greater Afea did fubdue. 

Semiramis from Menon did he take 

Then drown d himfelf, did Menon for her fake. 

Fifty two years he reign d, (as we are told) 

The world then was two thoufand nineteen old. 

v By force, his tributary, he did bring. * Pharmus. 

Anne Bradjl reefs Works. 

Semi ram is. 

THHIS great oppreffing Ninus, dead and gone, 
His wife Semiramis ufurp d the Throne; 
She like a brave Virago played the Rex 
And was both lhame and glory of her Sex: 
Her birth place was Philiflines Afcolanf 

Her mother Dorceta b a Curtizan. 

. " . . 

Others report fhe was a veftal Nun, 

Adjudged to be drown d for th crime c fhe d done. 

Tranfform d into a Fifh by Venus will, [72] 

Her beauteous face, (they feign) reteining Hill. 

Sure from this Fiction Dagon firft began, 

Changing the d womans face into a man : 

But all agree that from no lawfull bed, 

This great renowned Emprefs iffued: 

For which fhe was obfcurely nourifhed, 

Whence rofe that Fable, fhe by birds was fed. 

This gallant Dame unto the Ba&rian warre, 

Accompanying her husband Menon farr, 

Taking a town, fuch valour fhe did mow, 

That Ninus amorous of her foon did grow. 

And thought her fit to make a Monarchs wife, 

Which was the caufe poor Menon loft his life : 

She flourifhing with Ninus long did reign, 

Till her Ambition caus d him to be flain. 

Philtjlrius Afcalon. * Docreta. 

f for what. d his. 

The Four Monarchies. i8c; 

That having no Compeer, fhe might rule all, 

Or elfe fhe fought revenge for Menotfs fall. 

Some think the Greeks this ilander on her caft, 

As on her life Licentious, and unchaft, 

That undeferv d, they blur d her name and fame 

By 7 their afperfions, caft upon the fame: 

But were her virtues more or lefs, or none, 

She for her potency muft go alone. 

Her wealth fhe fhew d in building Babylon, 

Admir d of all, but equalized of none; 

The Walls fo ftrong, and curioufly was^ wrought, 

That after Ages, Skill by them was^ taught: 

With Towers and Bulwarks made of coftly ftone, 

Quadrangle was the form it flood upon. 

Each Square was fifteen thoufand paces long, [73] 

An hundred gates it had of mettal ftrong: 

Three hundred fixty foot the walls in height, 

Almoft incredible, they were in breadth 

Some* writers fay, fix Chariots might affront 

With great facility, march fafe upon t: 

About the Wall a ditch fo deep and wide, 

That like a River long it did abide. 

Three hundred thoufand men here day by day 

Beftow d their labour, and receiv d their pay. 

And that which did all coft and Art excell, 

The wondrous Temple was, fhe rear d to Bell : 

f And that her worth, deferved no fuch blame. 
/ As. g were. h Mo ft. 


1 86 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Which in the midft of this brave Town was plac d, 

Continuing till Xerxes it defac d: 

Whofe ftately top above the Clouds did rife, 

From whence Aftrologers oft view d the Skies. 

This to defcribe in each particular, 

A ftru6lure rare I fhould but rudely marre. 

Her Gardens, Bridges, Arches, mounts and fpires 

All eyes that faw, or Ears that hear admires, 

In Shinar plain on the Euphratian flood 

This wonder of the world, this Babel flood. 

An expedition to the Eaft me made 

Staurobates, his Country to invade: 7 

Her Army of four millions did confift, 

Each may believe it as his fancy lift. 

Her Camels, Chariots, Gallyes in fuch number, 

As puzzles beft Hiftorians to remember; 

But this is wonderful,^ of all thofe men, 

They fay, but twenty e re came back agen. 

The River Judas 1 fwept them half away, [74] 

The reft Staurobates in fight did flay; 

This was laft progrefs of this mighty Queen, 

Who in her Country never more was feen. 

The Poets feign d her turn d into a Dove, 

Leaving the world to Venus foar d above : 

Which made the Affyrians many a day, 

A Dove within their Enfigns to difplay: 

Forty two years fhe reign d, and then fhe di d 

But by what means we are not certifi d. 

* beyond. Great King Staurobates, for to invade. 

k marvelous. / Indus. 

Th e Fo u r Mo n a rch ies. i <S 7 

Ninias or Zamies. 

T TIS Mother dead, Ninias obtains his right, 

* * A Prince wedded to eafe and to delight, 

Or elfe was his obedience very great, 

To fit thus long (obfcure) rob d of his Seat. 

Some write his Mother put his habit on, 

Which made the people think they ferv d her Son: 

But much it is, in more then forty years 

This fraud in war nor peace at all appears: 

More like it is his luft * with pleafures fed, 

He fought no rule till me was gone and dead. 

What then he did of worth can no man tell, 

But is fuppofd to be that Amraphel 

Who warr d with Sodoms and Gomorrahs King, 

Gainft whom his trained bands Abram did bring, 

But this is farre unlike, he being Son* 

Unto a Father, that all Countryes won 

I wrong d. ft being. 

Instead of this and the nine lines following, the first edition has, 
Some may object, his Parents ruling all, 
How he thus fuddenlj mould be thus fmall ? 
This anfwer may fumce, whom it wil pleale, 
He thus voluptuous, and given to eafe ; 
Each wronged Prince, or childe that did remain, 
Would now advantage take, their own to gain ; 
So Province, after Province, rent away, 
Until that Potent Empire did decay. 
Again, the Country was left bare (there is no doubt) 
Of men, and wealth, his mother carried out : 
Which to her neighbors, when it was made known. 
Did then incite, them to regain their own. 

1 88 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

So fuddenly fhould loofe fo great a ftate, 

With petty Kings to joyne Confederate. 

Nor canthofe Reafons which wife Raileih* finds, [75] 

Well fatisfie the moft conliderate minds : 

We may with learned VJJier* better fay, 

He many Ages liv d after that day. 

And that Semiramis then flourifhed 

When famous Troy was fo beleaguered : 

What e re he was, or" did, or how it fell, 

We may fuggeft our thoughts but cannot tell. 

For Ninias and all his race are left 

In deep oblivion, of a6ls bereft: 

And many^ hundred years in filence fit, 

Save a few Names a new Berofus^ writ. 

And fuch as care not what befalls their fames, 

May feign as many a6ls as he did Names; 

It may fuffice/ if all be true that s paft. 

T Sardanapalas next, we will make hafte. 

* See Introduction. 

they. / eleav n. q It is enough. 

f See Raleigh s " Hiftory of the World," Bk. I. ch. 8, sec. 5, and Bk. II. 
ch. i, sec. i. "The work entitled Berojt Antiquitatum libri quinque cum 
Commentariis Joannis Annii, which appeared at Rome in 1498, fol., and 
was afterwards often reprinted and even translated into Italian, is one of 
the many fabrications of Giovanni Nanni, a Dominican monk of Viterbo, 
better known under the name of Annius of Viterbo, who died in 1502." 
SMITH S "Dictionary of Greek and, Roman Biography and Mythology." 

The writings of the real Berosus exist only in a fragmentary condition, 
as quoted by Josephus and other authors. See page [182.] 

The Four Monarchies. 189 

Sardanap a las 

ARDANAPALAS, Son to Ocrazapes, 
Who wallowed in all voluptuoufnefs, 
That palliardizing fot that out of dores, 
Ne re fhew d his face but revell d with his whores 
Did wear their garbs, their geftures imitate, 
And in their kind, t excel did emulate. 
His bafenefs knowing, and the peoples hate 
Kept clofe, fearing his well deferved fate ; r 
It chanc d* Arbaces brave unwarily, 
His Matter like a Strumpet clad did* fpye. 
His manly heart difdained (in the leafb) 
Longer to ferve this Metamorphos d Beaft; 
Unto Belofus then he brake his mind, [76] 

Who lick of his difeafe, he foon did find 
Thefe two, rul d Media and Babilon 
Both for their King, held their Dominion; 
Belofus promifed Arbaces aid, 
Arbaces him fully to be repayd. 
The laft: The Medes and Per/tans do invite 
Againfl their monftrous King, to ufe u their might. 
Belofus, the Chaldeans doth require 
And the Arabians, to further his delire: 

r Kept ever dole, fearing fome difmul late. 

* At laft. t chanc d to. bring. 

190 Anne Bradftreet * s Works. 

Thefe all agree, and forty thoufand make 

The Rule, from their unworthy Prince to take: 7 

Thefe Forces muftered. and in array 

Sardanapalus leaves his Apifh play. 

And though of wars, he did abhor the light; 

Fear of his diadem did force him fight: 

And either by his valour, or his fate, 

Arbaces Courage he did fo w abate; 

That in difpair, he left the Field and fled, 

But with frefh hopes Belofus fuccoured, 

From Baftria, an Army was at hand 

Preft for this Service by the Kings Command: 

Thefe with celerity Arbaces meet/ 

And with all Terms of amity them greets 

With 3 promifes their necks now to unyoke, 

And their Taxations fore all to revoke; 

T infranchife them, to grant what they could crave, 

No priviledge to want, Subjects mould have, 

Only intreats them, to joyn their Force with his, 

And win the Crown, which was the way to blifs. 

Won by his loving looks, more by his" fpeech, [77] 

T accept of what they could, they all 3 befeech: 

Both fides their hearts their hands, & bands unite, 

And fet upon their Princes Camp that night; . 

7 After this the first edition has, 

By prophefie, Belofus ftrength s their hands. 
Arbaces muft be mafter of their lands. 

fore. x meets. y he greets. 

~ Makes. more loving. I him. 

The Four Monarchies. 


Who revelling in Cups, fung care away, 

For victory obtained the other day: 

And now c furprif d, by this unlookt for fright, 

Bereft of wits, were flaughtered down right. 

The King his brother leavs, all to fuftain, 

And fpeeds himfelf to Niniveh amain. 

But Salmeneus flain, the Army falls ; 

The King s purfu d unto the City Walls, 

But he once in, purfuers came to late, 

The Walls and Gates their hafH did terminate, 

There with all ftore he was fo well provided: 

That what Arbaces did, was but derided: 

Who there incamp d, two years for little end, 

But in the third, the River prov d his friend, 

For by the rain, was Tygris fo o reflown, 

Part of that ftately Wall was overthrown/ 

Arbaces marches in the Town he takes, 

For few or none (it feems) / refiftance makes: 

And now they faw fulfil d a Prophefy, 

That when the River prov d their Enemy, 

Their flrong wal d Town mould fuddenly be taken 

By this accomplifhment, their hearts were lhaken. 

Sardanapalas did not feek to fly, 

This his inevitable deftiny; 

But all his wealth and friends together gets, 

Then on himfelf, and them a fire he fets. 

c But all. d courfe. 

e Which through much rain, then fwelling up fo high, 

Part of the wal it level cauf d to lye. 
/ did there. 

192 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

This was laft Monarch of great Ninus race 

That for twelve hundred years had held the place ; 

Twenty he reign d fame time, as Stories tell, 

That Amaziah was King of Ifrael. 

His Father was then King (as we fuppofe) 

When Jonah for their fins denounc d thofe woes. 

He did repent, the threatning^ was not done, 

But now accomplifh d in his wicked Son/ 

Arbaces thus of all becoming Lord, 

Ingenioufly with all did keep his word. 

Of Babylon Belofus he made King, 

With overplus of all the wealth therein. 

To BaElrians he gave their liberty, 

Of Ninivites he caufed none to dye. 

But fuffer d with their goods, to go elfe where, 

Not granting them now 7 to inhabit there : 

For he demolifhed that City great, 

And unto Media transfer d his Seat. 

Such was his promife which he firmly made, 

To Medes and Per/tans when he crav d their aid : 

A while he and his race afide mull Hand, 

Not pertinent to what we have in hand; 

And Belochus in s progeny purfue, 

Who did this Monarchy begin anew. 

g therefore it. h But was accomplifhed now, in his Son. 

* treafures. j Yet would not let them. 

* Thus was the promife bound, lince firft he crav d. 
Of Medes, and Per/tans, their affifting aide: 

The Four Monarchies. 193 

Belofus or Belochus. 

"Q ELOSUS fetled in his new old Seat, 


Not fo content but aiming to be great, 

Incroaching ftill upon the bordering lands, 

Till Mefopotamia he got in s hands. 

And either by compound or elfe by ftrength, [79] 

AJfyria he gain d alfo at length; 

Then did rebuild, deftroyed Nineveh, 

A coftly work which none could do but he, 

Who own d the Treafures of proud Babylon, 

And thofe that feem d with SnrdanapaPs gone; 

For though his Palace did in afhes lye, 

The fire thofe Mettals could not damnific; 

From 7 thefe with diligence he rakes, 

Arbaces fuffers all, and all he takes, 

He thus inricht by this new tryed gold. 

Raifes a Phaenix new, from grave o th old; 

And from this heap did after Ages fee 

As fair a Town, as the firft Niniveh. 

When this was built, and matters all in peace 

Molefts poor Ifrael, his wealth t increafe. 

A thoufand Talents of Menahem had, 

(Who to be rid of fuch a gueft was glad;) 

In facrid writ he s known by name of Pul, 

Which makes the world of difference fo full. 

From rubbilh. 

194 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

That he and Belochus could not one be, 

But Circumftance doth prove the verity; 

And times of both computed fo fall out, 

That thefe two made but one, we need not doubt 

What elfe he did, his Empire to advance, 

To reft content we muft, in ignorance. 

Forty eight years he reign d, his race then run, 

He left his new got Kingdome to his Son. 

Tiglath Pulafsar. [80] 

T3ELOSUS dead, Tiglath his warlike Son, 

"*-^ Next treads thofe fteps, by which his Father won ; 

Damafcus ancient Seat, of famous Kings 

Under fubje&ion, by his Sword he brings. 

Rejln their valiant King he alfo flew, 

And Syria t obedience did fubdue. 

Judas bad King occalioned this war, 

When Rejins force his Borders fore did marre, 

And divers Cities by ftrong hand did feaze: 

To Tiglath then, doth Ahaz fend for eafe, 

The Temple robs, fo to fulfil his ends, 

And to Affyricts King a prefent fends. 

I am thy Servant and thy Son, (quoth he) 

From Rejin, and from Pekah fet me free, . 

The Fo u r Mo n a rch ies. 1 9 1; 

Gladly doth Tiglath this advantage take, 

And fuccours Ahaz, yet for Tiglath^ fake. 

Then Rejln {lain, his Army overthrown, 

He Syria makes a Province of his own. 

Unto Damafcus then comes Judafts King, 

His humble thankfulnefs (in hafte) to bring, 

Acknowledging th Affyrians high defert, 

To whom he ought all loyalty of heart. 

But Tiglath having gain d his wifhed end, 

Proves unto Ahaz but a feigned friend; 

All Ifraels lands beyond Jordan he takes, 

In Galilee he woful havock makes. 

Through Syria now he march d none ftopt his way, 

And Ahaz open at his mercy lay; 

Who Hill implor d his love, but was diftreft; [81] 

This was that Ahaz, who fo high tranf greft: * 

Thus Tiglath reign d, & warr d twenty feven years 

Then by his death releas d was Ifraels fears. 

Salmanaffar or Nabanajfar. 

npIGLATH deceased, SalmanaJ/ar was next, 
He Ifraelites, more then his Father vext; 
Hojhea their laft King he did invade, 
And him fix years his Tributary made ; 

* much. * 2 Chron. xxviii. 22. 

196 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

But weary of his fervitude, he fought 

To Egypts King, which did avail him nought; 

For Salmanaffar with a mighty Holt, 

Belieg d his Regal Town, and fpoyPd his Coalt, 

And did the people, nobles, and their King, 

Into perpetual thraldome that time bring; 

Thofe that from Jolhuah s time had been a Hate," 

Did Jultice now by him eradicate: [10 years. 

This was that ftrange, degenerated brood, 

On whom, nor threats, nor mercies could do good; 

Laden with honour, prifoners, and with fpoyle, 

Returns triumphant Victor to his foyle; 

He placed Ifrael there/ where he thought bell, 

Then fent his Colonies, theirs to invert; 

Thus Jacobs Sons in Exile muft remain, 

And pleafant Canaan never faw agaiu: 

Where now thofe ten Tribes are, can no man tell, 

Or how they fare, rich, poor, or ill, or well; 

Whether the Indians of the Ealt, or Welt, 

Or wild Tartarians, as yet ne re blelt, 

Or elfe thofe Chinoes rare, whofe wealth & arts [82] 

Hath bred more wonder then belief in hearts : 

But what, or where they are; yet know we this, 

They mall return, and Zion fee with blifs. 

* been Eftate. . o Plac d Ifrael in s Land, 

The Four Monarchies. 197 


ENACHERIB Salmanaffer fucceeds, 

Whofe haughty heart is fhowne in words p & deeds 
His wars, none better then himfelf can boaft, 
On Henah, Arpad, and on Juahs coaft; 
On Hevahs and on Shepharvaims gods, q 
Twixt them and Ifraels he knew no odds, * [7 years. 
Untill the thundring hand of heaven he felt, 
Which made his Army into nothing melt: 
With ihame then turn d to Ninive again, 
And by his fons in s Idols houfe was flain. 


T TIS Son, weak Effarkaddon reign d in s place, 

* * The fifth, and laft of great Bellofus race. 

Brave Merodach, the Son of Baladan, 

In Babylon Lieftenant to this man 

Of opportunity advantage takes, 

And on his Maflers ruines his houfe makes, 

As Belofus his Soveraign ** did enthrone, 

So he s now flil d the King of Babilon. 

After twelve years did EJfarhaddon dye, 

And Merodach affume the Monarchy. 

/ works. <7 Ivah leaft: 

r firft, his. On Hetia s, and on Sefi/iarttaim s gods. 

* In the first edition. 

198 Anne Bradftreef 1 s Works. 

Merodach Balladan. [83] 

A LL yield to him, but Niniveh kept free, 
-* Untill his Grand-child made her bow the knee. 
Ambafiadors to Hezekiah fent, * [21 years. 

His health congratulates with complement. 

Ben Merodach. 

T3 EN MERODACH Succeffor to this King, 
-*^* Of whom is little faid in any thing, * [22 years. 
But by conjecture this, and none but he 
Led King ManaJ/ek to Captivity. 


T) RAVE Nebulajfar to this King was fon, 

-*~^ The famous J Ninivek by him was won, 

For fifty years, or more, it had been free, 

Now yields her neck unto captivity: * [12 years. 

ancient. * In the first edition. 

The Four Monarchies. 199 

A Vice-Roy from her foe Ihe s glad to accept, 
By whom in firm obedience Ihe is kept. 
This King s lefs fam d for all the ats he s done, 
Then being Father to fo great a Son/ 

Nebuchadnezzar, or Nebopolaffar. 

T^HE famous a6ls * of this heroick King 

Did neither Homer, Hejiod, Virgil ling: 
Nor of his Wars v have we the certainty 
From fome Thucidides grave hiftory; 
Nor s Metamorphoiis from Ovids book, 
Nor his reltoriag from old Legends took: 
But by the Prophets, Pen-men moll divine, 
This prince in s magnitude doth ever mine: 
This was of Monarchyes that head of gold, 
The richeft and the dread fulleft to behold: 
This was that tree whofe branches fill d the earth, 
Under whofe fhadow birds and beafts had birth: 
This was that king of kings, did what he pleas d, 
Kil d, fav d, pul d down, fet up, or pain d or eas d; 
And this was he, who when he fear d the leaft 
Was changed w from a King into a bead.* 

: - 

* These two lines are not in the first edition. 
Wars. v a6ts. * turned. 

* Dan. ii. 32, 37, 38; iv. 10-12, 33. 

2oo Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

This Prince the laft year of his fathers reign 

Againft Jehojakim marcht with his train, 

Judahs poor King befieg d and fuccourlefs 

Yields to his mercy, and the prefent ftrefs; 

His Vaflal is, gives pledges for his truth, 

Children of royal blood, unblemifh d youth: 

Wife Daniel and his fellowes, mongft the reft, 

By the victorious king to BabePs preft: 

The Temple of rich ornaments defac d, 

And in his Idols houfe the vefTels-* plac d. 

The next year he with unrefifted hand 

Quite vanquifh d Pharaoh Necho with his band : 

By great Euphrates did his army fall, 

Which was the lofs of Syria withall. 

Then into Egypt Necho did retire, 

Which in few years proves the AJJirians hire. 

A mighty army next he doth prepare, 

And unto wealthy Tyre in haft repair. 

Such was the fcituation of this place, 

As might not him, but all the world out-face, 

That in her pride me knew not which to boaft [85] 

Whether her wealth, or yet her ftrength was moft 

How in all merchandize me did excel, 

None but the true Ezekiel need to tell. 

And for her ftrength, how hard me was to gain, 

Can Babels tired fouldiers tell with pain. 

Within an Ifland had this city feat, 

Divided from the Main by channel great: 

^ Vaffal s. 

The Four Monarchies. 


Of coftly fhips and Gallyes fhe had flore, 

And Mariners to handle fail and oar: 

But the Chaldeans had nor fhips nor skill, 

Their fhoulders rnuft their Mailers mind fulfill, 

Fetcht rubbifh from the oppofite old town, 

And in the channel threw each burden down; 

Where after many effayes, they made at lafl 

The fea firm land, whereon the Army.paft, 

And took the wealthy town; but all the gain, 

Requited not the lofs/ the toyle and pain. 

Full thirteen years in this fbrange work he fpent 

Before he could accomplish his intent: 

And though a Vi6tor home his Army leads, 

With peeled fhoulders, and with balded heads.* 

When in the Tyrian war this King was hot, 

Jehojakim his oath had clean forgot, 

Thinks this the fittefl time to break his bands 

Whileft Babels King thus deep engaged flands : 

But he whofe fortunes all were in the ebbe,* 

Had all his hopes like to a fpiders web; 

For this great King withdraws part of his force, 

To Judah marches with a fpeedy courfe, 

And unexpected finds the feeble Prince [86] 

Whom he chaflis d thus for his proud offence, 

Fafl bound, intends to Babel him to fend,* 

But chang d his mind, & caus d his life there end/ 

y coft. 2 But he (alas) whofe fortunes now i the ebbe. 

intends at Babel he ihal ftay. b and flew him by the way. 

* Ezek. xxix. 18. 


202 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Then caft him out like to a naked Afs, 

For this is he for whom none faid alas.* 

His fon he fuffered three months to reign, 

Then from his throne he pluck d him down again, 

Whom with his mother he to Babel led. 

And feven and d thirty years in prifon fed : 

His Uncle he eftablifh d in his place 

(Who was laft King of holy Davids race) 

But he as perjur d as Jehojakim, 

They loft more now then e re they loft by him. 

Seven years he kept his faith, and fafe he dwells ; 

But in the eighth againft his Prince rebels : 

The ninth came Nebuchadnezzar with power, 

Belieg d his city, temple, Zions tower, 

And after eighteen months he took them all : 

The Walls fo ftrong, that ftood fo long, now fall. 

The curfed King by flight could no wife fly 7 

His well deferv d and foretold mifery: 

But being caught to Babels wrathfull King 

With children, wives and Nobles all they bring. 

Where to the fword all but himfelf were put, 

And with that wofull light his eyes clofe fhut. 

Ah! haplefs man, whofe darkfome contemplation 

Was nothing but fuch gaftly meditation. 

In midft of Babel now till death he lyes; 

Yet as was told ne re faw it with his eyes. 

c pull d. d And more then. 

f ludah loft more. / free. 

* Jer. xxii. 18, 19. 

Four Monarchies. 203 

The Temple s burnt, the veffels had away. [87] 

The towres and palaces brought to decay: 

Where late of harp and Lute were heard the noife 

Now Zim & Jim * lift up their fcrieching^ voice. 

All now of worth are Captive led with tears, 

And fit bewailing Zion feventy years. . 

With all thefe conquefts, Babels King refts not, 

No not when Moab, Edom he had got, 

Kedar and Hazar, the Arabians too, 

All VafTals at his hands for Grace muft fue. 

A total conqueft of rich Egypt makes, 

All rule he from the ancient Phraohes takes, 

Who had for fixteen hundred years born fway, 

To Babilons proud King now yields the day. 

Then Put and Lud^ do at his mercy ftand. 

Where e re he goes, he conquers every land. 

* These words are explained by the translation and marginal note of 
Isaiah xiii. 21, 22, in the Genevan Bible (London, 1599) : 

"But/Zijm mall lodge there, & their houfes fhalbe full of Ohim : 
Oftriches mall dwell there, and the Satyrs mall dance there. 

"# Which were either wild beafts, or foules, or wicked fpirits, whereby Satan deluded man, as 
by the fairies, goblins, and fuch like fantafies. 

"And lim fhall cry in their palaces, and dragons in their pleafant pal 
aces : and the time thereof is ready to come, and the dayes thereof fhal 
not be prolonged." 

Also in Jeremiah 1. 39: "Therefore the Ziims with the lims mall dwell 

"Ziim" means literally inhabitants of the desert, either men or beasts. 
The " lim " were probably jackals. In King James s version of the Bible 
the words are translated by "wild beasts of the desert" and "wild beasts 
of the islands." 

The first edition has " Sim " instead of " Jim." 

t Judith ii. 23. ^ Ihriking. 

204 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

His fumptuous buildings paffes all conceit, 

Which wealth and ftrong ambition made fo great. 

His Image Judahs Captives worfhip not, 

Although the Furnace be feven times more hot. 

His dreams wife Daniel doth expound full well, 

And his unhappy chang with grief foretell. 

Strange melancholy humours on him lay, 

Which for feven years his reafon took away, 

Which from no natural caufes did proceed, 

But for his pride, fo had the heavens decreed.* 

The time expir d, bruitifh remains h no more, 

But Goverment refumes as heretofore : 

In fplendor, and iu Majeily he fits, 

Contemplating thofe times he loft his witts. 

And if by words we may ghefs at the heart, [88] 

This king among the righteous had a part: 

Fourty four years he reign d, which being run, 

He left his wealth and conquefts to his fon. 


T3 ABEL S great Monarch now r laid in the dufl, 
^ His fon potteries wealth and rule as juft: 
And in the firft year of his Royalty 
Eafeth Jehojakims Captivity: 

For by the Heavens above it was decreed. * remains a Bead. 

The Four Monarchies. 205 

Poor forlorn Prince, who had all Hate forgot 
In feven and thirty years had feen no jot. 
Among the conquer d Kings that there did ly 
Is Judah s King now lifted up on high: 
But yet in Babel he muft ftill remain, 
And native Canaan never fee again: 
Unlike his Father Evilmerodach, 
Prudence and magnanimity did lack; 
Fair Egypt is by his remifnefs loft, 
Arabia, and all the bordering coaft. 
Warrs with the Medes unhappily he wag d 
(Within which broyles rich Croefus was ingag d) 
His Army routed, and himfelf there flain: 
His Kingdome to Beljhazzar did remain. 


T TNWORTHY Beljhazzar next wears the crown, 
^ Whofe a6ts profane a facred Pen fets down, 
His lufl and crueltyes in ftoryes * find, 
A royal State rul d by a bruitifh mind. 
His life fo bafe, and diflblute invites [89] 

The noble Perjian to invade his rights. 
Who with his own, and Uncles power anon, 
Layes liedge to s Regal Seat, proud Babylon, 

i cruelty, in books we. 

206 Anne JBradftreefs Works. 

The coward King, whofe ftrength lay in his walls, 

To banquetting and revelling now falls, 

To fhew his little dread, but greater ftore, 

To chear his friends, and fcorn his foes the more. 

The holy veflels thither brought long fince, 

They carrows d in, and facrilegious prince 

Did praife his Gods of mettal, wood, and ilone, 

Protestors of his Crown, and Babylon, 

But he above, his doings did deride, 

And with a hand foon dafhed all this pride. 

The King upon the wall cafting his eye, 

The fingers of a hand writing did fpy, 

Which horrid fight, he fears mull needs portend 

Deftru6tion to his Crown, to s Perfon end. 

With quaking knees, and heart appall d he cries, 

For the Soothfayers, and Magicians wife; 

This language ilrange to read, and to unfold ; 

With gifts of Scarlet robe, and Chain of gold, 

And higheft dignity, next to the King, 

To him that could interpret, clear this thing: 

But dumb the gazing Ailrologers Hand, 

Amazed at the writing, and the hand. 

None anfwers the affrighted Kings intent. 

Who ilill expe6ls fome fearful fad event; 

As dead, alive 7 he fits, as one* undone: 

In comes the Queen, to chear her heartlefs Son. 

Of Daniel tells, who in his grand-fires dayes [9] 

Was held in more account 7 then now he was. 

* his. j As thus amort. k a ll. I requeft. 

The Four Monarchies. 207 

Daniel in hafte is brought before the King, 
Who doth not flatter, nor once cloak the thing; 
Reminds him of his Grand-Sires height and fall, 
And of his own notorious lins withall: 
His Drunkennefs, and his profanefs high, 
His pride and fottifh grofs Idolatry. 
The guilty King with colour pale and dead 
Then hears his Mene and his Tekel read.* 
And one thing did worthy a King (though late) 
Perform d his word to him that told his fate. 
That night victorious Cyrus took the town, 
Who foon did terminate his life and crown; 
With him did end the race of Baladan: 
And now the Per/ran Monarchy began. 

* Dan. v. 25-28. 

The End of the Affyrian Monarchy. 

The Second Monarchy, [91] 
being the Perjian, began under 

Cyrus, Darius being his Uncle and 

Father-in-law reigned with him 

about two years. 

Cambyfes Son of Per/la King, 
Whom Lady Mandana did to him bring, 
She daughter unto great Aftiages, 
He in defcent the feventh from Arbaces. 
Cambyfes was of Achemenes race, 
Who had in Perjla the Lieftenants place 
When Sardanapalus was overthrown, 
And from that time had held it as his own. 
Cyrus, Darius Daughter took to wife, 
And fo unites two Kingdomes without ftrife. 
Darius unto Mandana .was brother, 
Adopts her fon for his, having no other. 
This is of Cyrus the true pedegree, 
Whofe Anceftors were royal in degree : 

The Four Monarchies. 209 

His Mothers dream, and Grand-Sires cruelty, 

His prefervation, in his mifery, 

His nourifhment afforded by a Bitch, 

Are fit for fuch, whofe ears for Fables itch. 

He in his younger dayes an Army led, [92] 

Againft great Creffus then of Lidia head; 

Who over-curious of wars event, 

For information to Apollo went: 

And the ambiguous Oracle did trull, 

So overthrown by Cyrus, as was juft; 

Who him puafues to Sardis, takes the Town, 

Where all that dare m relift are ilaughter d down ; 

Difguifed Creffus hop d to fcape i th throng, 

Who had no might to fave himfelf from wrong; 

But as he paft, his Son who was born dumb, 

With preffing grief and forrow overcome: 

Among the tumult, bloud-fhed, and the ftrife, 

Brake his long filence, cry d, fpare Creffus life: 

Creffus thus known, it was great Cyrus doom, 

(A hard decree) to alhes he confume; 

Then on a wood-pile * fet, where all might eye, 

He Solon, Solon, Solon, thrice did cry. 

The Reafon of thofe words Cyrus demands, 

Who Solon was? to whom he lifts his hands; 

Then to the King he makes this true report, 

That Solon fometimes at his flately Court, 

His Treafures, pleafures, pomp and power dfd fee, 

And viewing all, at all nought mov d was he: 


* dpe * Pike being. 


2io Anne Bradft reef s Works. 

That Creffus angry, urg d him to exprefs, 

If ever King equal d his happinefs. 

(Quoth he) that man for happy we commend, 

Whofe happy life attains an happy end. 

Cyrus with pitty mov d, knowing Kings Hand, 

Now up and down, as fortune turns her hand, 

Weighing the Age, and greatnefs of the Prince, [93] 

(His Mothers Uncle) ftories do evince: 

Gave him his life, and took him for a friend, 

Did to him ftill his chief defigns commend. * 

Next war the reftlefs Cyrus thought upon, 

Was conqueft of the (lately Babilon, 

Now treble walPd, and moated fo about, 

That all the world they need not ? fear nor doubt; 

To drain this ditch, he many Sluces cut, 

But till convenient time their heads kept (hut; 

That night Belfhazzar feafted all his rout, 

He cut thofe banks, and let the River out, 

And to the walls fecurely marches on, 

Not finding a defendant thereupon; 

Enters the Town, the fottifh King he flayes, 

Upon Earths richeft fpoyles his Souldiers preys; 

Here twenty years provifion good r he found, 

Forty five miles this City fcarce could round; 

o Instead of this and the nine preceding lines, the first edition has, 
Upon demand, his minde to Cyrus broke, 
And told, how Solon in his hight had fpoke. 
P Gave him at once, his life, and Kingdom too, 
And with the Lidians, had no more to doe. 

9 they neither. r " good " not in the first edition. 

The Four Monarchies. 2 1 1 

This head of Kingdomes Chaldees excellence, 

For Owles and Satyres made a refidence;* 

Yet wondrous monuments this {lately Queen, 

A thoufand years had after to be feen/ 

Cyrus doth now the Jewifh Captives free, 

An Edict made, the Temple builded be, 

He with his Uncle Daniel fets on high, 

And caus d his foes in Lions Den to dye. 

Long after this he gainft the Scythians goes, 

And Tomris Son and * Army overthrows ; 

Which to revenge me hires a mighty power, 

And fets on Cyrus, in a fatal hour; 

There routs his Holt, himfelf me prifoner takes, [94] 

And at one blow (worlds head) me headlefs makes 

The which me bath d," within a But of bloud, 

Uling fuch taunting words, as me thought good. 

But Xenophon reports he di d in s bed, 

In honour, peace, and wealth, with a grey head; 

And in his Town of P&Jfagardes v lyes, 

Where fome long after fought in vain for prize, 

But in his x Tombe, was only to be found 

Two Scythian boys,^ a Sword and Target round: 

And Alexander coming to the fame, 

With honours great, did celebrate h*s fame. z 

* Is. xiii. 21. -y Had after thoufand yeares faire to be feen. 

* an u bak d v Pafargada, 

Where Alexander fought, in hope of prize. * this y bowes. 

z Instead of this and the preceding line, the first edition has, 

Where that proud Conquereur could doe no lefle. 

Then at his Herie great honours to exprefie ; 

212 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Three daughters and two Sons he left behind, 

Innobled more by birth, then by their mind;" 

Thirty two years in all this Prince did reign, 

But eight whilft Babylon, he did retain: 

And though his conquefts made the earth to groan, 

Now quiet lyes under one marble ftone. 

And with an Epitaph, himfelf did make, 

To mew how little Land he then mould take. 


f^AMBYSES no wayes like his noble Sire, 

^^ Yet to inlarge his State had fome deiire, 

His reign with bloud and Inceft firft begins, 

Then fends to find a Law, for thefe his fins; 

That Kings with Sifters match, no Law they find, 

But that the Perfean King may a6t his mind : b 

He wages war the fifth year of his reign, 

Gainft Egypts King, who there by him was flain. 

And all of Royal Bloud, that came to hand, [95] 

He feized firft of Life, and then of Land, 

<* Instead of the six lines following this, the first edition has, 

Some thirty years this potent Prince did reign, 

Unto Cambyfes then, all did remain. 
* After this the first edition has, 

Which Law includes all Lawes, though lawleffe ftil, 

And makes it lawful Law, if he but wil ; 

The Four Monarchies. 213 

(But little Narus c fcap d that cruel fate, 
Who grown a man, refum d again his State.) 
He next to Cyprus fends his bloudy Hoft, 
Who landing foon upon that fruitful Coaft, 
Made Evelthon their King with bended knee, 
To hold his own, of his free Courtelie. 
Their Temple d he deftroys, not for his Zeal, 
For he would be profeft, God of their weal; 
Yea, in his pride, he ventured fo farre, 
To fpoyle the Temple of great Jupiter : 
But as they marched o re thofe defert fands, 
The ftormed dull o rewhelm d his daring bands; 
But fcorning thus, by Jove to be outbrav d, 
A fecond Army he * had almoft grav d, 
But vain he found to fight with Elements, 
So left his facrilegious bold intents. 
The Egyptian Apis then he likewife flew, 
Laughing to fcorn, that fottifh Calvifh Crew: 
If all this 7 heat had been for pious g end, 
Cambyfes to the Clouds we might commend. 
But he that fore the Gods himfelf prefers, 
Is more profane then grofs Idolaters \ h 

c Marus. d The Temples. e there. f his. g a good. 

* Instead of the four lines following this, the first edition has, 

And though no gods, if he efteem them fome, 

And contemn them, woful is his doome, 

He after this, faw in a Villon, 

His brother Smerdis fit upon his throne : 

He ftrait to rid himfelf of caufleffe fears, 

Complots the Princes death, in his green years, 

214 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

He after this, upon fufpition vain, 

Unjuftly cauf d his brother to be flain. 

Praxafpes into Perjia then is fent, 

To a6l in fecret, this his lewd intent: 

His Sifter (whom Incefluoufly he wed ? ) 

Hearing her harmlefs brother thus was dead. 

His wofull death * with tears did fo bemoan, [96] 

That by her husbands charge, me caught her own, 

She with her fruit at once were both undone 

Who would have born a Nephew and a fon. 

Oh hellelh husband, brother, uncle, Sire, 

Thy cruelty all 7 ages will * admire. 

This fhrange feverity he fometimes us d l 

Upon a Judge, for taking bribes m accus d, 

Flay d him alive, hung up his fluffed skin 

Over his feat, then plac d his fon therein, 

To whom he gave this in remembrance, 

Like fault mull look for the like recompence. 

His cruelty was come unto that height, 

He fpar d nor foe, nor friend, nor favourite." 

Who for no wrong, poore innocent muft dye, 

Prarafpes now muft adl this tragedy ; 

Who into Per/to, with Commiffion fent, 

Accomplilhed this wicked Kings intent ; 
fate. .; will. * ftill. 

I one time he us d. m breach of Law. 

Instead of this and the preceding line, the first edition has, 

Prarafpes, to Cambyfes favourite, 

Having one fon, in whom he did delight, 

His cruell Mafter, for all fervice done, 

Shot through the heart of his beloved fon : 

The Four Monarchies. 215 

T would be no pleafure," but a tedious thing 

To tell the fadts of this moft bloody King, 

Feared of all, but lov d of few or none, 

All wifht^ his fhort reign paft before q twas done. 

At laft two of his Officers he hears 

Had fet one Smerdis up, of the fame years, 

And like in feature to his brother r dead, 

Ruling, as they thought benV under this head. 

The people ignorant of what was done, 

Obedience yielded as to Cyrus fon/ 

Toucht with this news to Perjia he makes, 

But in the way his fword juft vengeance takes, 

Unfheathes, as he his horfe mounted on high, 

And with a mortal thruft wounds him ith thigh, 

Which ends before begun his home-bred u warr: 

So yields v to death, that dreadfull Conquerour. 

Grief for his brothers death he did exprefs, [97] 

And more, becaufe he died Iffuelefs. 

The male line of great Cyrus now had end, 

The Female to many Ages did extend. 

A Babylon in Egypt did he make, 

And Meroe built for his fair Sifters fake. w 

Eight years he reign d, a fhort, yet too long time 

Cut off in s wickednefs in s ftrength and prime. 

And only for his fathers faithfullnefie, 
Who faid but what, the king bad him expreffe. 

pleafant. / thought. ? long, till. r the Smerdis. 

s good. t This and the preceding line are not in the first edition. 

the Per/tan. v Yeelding. 

w And built fair Meroe, for his fillers fake. 

216 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

The inter regnum between Cambyfes 
And Darius Hiftafpes. 

CHILDLESS Cambyfes on the fudden dead, 

^-* / (The Princes meet, to chufe one in his ftead, 

Of which the chief was * feven, call d Satrapes, 

Who like to Kings, rul d Kingdomes as they pleafe, 

Defcended all of Achemenes bloud, 

And Kinfmen in account to th King they flood. 

And firft thefe noble Magi gree upon, 

To thrufl th importer Smerdis out of Throne : 

Then^ Forces infbantly they raife, and rout 

This King with his Confpirators fo flout, 2 

But yet fore this was done much bloud was fried, 

And two of thefe great Peers in Field a lay dead. 

Some write that forely hurt they fcap d away, 

But fo, or no, fure tis they won the day. 

All things in peace, and Rebels throughly quell d, 

A Confultation by thofe States was held, 

What form of government now to erecl; 

The old, or new, which beft, in what refpecl:. 

The greater part declin d a Monarchy [98] 

So late crufht by their Princes tyranny, 

* were. y Their. 

* After this, the first edition has, 

Who little pleafure had, in his fhort reigne, 
And now with his accomplices lye ilaine. 


Th e Fo u r Mo n a rch ies. 217 

And thought the people would more happy be 

If govern d by an Ariflocracy: 

But others thought (none of the dulleft brain) 

That better one then many tyrants reign. 

What Arguments they us d r I know not well, 

Too politick, its like, for me to tell, 

But in conclufion they all agree, 

Out of the feven a Monarch chofen be. 

All envy to avoid, this was thought on 

Upon a green to meet by rifing fun, 

And he whofe horfe before the reft mould neigh, 

Of all the Peers mould have precedency. 

They all attend on the appointed hour, 

Praying to fortune for a kingly power. 

Then mounting on their fnorting courfers proud, 

Darius luily Stallion neigh d full loud/ 

The Nobles all alight, bow to their King, 

And joyfull acclamations fhrill they ring. 

A thoufand times, long live the King they cry, 

Let Tyranny w r ith dead Cambifes dye : 

Then all* attend him to his royall room: 

Thanks for all this to s crafty ftable-groom. 

Instead of the four lines following this, the first edition has, 
The Nobles all alight, their King to greet, 
And after Per/tan manner, kifle his feet. 
His happy wimes now doth no man fpare, 
But acclamations ecchoes in the aire ; 
A thoufand times, God fave the King, they cry, 
Let tyranny now with Cambyfes dye. 

* They then. 


2i8 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Darius Hyftafpes. 

by eleftion made a King, 
His title to make flrong, omits no thing: 
He two of Cyrus daughters then doth wed, 
Two of his Neeces takes to Nuptial bed, 
By which he cuts their hopes for future time, [99] 
That by fuch fteps to Kingdomes often clime. 
And now a King by manage, choice and blood: 
Three firings to s bow, the leafl of which is good; 
Yet firmly more, the peoples hearts to bind. 
Made wholfome, gentle laws which pleas d each mind. 
His courtefie and affability. 
Much gain d the hearts of his nobility. c 
Yet notwithstanding all he did fo well, 
The Babylonians gainfl their prince rebell. 
An hoft he rais d the city to reduce; 
But men d againft thofe walls were of no ufe/ 
Then brave Zopirus for his maflers good, 
His manly face diffigures, fpares no blood: 
With his own hands cutts off his ears and nofe, 
And with a faithfull fraud to th town he goes, 

c His affability, and milde afpedl, 
Did win him loyalty, and all^refpedl; 

d ftrength. 

After this, the first edition has, 

For twice ten months before the town he lay, 
And fear d, he now with fcorn muft march away. 

The Four Monarchies. 219 

tells them how harlhly the proud king had dealt, 

That for their fakes his cruelty he felt, 

Defiring of the Prince to raife the liege, 

This violence was done him by his Liege. 

This told, for entrance he flood not long; 

For they believ d his nofe more then his tongue. 

With all the city s flrength they him betruft, 

If he command, obey the greatefl mult. 

When opportunity he faw was fit 

Delivers up the town, and all in it. 

To loofe a nofe, to win a town s no lhame, 

But who dares venture fuch a fhake for th game. 

Then thy difgrace, thine honour s manifold, 

Who doth deferve a llatue made of gold. 

Nor can Darius in his Monarchy, [ IO ] 

Scarce find enough to thank thy loyalty: 7 

Yet o re thy glory we mult call this vail, 

Thy craft more then thy valour did prevail.^ 

Darius in the fecond of his reign 

An Edict for the Jews publifh d again : 

The Temple to rebuild, for that did reft 

Since Cyrus time, Cambifes did moleft. 

He like a King now grants a Charter large, 

Out of his own revennues bears the charge, 


f After this, the first edition has, 

But yet thou haft fufficient recompence, 
In that thy fame ihall found whilft men have fence ; 
g Thy fallhood, not thy valour did prevaile; 
Thy wit was more then was thine honefty, 
Thou lov dft thy Mailer more then verity. 

22O Anne Brad ft reefs Works. 

Gives Sacrifices, wheat, wine, oyle and fait, 

Threats punifhment to him that through default 

Shall let the work, or keep back any thing 

Of what is freely granted by the King: 

And on all Kings he poures out Execrations 

That fhall once h dare to rafe thofe firm foundations 

They thus backt by the King, in fpight of foes 

Built on and profper d till their houfe they clofe, 

And in the fixth year of his friendly reign, 

Set up a Temple (though a lefs) again : 

Darius on the Scythians made a war, 

Entring that larg and barren Country far: 

A Bridge he made, which ferv d for boat & barge 

O re Ifter fair, with labour and with charge. 7 

But in that defert; mongft his barbarous foes 

Sharp wants, not fwords, his valour did oppofe, 

His Army fought with hunger and with cold, 

Which to aflail his royal Camp was bold/ 

By thefe alone his holt was pincht fo fore, 

He warr cl defenfive, not offenlive more. 

The Salvages did laugh at his diftrefs, [ IOI J 

Their minds by Hiroglyphicks they exprefs, 

A Frog a Moufe, a bird, an arrow lent, 

The King will needs interpret their intent, 

Pofleirlon of water, earth and air, 

But wife Gobrias reads not half fo fair: l 

/l but. i walls did. 

/ Over fair Ifter, at a mighty charge. 
* Which two then to afiaile, his Camp was bold. / farro. 

The Fo u r Mo n a rch tes. 221 

(Quoth he) like frogs in water we muft dive, 

Or like to mice under the earth muft live, 

Or fly like birds in unknown wayes full quick, 

Or Scythian arrows in our fides muft ftick. 

The King feeing his men and victuals fpent, 

This fruitlefs war began late to repent, 

Return d with little honour, and lefs gain. 

His enemies fcarce feen, then much lefs flain. 

He after this intends Greece to invade, 

But troubles in lefs AJla him ftaid, 

Which hufht, he ftraight fo orders his affairs, 

For Attaca an army he prepares; 

But as before, fo now with ill fuccefs 

Return d with wondrous lofs, and honourlefs. 

Athens perceiving now their defperate ftate 

Arm d all they could, which eleven thoufand made 

By brave Miltiades their chief being led : 

Darius multitudes before them fled. 

At Marathon this bloudy field was fought, 

Where Grecians prov d themfelves right fouldiers itout 

The Perjians to their gallies poft with fpeed 

Where an Athenian fhew d a valiant deed, 

Purfues his flying foes then on the fand, w 

He ftayes a lanching n gaily with his hand, 

Which foon cut off, inrag d,* he with his left, [102] 

Renews his hold, and when of that bereft, 

Itrand. H landing. 

* inrag d " not in the first edition. 

222 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

His whetted teeth he claps in the firm wood, 

Off flyes his head, down fhowres his frolick bloud, 

Go Per/tans, carry home that angry piece, 

As the beft Trophe which ye won in Greece, 

Darius light, yet* heavy home returns, 

And for revenge, his heart ftill refblefs burnes, 

His Queen Atqffa Author of q this ftirr, 

For Grecian maids ( tis faid) to wait on her. 

She loft her aim, her Husband he loft more, 

His men his coyne, his honour, and his fbore; 

And the enfuing year ended his Life, 

(Tis thought) through grief of this fuccefslefs itrife 

Thirty fix years this noble Prince did reign, 

Then to his fecond r Son did all remain. 


AT ERXES. Darius, and A to/fit* Son, 

Grand child to Cyrus, now fits on the Throne : 
(His eldefl brother put befide the place, 
Becaufe this was, firft born of Cyrus race.) 45 " 
His * Father not fo full of lenity, 
As was his* Son of pride and cruelty; 

* fticks. / he. 9 caufed all. 

* This and the preceding line are not in the first edition. 
r eldeft. s The. * is the. 

Th e Fou r Mo narch ies. 223 

He with his Crown receives a double war, 

The Egyptians to reduce, and Greece to marr, 

The firfb begun, and finilh d in fuch hafte, 

None write by whom, nor how, twas over paft. 

But for the laft, he made fuch preparation, 

As if to dull, he meant, to grinde that nation; 

Yet all his men, and Inilruments of flaughter, [103] 

Produced but derilion and laughter, 

Sage Artabanus Counfel had he taken, 

And s Couzen young Mardonius forfaken, 

His Souldiers credit, wealth at home had ftaid, 

And Greece fuch wondrous triumphs ne r had made. 

The firft dehorts * and layes before his eyes 

His Fathers ill fuccefs, in s enterprize, 

Againlt the Scythians and Grecians too, 

What Infamy to s honour did accrew. 

Flatt ring Mardonius on the other fide, 

With conqueft of all Europe? feeds his pride: 

Vain Xerxes thinks his counfel hath moll wit, 

That his ambitious humour belt can fit; 

And by this choice unwarily polls on, 

To prefent lofs, future fubverlion. 

Although he halted, yet four years was fpent 

In great provilions, for this great intent: 

His Army of all Nations was compounded, 

That the vail w Per/tan government furrounded. 

His Foot was feventeen hundred thoufand Itrong, 

Eight hundred thoufand horfe, to thefe belong 

deports. With certainty of Europe. large. 

224 Anne Brad/I reefs Works. 

His Camels, beafts for carriage numberlefs, 

For Truths afham d, how many to exprefs ; 

The charge of all, he feverally commended 

To Princes, of the Perfean bloud defcended : 

But the command of thefe commanders all, 

Unto Mardonius made their General ; * 

(He was the Son of the fore natn d Gobrius, 

Who married the Sifter of Darius^) 

Such- his land Forces were, then next a fleet, [104] 

Of two and twenty thoufand Gallies meet 

Man d with Phenicians and Pamphylians 

Cipriots, Dorians and Cilicians, 

Lycians, Carians and lonians^ 

Eolians and the Helefpontines. 

Beiides the veflels for his tranfportation, 

Which to three thoufand came a (by beft relation) 

Brave Artemifea, Hallicarnaffus Queen b 

In perfon prefent c for his aid d was feen, 

Whofe Gallyes all the reft in neatnefs pafs, 

Save the Zidonians, where Xerxes was : 

But hers me kept ftill feperate from the reft, 

For to command alone, me judg d e was beft. 

O noble Queen, thy valour I commend; 

But pitty twas thine aid thou 7 here didft lend. 

At Sardis in Lydia, all thefe do meet, 

Whether^ rich Pythias comes Xerxes to greet, 

x To Mardonius, Captain Generall. y Thefe. 

Three thoufand (or more). * Artemejia, Halicarnd s Queene, 

f there, now. d help. e thought. / that. g Whither. 

The Four Monarchies. 225 

^ - - 

Feafts all this multitude of his own charge, 

Then gives the King a king-like gift full h large, 

Three thoufand talents of the pureil gold, 

Which mighty fum all wondred to behold: 

Then humbly to the king he makes requeft, 

One of his five fons there might be releas d, 

To be to s age a comfort and a Hay, 

The other four he freely gave away. 

The king calls for the youth, who being brought, 

Cuts him in twain for whom his Sire befought, 

Then laid his parts on both fides of the way, 

Twixt which his fouldiers marcht in good array/ 

For his great love is this thy recompence? [ IO 5] 

Is this to do like Xerxes or a Prince? 

Thou fhame of kings, of men the detefhation, 

I Rhetorick want to pour out execration. 

Firft thing he did that s worthy of recount/ 

A Sea paffage cut behind Athos mount. 

Next o re the Helefpont a bridge he made 

Of Boats together coupled, and there laid: 

But winds and waves thofe iron bands did break; 

To crofs the fea fuch ftrength he found too weak, 

Then whips the fea, and with a mind moft vain 

He fetters calls therein the fame to chain. 

* moft. 

* Instead of this and the preceding line, the first edition has, 

- , 

O moft inhumain incivility! 

Nay, more then monftrous barb rous cruelty ! 
/ Xerxes did worthy recount, 



226 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

The work-men put to death the bridge that made, 

Becaufe they wanted skill the fame toVe ftaid.* 

Seven thoufand Gallyes chain d by Tyrians skill. 

Firmly at lanV accomplifhed his will. 

Seven dayes and nights, his hoft without leaft ftay 

Was marching o re this new devifed way/* 

Then in Abidus plains rnuftring his forces, 

He gloryes in his fquadrons and his horfes. 

Long viewing them, thought it great happinefs, 

One king fo many fubje<5ts mould poflefs: 

But yet this fight from him * produced tears, 

That none of thofe could * live an hundred years. 

What after did enfue had he forefeen, 

Of fo long time his thoughts had never been. 

Of Artubanus he a^ain demands 


How of this enterprife his thoughts now ftands, 
His anfwer was, both fea and land he fear d, 
Which was not vain as after^ foon appeared. 
But Xerxes refolute to Thrace goes firft, [ I 

His Hoft all ? Liffus drinks, to quench their thirft; 
And for his Cattel, all Piffyrus Lake 
Was fcarce enough, for each a draught to take: 
Then marching on to trr ftreight Thermopyle, 
The Spartan meets him brave Leonade\ 

k Instead of this and the five preceding lines, the first edition has, 
But winds, and waves, thefe couples foon diflever d, 
Yet Iferxes in his enterprife perfever d ; 

1 length. ** this interrupting Bay. this goodly light. 

thefe Ihould. p as it. <J who. 

The Fotir Monarchies. 227 

This twixt the mountains lyes (half Acre wide) 

That pleafant Tkejfaly from Greece divide 

Two dayes and nights, a fight they there maintain, 

Till twenty thoufand Perjians fell r down (lain; 

And all that Army then difmaid, had fled, 

But that a Fugitive difcovered. 

How fome* might o re the mountains go about, 

And wound the backs of thofe brave warriors flout 

They thus behem d with multitude of Foes, 

Laid on more fiercely their deep mortal blows. 

None cries for quarter, nor yet feeks to run; 

But on their ground they die each Mothers Son. 

O noble Greeks, how now degenerate, 

Where is the valour of your ancient State? 

When as one thoufand could a " million daunt, 

Alas ! it is Leonades you want. 

This fhameful victory coil Xerxes dear, 

Among the reft, two brothers he loft there; 

And as at Land, fo he at Sea was croft, 

Four hundred ftately Ships by ftorms was loft; 

Of VefTels fmall almoft innumerable, 

The Harbours to contain them "was not able, 2 

Yet thinking to out-match his Foes at Sea, 

Enclof d their Fleet i th ftreight of Eubea: 

But they as fortunate at w Sea as Land, [ I0 7] 

In this ftreight, as the other firmly Hand. 

- falls. * part. * bold. * fome Millions. 

v Them to receive, the Harbour was not able; w valiant by. 

228 Anne Brad/I -reefs Works. 

And Xerxes mighty Gallyes battered fo, 

That their fplit fides witnelPd his overthrow; 

Then in the ftreight of Salamis he try d, 

If that fmall number his great force could bide: 

But he in daring of his forward Foe, 

Received there a fhameful overthrow. 

Twice beaten thus at Sea he warr d no more, 

But then the Phocians Country * wafted fore; 

They no way able to withftand his force, 

That brave Themiftocles takes this wife courfe, 

In fecret manner word to Xerxes fends, 

That Greeks to break his Bridg fhortly intends : 

And as a friend warns him what e re he do 

For his Retreat, to have an eye thereto, 

He hearing this, his thoughts & courfe home bended 

Much fearing that^ which never was intended. 

Yet fore he went to help out his expence, 

Part of his Hoft to Delphos fent from thence, 

To rob the wealthy Temple of Apollo, 

But mifchief facriledge cloth ever follow. 

Two mighty Rocks brake from Parnaffus hill, 

And many thoufands of thofe men did kill; 

Which accident the reft affrighted fo, 

With empty hands they to their Mafter go: 

He finding all, to tend to his decay, 

Fearing his Bridge, no logger there would ftay. z 

-* But Phocians Land, he then y Much, that. 

* He feeing all thus tend unto decay, 

Thought it his beft, no longer for to flay; 

The Four Monarchies. 229 

Three hundred thoufand yet he left behind, 

With his Mardoniiis Index a of his mind; 

Who for his fake he knew would venture farre, 

(Chief iniligator of this haplefs b warr.) 

He inftantly to Athens fends for peace, 

That all Hoftility from c thence forth ceafe; 

And that with Xerxes they would be at one, 

So fhould all favour to their State be fhown. 

The Spartans fearing Athens would agree, 

As had Macedon, Thebes, and Theffaly, 

And leave them out, this Shock now to fuftain, 

By their Ambalfador they thus complain, 

That Xerxes quarrel was gainft Athens State, 

And they had helpt them as Confederate; 

If in their d need they fhould forfake e their friends, 

Their infamy would laft till all things ends: 

But the Athenians this peace deteft, 

And thus reply d unto Mardorfs requeft. 

That whil ft the Sun did run his endlefs Courfe 

Againfl the Perjians, they would bend 7 their force; 

Nor could the brave Ambaffador he g fent, 

With Rhetorick gain* better Complement: 

A Macedonian born, and great Commander, 

No lefs then grand-Sire to great Alexander 

Mardonius proud hearing this Anfwer flout, 

To add more to his numbers layes about; 

n judex. f> hopelefie. c might. d If now in. 

thus fail. / ufe. e be. * t gain. 

* Though of this Nation borne a 

230 Anne Bradftreet s Works. 

And of thofe Greeks which by his Skill he d won, 

He fifty thoufand joyns unto his own : 

The other Greeks which were Confederate 

In all one hundred and ten thoufand made/ 

The Athenians could but forty thoufand Arme, 

The reft had weapons would do little harm; 

But that which helpt defects, and made them bold, [ 1 09] 

Was victory by Oracle foretold. 

Then for one battel fhortly all provide, 

Where both their Controverfies they l decide;* 

Ten dayes thefe Armyes did each other face, 

Mardonius finding victuals waft apace, 

No longer dar d, but bravely / on-fet gave, 

The other not a hand nor Sword would wave, 

Till in the Intrails of their Sacrifice 

The fignal of their victory did rife, 

Which found like Greeks they fight, the Perftans fly, 

And troublefome Mardonius now muft dye. 

All s loft, and of three hundred thoufand men, 

Three thoufand only can m run home agen. 

j One hundred thoufand, and ten thoufand make. 

* Instead of this and the five preceding lines, the first edition has, 
The Beotian Fields, of war, the feats, 
Where both fides exercis d their manly feats ; 
But all their controverfies to decide, 
For one maine Battell Ihortly, both provide ; 
The Athenians could but forty thoufand arme, 
For other Weapons, they had none would harme ; 
But that which helpt defects, and made them bold, 
Was Victory, by Oracle fore-told : 

I fiercely. m fcapes, for to. 

Th e Fo u r Mo n a rch ies . 231 

For pitty let thofe few to Xer xes go, 

To certifie his final overthrow: 

Same day the fmall remainder of his Fleet, 

The Grecians at Mycale in AJia meet. 

And there fo utterly they wrackt the fame, 

Scarce one was left to carry home the Fame; 

Thus did the Greeks confume, deilroy, difperse 

That Army, which did fright the Univerfe. 

Scorn d Xerxes hated for his cruelty, 

Yet ceafes not to a6l his villany. 

His brothers wife folicites to his will, 

The chad and beautious Dame refufed flill; 

Some years by him in this vain fuit was fpent, 

Nor prayers/ nor gifts could win him leail content; 

Nor matching of her daughter to his Son, 

But me was ftill as when he^ firfl begun: 

When jealous Queen Ameftris of this knew, [ II0 ] 

She Harpy like upon the Lady flew, 

Cut off her breads, her lips/ her nofe and ears, 

And leavs her thus befmear d in bloud and tears. 

Straight comes her Lord, and finds his wife thus ly, 

The forrow of his heart did clofe his Eye: 

He dying to behold that wounding fight, 

Where he had fometime gaz d with great delight, 

To fee that face where rofe, and Lillyes flood, 

O reflown with Torrent of her guiltlefs r bloud, 

To fee thofe breafls where Chaflity did dwell, 

Thus cut and mangled by a Hag of Hell: 

Yet words. / it. ? Cut off her lilly breads, r ruby. 

232 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

With loaden heart unto the King he goes. 

Tells as he could his unexpreffed woes; 

But for his deep complaints and fhowres of tears. 

His brothers recompence was nought but jears: 

The grieved prince finding nor right, nor love, 

To Battria his houihold did remove. 

His brother fent foon after him a crew/ 

Which him and his moft barbaroufly there flew: 

Unto fuch height did grow his cruelty, 

Of life no man had leaft fecurity. 

At laft his Uncle did his death confpire, 

And for that end his Eunuch he did hire ; 

Who privately him t fmother d in his bed, 

But yet by fearch he was found murthered; 

Then Artabanus" hirer of this deed, 

That from fufpition he might be fre d : 

Accus d Darius Xerxes eldeft Son, 

To be the Author of the crime v was done. 

And by his craft order d the matter fo, [i 1 1] 

That the Prince innocent to death did x goe : 

But in fhort time this wickednefs was known, 

For which he died, and not he alone, 

But all his Family was likewife flain : 

Such Juftice in the Perjian Court did reign/ 

The eldeft fon thus immaturely dead, 

The fecond was inthron d in s fathers ftead. 

* His wicked brother, after fent a crew, 

t Which wretch, him privately. The Artacanus. *> deed, 
w poor. x muft. y Such Juftice then, in Perfia did remain, 

The Fo u r Mo n a rch ies. 

Artaxerxes Longimanus. 

\ MONGST the Monarchs, next this prince had 
^ ^ place 

The bell that ever fprung of Cyrus race. 
He firfb war with revolted 2 Egypt made, 
To whom the perjur d Grecians lent their aid: 
Although to Xerxes they not long before 
A league of amity had firmly fwore/ 
Which had they kept, Greece had more nobly done 
Then when the world they after overrun. 
Greeks and Egyptians both he overthrows, 
And payes them both b according as he owes, 
Which done, a fumptuous feaft makes like a king 
Where ninefcore dayes are fpent in banquetting. 
His Princes, Nobles, and his Captains calls, 
To be partakers of thefe Feftivals: 
His hangings white and green, and purple dye, 
With gold and filver beds, moft gorgeouily. 
The royal wine in golden cups did pafs, 
To drink more then he lift, none bidden was : 
Queen Vafthi alfo feafts, but fore tis ended, 
She s from her Royalty (alas) fufpended, 
And one more worthy placed in her room, [ II2 1 

By Memucans advice fo was the doom. 
What Efther c was and did, the ftory read, 
And how her Country-men from fpoyle me freed, 

z revolting. had fworn before. b now. c Hcftcr. 


234 Anne Bradftreef*s Works. 

Of Hamans fall, and Mordicaes great Rife, 
The might of th prince, the tribute of the Ifles. 
Good Ezra in the feventh year of his reign, 
Did for the Jews commiffion large obtain, 


With gold and filver, and what ere they need: 

His bounty did Darius far exceed. 

And Nehemiah in his twentieth year, 

Went to Jerufalem his city dear, 

Rebuilt thofe walls which long in rubbifh lay, 

And o re his oppofites fhill got the day/ 

Unto this King Themiftocles did fly, 

When under Oftracifme he did lye: 

For fuch ingratitude did Athens fhow, 

(This valiant Knight whom they fo much did owe) 

Such royal bounty from his e prince he found, 

That in his 7 loyalty his heart was bound. 

The king not little joyfull of this chance, 

Thinking his Grejian warrs now to advance, 

And for that end great preparation made 

Fair Attica a third time to invade. 

His grand-Sires old difgrace did vex him fore, 

His Father Xerxes lofs and mame much more. 

For punifhment their breach of oath did call 

This noble Greek , now fit for General. 

Provilions then and feafon being fit, 

To Themiftocles this wa/r he doth commit, 

ft This and the seven preceding lines are not in the first edition. 
* Such entertainment with this. / all. 

The Four Monarchies. 


Who for his wrong he could not chufe but deem [113] 

His Country nor his Friends would much efteem:^ 

But he all injury had foon forgat, 

And to his native land * could bear no hate, 

Nor yet difloyal to his Prince would prove, 

By whom oblig d by bounty/ and by love; 

Either to wrong, did wound his heart fo fore, 

To wrong himfelf by death he chofe before: 

In this fad conflict marching on his wayes, 

Strong poyfon took, fo put an end to s dayes. 

The King this noble Captain having loft, 

Difperft again his newly levied hoft: 

Reft of his time in peace he did remain, 

And di d the two and fortieth of his reign. 

Darius No thus. 

T^HREE fons great Artaxerxes left behind; 

The eldeft to fucceed, that was his mind: 
His fecond Brother with him fell at ftrife, 
Stil making war, till firft had loft his life : k 
Then the Surviver is by Nothus flam, 
Who now fole Monarch doth of all remain. 

g his Kindred would efteem. * Country-men. * To. / favour. 
* But he, with his next brother fell at ftrife, 

That nought appeas d him, but his brothers life. 

236 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

The two firft/ fons (are by Hiftorians thought) 

By fair Queen Efther to her husband brought: 

If fo they were/ the greater was her moan, 

That for fuch gracelefs wretches me did groan. 

Revolting" Egypt gainft this King rebels, 

His Garifons drives out that mongft them^ dwells; 

Joyns with the Greeks, and fo maintain their right 

For lixty years, maugre the Perjians might. 

A fecond trouble after this fucceeds, [ I][ 4] 

Which from remifsnefs in Lefs AJia breeds. 57 

Amorges, whom for*" Vice-Roy he ordain d, 

Revolts, treafure and people having gain d, 

Plunders s the Country, & much mifchief * wrought 

Before things could to quietnefs be brought. 

The King was glad with Sparta to make peace, 

That fo he might thofe troubles u foon appeafe : 

But they in AJia muft firft reltore 

All towns held by his Anceftors before. 

The King much profit reaped by this league," 

Regains his own, then doth the Rebel break, 

Whofe ftrength by Grecians help was overthrown, 

And fo each man again poffeft his own. 

This King Cambifes like his lifter wed, 

To which his pride, more then his luft him led: * 

l Thefe two lewd. To be by Hefter. If they were hers. 
Difquiet. p therein^. g in AJia proceeds. 

r their. s Invades. . f trouble. 

thefe tumults. v reapeth, by thefe leagues. 

w Whofe forces by their helpe were overthrown. 

* The King, his fifler, like Cambyfes. wed; 
More by his pride, then luft, thereunto led. 

The Four Monarchies. 237 

For Perjlan Kings then deem d- themielves fo good 

No match was high enough but their own blood. 

Two fons fhe bore, the youngefb Cyrus nam d, 

A Prince whofe worth by Xenophon is fam d: 3 

His Father would no notice of that take 

Prefers his brother for his birthrights fake. 

But Cyrus fcorns his brothers feeble wit, 

And takes more on him then was judged fit. 

The King provoked fends for him to th Court, 

Meaning to chaftife him in fharpeft fort, 

But in his flow approach, e re he came there 

His Father di d, fo a put an end to s fear. 

Bout nineteen years this Nothus reigned/ which run, 

His large Dominions left to s eldeft Son. 

Artaxerxes Mnemon. [ TI 5j 

MNEMON now fet upon his Fathers Throne, 
Yet fears c all he enjoys, is not his own : 
Still on his brother carls a jealous eye, 
Judging his d actions tends to s injury. 
Cyrus on th other fide weighs in his mind, 
What help in s enterprize he s like to find; 

y did deem. * A hopefull Prince, whofe worth is ever fam d. 

<* fathers death, did. & Nothus reign d nineteen years, 

c doubts. d all s. 

238 Anne Bradftree*s Works. 

His Intereft in th Kingdome now next heir, 

More dear to s Mother then his brother farr: 

His brothers little love like to be gone, 

Held by his Mothers Interceffion. 

Thefe and like motives hurry him amain, 

To win by force, what right could not obtain; 

And thought it beft now in his Mothers time, 

By lower e fteps towards the top to climbe : 

If in his enterprize he fhould fall fhort, 

She to the King would make a fair report, 

He hop d if fraud nor force, the Crown would gain 

Her prevalence, a pardon might obtain. 

From the Lieutenant firfb he takes away 

Some Towns, commodious in lefs A.Jia, 

Pretending ftill the profit of the King, 

Whofe Rents and Cufhomes duly he fent in ; 

The King finding Revenues now amended, 

For what was done feemed no whit offended. 

Then next he takes the Spartans into pay/ 

One Greek could make ten Perjlans run away. 

Great care was his pretence thofe Souldiers flout, 

The Rovers in Pijldia fhould drive out; 

But left fome blacker^ news fhould fly to Court, [116] 

Prepares * himfelf to carry the report: 

And for that end five, hundred Horfe he chofe; 

With pofling fpeed on t wards the king he goes: 

But fame more quick, arrives ere he comes there, 

And fills the Court with tumult, and with fear. 

f leiTer. / Then next, the Lacedemons he takes to pay; 

g worler. h He meant. 

Th e Fo n r Mo n a rcli ies. 239 

The old Queen and the young at bitter jarrs, 

The lafb accus d the firft for thefe fad warrs/ 

The wife againft the mother ftill doth cry 

To be the Author of confpiracy. 

The King difmaid, a mighty hoft doth raife, 

Which Cyrus hears, and fo foreflows his pace: 

But as he goes his forces ftill augments, 

Seven hundred Greeks repair for y his intents, 

And others to be warm d by this new fun 

In numbers from his brother dayly run. 

The fearfull King at laft mufters his forces, 

And counts nine hundred thoufand Foot & horfes. 

Three hundred thoufand he to Syria fent 

To keep thofe ftreights his brother to prevent/ 

Their Captain hearing but of Cyrus name, 

Forfook his charge to his eternal fhame/ 

This place fo made by nature and by art, 

Few might have kept it, had they had a heart. 

Cyrus difpair d a paflage there to gain, 

So hir d a fleet to waft him o re the Main: 

The mazed King was then about to fly 

To Baftria and for a time there lye, 

The one accus d the other, for thefe wars : j Greeks now further. 
k And yet with thefe, had neither heart, nor grace ; 
To look his manly brother in the face. 
Three hundred thoufand, yet to Syria fent; 
To keep thofe ftreights, to hinder his intent. 
1 Ran back, and quite abandoned the fame, 
Abrocomes, was this bafe cowards name, 
Not worthy to be known, but for his fhame : 
; " To th utmoft parts of Bafflr a, and there lj r e. 

240 Anne B ra dft reef* s Works. 

Had not his Captains " fore againfb his will 

By reafon and by force detained him ftill, 

Up then with fpeed a mighty trench he throws [117 | 

For his fecurity againft his foes. 

Six yards the depth and forty miles in length, 

Some fifty or elfe fixty foot in breadth; 

Yet for his brothers coming durft not flay, 

He fafefl was when fartheft out of th way. 

Cyrus finding his camp, and no man there, 

Was not a little jocund * at his fear. 

On this he and his fouldiers carelefs grow, 

And here and there in carts their arms they throw 

When fuddenly their fcouts come in and cry, 

Arm, Arm, the King with all his hofl is nigh. 7 

In this confufion each man as he might 

Gets on his arms, arrayes himfelf for fight, 

And ranged flood by great Euphrates fide 

The brunt of that huge multitude to bide, 

Of whofe great numbers their intelligence 

Was gather d by the dufl that rofe from thence, 

Which like a mighty cloud darkned the sky, 

And black and blacker grew, as they drew nigh : 

But when their order and their filence faw, 

That, more then multitudes their hearts did awe; 

For tumult and confufion they expected, 

And all good difcipline Jx> be neglected. 

a Captain; o fureft. p Rejoyced not a little. 

9 the King is now approaching nigh ; 

The Four Monarchies. 241 

But long under their fears they did not flay, 

For at firft charge the Per/tans ran away, 

Which did fuch courage to the Grecians bring, 

They all r adored Cyrus for their King: 

So had he been, and got the victory, 

Had not his too much valour put him by. 

He with fix hundred on a Squadron fet, [ T1 ^l 

Of thoufands fix wherein the King was yet, 

And brought his Souldiers on fo gallantly, 

They ready were* to leave their King and fly; 

Whom Cyrus fpies cryes loud/ I fee the man, 

And with a full carreer at him he ran: 

And in his fpeed a dart him hit i th eye, 

Down Cyrus falls, and yields to deftiny: 

His Hoft in chafe knows not of this difafter, 

But treads down all, fo to advance their mafter; 

But when " his head they fpy upon a Lance, 

Who knows the fudden change made by this chance 

Senfelefs & mute they Hand, yet breath out groans, 

Nor Gorgons head like v this transform d to Hones. 

After this trance, revenge, new Spirits blew, 

And now more eagerly their Foes purfue; 

And heaps on heaps fuch multitudes they laid, 

Their Arms grew weary by their (laughters made. 

The King unto a Country Village flyes, 

And for a while unkingly there he lyes. 

r ftraight. s They were about. * out. 

* At laft. v Nor Gorgons like to. 

weake, through Daughters that they made. 

242 Anne Bradft reef s Works. 

At laft difplays his Enfigne on a Hill, 

Hoping by that to make the Greeks ftand ftill ; 

But was deceived, to him they run-* amain, 

The King upon the fpur runs back again: 

But they too faint ftill to purfue their game, 

Being Victors oft, now to their Camp they came. 

nor lackt they any of their number fmall, 

Nor wound receiv d, but one among them all: 

The King with his difperft, alfo incamp d, 

With Infamy upon each Forehead flamp d. 

His hurri d thoughts he after recollects/ [ TI 9] 

Of this dayes Cowardize he fears th effects. 

If Greeks in their own Country mould declare, 2 

What daftards in the Field the Perjians are, 

They in Ihort time might a place one in his Throne; 

And rob him both of Scepter and of Crown ; 

To hinder their return by craft or force, 

He judg d his wifeft and his fafeft Courfe. 

Then fends, that to his Tent, they flreight addrefs/ 

And there all wait, his mercy weaponlefs; 

The Greeks with fcorn reject his proud Commands 

Asking no favour, where they fear d no bands: 

The troubled King his Herrld fends again, 

fues for peace, that they his friends remain, 

it they make. y After a while his thoughts he re-colledls, 

If Greeks unto their Country-men declare, 
They foone may come, and. 

* That their return be ftopt, he judg d was beft, 

That fo Europians might no more moleft; 

Forth-with he fends to s Tent, they ftraight addrefie, 

The Four Monarchies. 243 

The fmiling Greeks reply, they firft muft bait, 

They were too hungry to Capitulate; 

The King great ftore of all proviiion fends, 

And Courtefie to th utmoft he pretends, 

Such terrour on the Perjlans then did fall, 

They quak d to hear them, to each other call. 

The King perplext, there dares not let them flay ; 

And fears as much, to let them march away, 

But Kings ne re want fuch as can ferve their will, 

Fit Inftruments t accomplim what is ill. 

As Tyffap kernes knowing his mafters mind, 

Their chief Commanders feafts and yet more kind/ 

With all the Oaths and deepeft Flattery, 

Gets them to treat with him in privacy, 

But violates his honour and his word, 

And Villain like there puts them all to th 7 Sword. 

The Greeks feeing ^ their valiant Captains (lain, [120] 

Chofe Xenophon to lead them home again: 

But Tiffaphernes what he could devife, 

Did flop the way in this their enterprize. . 

But when through difficulties all* they brake, 

The Country burnt, they no relief might take/ 

But on they march through hunger & through cold 

O re mountains, rocks and hills as lions bold, 

c Invites their chief Commander, as moft kinde ; 
d having. ftill. 

/ He fought all fuftinance from them to take ; 
Before them burnt the country as they went, 
So to deprive them of all nourilhment; 

244 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Nor Rivers courfe, nor Perjians force could ftay, 
But on to Trabefond they kept their way: 
There was of Greeks fetled a Colony, 
Who after all received them joyfully. 
Thus finifhing their travail, danger, pain/ 
In peace they faw their native foyle again. 
The Greeks now (as the Perjian king fufpecls) 
The AJiaticks cowardize detects, 
The many vi6k>ryes themfelves did gain, 
The many thoufand Perjians they had flain, 
And how their nation with facillity, 
Might gain h the univerfal Monarchy. 
They then Dercilladus fend with an hoft, 
Who with the Spartans on the AJian coaft, 
Town after town with fmall refiftance take, 
Which rumour makes great Artaxerxes quake. 
The Greeks by this fuccefs encourag d fo, 
Their King Ag-e/iIaus doth over goe, 
By Tiffaphernes is encountered, 
Lieftenant to the King, but foon he fled. 7 

.r There for fome time they were, but whilft they ftaid, 
Into Bythinia often in-rodes made ; 
The King afraid what further they might doe, 
Unto the Spartan Admirall did fue, 
Straight to tranfport them to the other fide, 
For thefe incurfions he durft not abide ; 
So after all their travell, danger, pain, 

- ^ 

Ji win. 

* Agefilaus himfelf doth over-goe; 

By th Kings Lieutenant is encountered, 

But Tyjfaphernes with his Army fled ; 

The Four Monarchies. 245 

Which overthrow incens d the King fo fore, 
That Tiffaphern muft be Viceroy no more. 
Tythrauftes then is placed in his ftead, L 121 ] 

Commiffion hath to y take the others head: 
Of that perjurious wretch this was the fate, 
Whom the old Queen did bear a mortal hate/ 
Tythrauftes trufts more to his wit then Arms, 
And hopes by craft to quit his Matters harms; 
He knows that many Towns in Greece envyes 
The Spartan State, which now fo faft did rife; 7 
To them he thirty thoufand Tallents fent 
With fuit, their Arms againft their m Foes be bent; 
They to their difcontent receiving hire, 
With broyles and quarrels fets all Greece on fire: 
Agejilaus is call d home with fpeed, 
To defend, more then offend, there was n need, 
Their winnings loft, and peace their glad to take 
On fuch conditions as the King will make/ 
DifTention in Greece continued fo long, 
Till many a Captain fell, both wife and ftrong, 
Whofe courage nought but death could ever tame 
Mongft thefe Epimanondas wants no fame, 
Who had (as noble Raileigh doth evince) 
All the peculiar virtues of a Prince; 

J And hath command, to. 

k Of that falfe perjur d wretch, this was the laft. 

Who of his cruelty made many taft, 

1 height, which now apace doth rife: force, againft his. * he had. 
" They now loft all, and were a peace to make, 

The Kings conditions they are forc t to take ; 

246 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

But let us leave thefe Greeks to difcord bent, 

And turn to Perjia, as is pertinent. 

The King from forreign parts now well^ at eafe, 

His home-bred troubles fought how to q appeafe 

The two Queens by his means feem r to abate, 

Their former envy and inveterate hate : 

But the old Queen implacable in ftrife, 

By poyfon ca^s d, the young one lofe her life. 

The King highly inrag d doth hereupon [ I22 ] 

From Court exile her unto Babilon\ 

But fhortly calls her home, her counfells prize, 

(A Lady very wicked, but yet wife) * 

Then in voluptuoufnefs he leads his life, 

And weds his daughter for a fecond wife. 

But long in eafe and pleafure did not lye, 

His fons fore vext him by difloyalty. 

Such as would know at large his warrs and reign, 

What troubles in his houfe he did fultain, 

His match inceiluous, cruelties of th Queen, 

His life may read in Plutarch to be feen. 

Forty three years he rul d, then turn d to duft, 

A King nor good, nor valiant, wife nor junV 

/ foes, and all. <] feeketh to. r gin. 

J This and the five preceding lines are not in the first edition. 

* Instead of this and the seven preceding lines, the first edition has the 
following : 

His Mothers wicked counfell was the caufe, 
Who fooths him up, his owne defires are Lawes : 
But yet for all his greatnefie, and long reign, 
He muft leave all, and in the pit remain ; 

The Four Monarchies. 247 

Darius Ochus. 

a wicked and Rebellious fon 
Succeeds in th throne, his father being gone. 
Two of his brothers in his Fathers dayes 
(To his great grief) molt fubtilly he Hayes: 
And being King, commands thofe that remain, 
Of brethren and of kindred to be ilain. 
Then raifes forces, conquers Egypt land, 
Which in rebellion iixty years did Hand: 
And in the twenty third ofs cruel raign 
Was by his Eunuch the proud Bagoas flain." 

Forty three years he rules, then turns to duft, 
As all the mighty ones, have done, and muft : 
But this of him is worth the memory, 
He was the Mafter of good Nehemie. 

Darius Ochus. 
I Reat Artaxerxes dead, Ochus fucceeds, 

Of whom no Record s extant of his deeds ; 
Was it becaufe the Grecians now at war r 
Made Writers work at home, they fought not far? 
Or dealing with the Perjtan, now no more 
Their A<$ts recorded not, as heretofore ? 
Or elfe, perhaps the deeds of Per/tan Kings 
In after wars were burnt, mongft other things? 
That three and twenty years he reign d I finde, 
The reft is but conjecture of my minde. 

248 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

A rfam es or A rfes, [ 1 2 3 ] 

A RSAMES plac d now in his fathers Head, 
* * By him that late his father murthered. 
Some write that Arfames was Ochus brother, 
Inthron d by Bagoas in the room of th other: 
But why his brother fore his fon fucceeds 
I can no reafon give, caufe none I read. 
His brother, as tis faid, long fince was flain, 
And fcarce a Nephew left that now might reign : 
What acts he did time hath not now left pen d, 
But moft fuppofe in him did Cyrus end, 
Whofe race long time had worne the diadem, 
But now s divolved to another item. 
Three years he reign d, then drank of s fathers cup 
By the fame Eunuch who firft fet him up. 7 

v Arfames, or Arfes. 

TT 7Hy Arfames his brother fhould fucceed, 

I can no reafon give, caufe none I read ; 
It maj be thought, furelj he had no Son, 
So fell to him, which elfe it had not done : 
What Acts he did, time hath not now left pend, 
But as tis thought, in him had Cyrus end : 
Whofe race long time had worn the Diadem, 
But now s divolved, to another Stem. 
Three years he reign d, as Chronicles exprelfe, 
Then Natures debt hepaid, quite IflTue-leiTe. 

The Four Monarchies. 249 

Darius Codomanus. 

"TAARIUS by this Bagoas fet in throne, 

(Complotter with him in the murther done) 
And was no fooner fetled in his reign, 
But Bagoas falls to s practices again, 
And the fame fauce had ferved him no doubt, 
But that his treafon timely was found out, 
And fo this wretch (a punimment too fmall) 
Loft but his life for horrid treafons all. 
This Codomanus now upon the ilage 
Was to his Predeceflbrs Chamber page. 
Some write great Cyrus line was not yet run, 
But from fome daughter this new king was fprung 
If fo, or not, we cannot tell, but find [ I2 4] 

That feveral men will have their feveral mind; 
Yet in fuch differences we may be bold, 
With learned and judicious fhill to hold; w 
And this mongft all s no Controverred thing, 
That this Darius, was lafh Perjian King, 

w Darius Codomanus. 

T TOw this Darius did attain the Crown, 

By favour, force, or fraud, is not fet down : 
If not (as is before) of Cyrus race, 
By one of thefe, he muft obtain the place. 
Some writers fay, that he was Arfes fon, 
And that great Cyrus line, yet was not run, 
That Ockus unto Arfames was father, 
Which by fome probabilities (feems rather;) 

250 Anne Bradftreetfs Works. 

Whofe Wars, and loifes we may better tell, 

In Alexander s reign who did him quell, 

How from the top of worlds felicity, 

He fell to depth of greateft mifery. 

Whofe honours, treafures, pleafures had fhort Hay, 

One deluge came and fwept them all away. 

And in the iixth year of his haplefs reign, 

Of all did fcarce his winding Sheet retain: 

And laft, a fad Cataftrophe to end, 

Him to the grave did Traitor Beffus fend. 

That fon, and father, both were murthered 
By one Bagoas, an Eunuch (as is fed.) 
Thus learned Pemble,* whom we may not flight, 
But as before doth (well read) Raleigh write, 
And he that ftory reads, mall often find ; 
That feverall men, will have their feverall mind ; 
Yet in thefe differences, we may behold ; 
With our judicious learned Knight to hold. 
* See Introduction. 

The End of the Perjian Monarchy. 

The Third Monarchy, [125] 
being the Grecian, beginning 

under Alexander the Great in the 
112. Olympiad. 

Alexander was wife Philips fon, 
He to Amyntas, Kings of Macedon\ 
The cruel proud Olympias was his Mother, 
She to Epirus warlike ^ King was daughter. 
This Prince (his father by Paufanias flain) 
The twenty firft of s age began to reign. 
Great were the Gifts of nature which he had, 
His education much to thofe did adde : 
By art and nature both he was made fit, 
To complim that which long before was writ. 
The very day of his Nativity 
To ground was burnt Dianaes Temple high: 
An Omen to their near approaching woe, 
Whofe glory to the earth this king^ did throw. 

x Shee to the rich MoloJJians. y Prince. 

252 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

His Rule to Greece he fcorn d fhould be confin d, 
The Univerfe fcarce bound his proud 2 vaft mind. 
This is the He-Goat which from Grecia came, 
That ran in Choler * on the Perjlan Ram, 
That brake his horns, that threw him on the ground [i 26] 
To fave him from his might no man was found: * 
Philip on this great Conqueft had an eye, 
But death did terminate thofe thoughts fo high. 
The Greeks had chofe him Captain General, 
Which honour to his Son did now befall. 
(For as Worlds Monarch now we fpeak not on, 
But as the King of little Macedon) 
Reftlefs both day and night his heart then was, 
His high refolves which way to bring to pafs 5 
Yet for a while in Greece is forc d to Hay, 
Which makes each moment feem more then a day. 
Thebes and ftiff b Athens both gainft him rebel, 
Their mutinies by valour doth he quell/ 
This done againft both d right and natures Laws, 
His kinsmen put to death, who gave no e caufe; 
That no rebellion 7 in in his abfence be, 
Nor making Title unto Sovereignty. 
And all whom he fufpects or fears will climbe/ 
Now tafte of death leaft they deferv d 7 in time, 

* large. a fury. * Daniel, chap. viii. b old. 

c But he their mutinies, full fopn doth quell. d all. 

e without leaft. / combuftion. 

g In feeking after Soveraignity : 

And many more, whom he fufpedts will climbe. 
h deferv t. 

The Four Monarchies. 253 

Nor wonder is t if he in blood begin, 

For Cruelty was his parental fin, 

Thus eafed now of troubles and of fears, 

Next fpring his courfe to Ajia he fleers; 

Leavs Sage Antipater, at home to fway, 

And through the Hellifpont his Ships made way. 

Coming to Land, his dart on more he throws, 

Then with alacrity he after goes; 

And with a bount ous heart and courage brave, 

His little wealth among his Souldiers gave. 

And being ask d what for himfelf was left, [ I2 7] 

Reply d, enough, fith only hope he kept/ 

Thirty two thoufand made up his Foot force, 

To which were joyn d five thoufand goodly horfe. 

Then on he marcht, in s way he view d old Troy, 

And on Achilles tomb with wondrous joy 

He offer d, and for good fuccefs did pray 

To him, his Mothers Anceftors/ (men fay) 

When news of Alexander came to Court, 

To fcorn at him Darius had good fport; 

Sends him a frothy and contemptuous Letter, 

Stiles him difloyal fervant, and no better; 

Reproves him for his proud audacity 

To lift his hand gainft fuch a Monarchy. 

Then to s Lieftenant he in Ajia fends 

That he be ta ne alive, for he intends 

This and the three preceding lines are not in the first edition. 
/ Anceftor. 

254 Anne Bradftreet * s Works. 

To whip him well with rods, and fo to bring 

That boy fo mallipert before the King. 

Ah! fond vain man, whofe pen ere while 

In lower terms was taught a higher ftile. 

To River Granick Alexander hyes 

Which in Phrygia near Propontike lyes.^ 

The Per/tans ready for encounter Hand, 

And ftrive l to keep his men from off the land; 

Thofe banks fo fbeep the Greeks yet fcramble up, 

And beat the coward Per/tans from the top, 

And twenty thoufand of their lives bereave, 

Who in their backs did all their wounds receive. 

This victory did Alexander gain, 

With lofs of thirty four of his there flain; 

Then Sardis he, and Ephefus did gain, [ I2 ^ 

Where flood of late, Diana s wondrous Phane^ 

And by Parmenio (of renowned Fame,) 

Miletus and Pamphilia overcame. 

Hallicarnaffus and Pijidia 

He for his Matter takes with Lycia. 

Next Alexander marcht towards the black Sea, 

And eafily takes old Gordium in his way, 

Of Afs ear d Midas, once the Regal Seat, 

Whofe touch turn d all to gold, yea even his meat 

Where the Prophetick knot he cuts in twain, 

Which who fo doth, muft Lord of all remain. 

Now news of Memnorfs death (the Kings Viceroy) 

To Alexanders heart s no little joy, 

* Which twixt Phrtgia, and Propontis lyes. I think. 

The Four Monarchies. 255 

For in that Peer, more valour did abide, 

Then in Darius multitude belide: 

In s Head, was Arfes plac d, but durft not flay, 

Yet fet one in his room, and ran away; 

His fubftitute as fearfull as his mafter, 

Runs after two/* and leaves all to Difafter. 

Then Alexander all Cilicia takes, 

No ftroke for it he ftruck, their hearts fo quakes. 

To Greece he thirty thoufand talents fends, 

To raife more Force to further his intends : 

Then o re^ he goes Darius now to meet, 

Who came with thoufand thoufands at his feet. 

Though fome there be (perhaps) q more likely write 

He but four hundred thoufand had to fight, 

The reft Attendants, which made up no lefs, 

Both Sexes there was almost numberlefs. 

For this wife King had brought to fee the fport, [129] 

With him the greateft Ladyes r of the Court, 

His mother, his beauteous Queen* and daughters, 

It feems to fee the Macedonian flaughters. 

Its much * beyond my time and little art, 

To fhew how great Darius plaid his part; 

The fplendor and the pomp he marched in, 

For lince the world was no fuch Pageant feen. 

Sure * twas a goodly light there to behold, 

The Per/tans clad in lilk, and glittering" gold, 

* There Arfemes was plac d, yet. * Goes after too. 

o for what he yet intends. P And on. Q and that. 

f Along with him, the Ladyes. s His mother old, beautious wife, 

* Sure its. Oh. glitt ring. 

256 Anne Bradft reef s Works. 

The ftately horfes trapt, the lances gilt, 

As if addreft u now all to run a tilt. 

The holy fire was borne before the hoft, 

(For Sun and Fire the Per/tans worfhip moft) 

The Priefts in their ftrange habit follow after, 

An object, not fo much of fear as laughter. 

The King fate in a chariot made of gold, 

With crown and Robes moft glorious to behold, 

And o re his head his golden Gods on high, 

Support a party coloured Canopy. 

A number of fpare horfes next were led, 

Left he mould need them in his Chariots ftead; 

But thofe that faw him in this ftate to lye, 

Supposed he neither meant 2 to fight nor flye. 

He fifteen hundred had like women dreft; 

For thus w to fright the Greeks he judg d was beft. 

Their golden ornaments how to fet forth, 

Would ask more time then was their bodies worth 

Great Syjigambis me brought up the Reer, 

Then fuch a world of waggons did appear, 

Like feveral houfes moving upon wheels, [ I 3] 

As if fhe d drawn whole Shujhan at her heels : 

This brave Virago to the King was mother, 

And as much good fhe did as any other. 

Now left this gold, and all this goodly fluff 

Had not been fpoyle and^ booty rich enough 

* As if they were. 

v Would think he neither thought. w fo. 

The Four Monarchies. 257 

A thoufand mules and Camels ready wait 

Loaden with gold, with jewels and with plate: 

For fure Darius thought at the firfl light, 

The Greeks would all adore, but none would fight 

But when both Armies met, he might behold 

That valour was more worth then pearls or gold, 

And that his wealth ferv d but for baits to lure 

To make* his overthrow more fierce and fure. 

The Greeks came on and with a gallant grace 

Let fly their arrows in the Per/tans face. 

The cowards feeling this fharp flinging charge 

Moil bafely ran, and left their king at large : 

Who from his golden coach is glad to light, 

And carl away his crown for fwifter flight: 

Of late like fome immoveable he lay, 

Now finds both legs and horfe to run away. 

Two hundred thoufand men that day were ilain, 

And forty thoufand prifoners alfo tane, 

Belides the Queens and Ladies of the court, 

If Curtius be true in his report. 

The Regal Ornaments were loft, the treafure 

Divided at the Macedonians pleafure; 

Yet all this grief, this lofs, this overthrow, 

Was but beginning of his future woe. 

The royal Captives brought to Alexander [ I 3 r ] 

T ward them demean d himfelf like a Commander 

For though their beauties were unparaled, 

Conquer d himfelf now he had conquered, 

* Which made. 

258 Anne Bradft reef s Works. 

Preferv d their honour, us d them bounteoufly/ 

Commands no man mould doe them injury: 

And this to Alexander is more fame 

Then that the Perjlan King he overcame. 

Two hundred eighty Greeks he loft in fight, 

By too much heat, not wounds (as authors write) 

No fooner had this Vi6lor * won the field, 

But all Phenicia to his pleafure yield, 

Of which the Goverment he doth commit 

Unto Parmenio of all moft fit. 

Darius now lefs lofty a then before, 

To Alexander writes he would reftore 

Thofe mournfull Ladies from Captivity, 

For whom he offers him a ranfome high : 

But down his haughty ftomach could not bring, 

To give this Conquerour the Stile of King. 

This Letter Alexander doth difdain, 

And in fhort terms fends this reply again, 

A King he was, and that not only fo, 

But of Darius King, as he mould know. 

Next Alexander unto Tyre doth goe, 

His valour and his victory es they know: 

To gain his love the Tyrians intend, 

Therefore a crown and great Provifion fend, 

Their prefent he receives with thankfullnefs, 

Defires to offer unto Hercules, 

Protector of their town, by whom defended, [ 

And from whom he b lineally defcended. 

y courteoufly. * Captaine. a more humble. ^ alfo 

The Four Monarchies. 259 

But they accept not this in any wife, 

Left he intend more fraud then facrifice, 

Sent word that Hercules his temple flood 

In the old town, (which then lay like a wood) 

With this reply he was fo deep enrag d, 

To win the town, his honour he ingag d: 

And now as Babels King did once before, 

He leaves not till he made the fea firm more, 

But far lefs time and coft he did expend, 

The former Ruines forwarded his end:** 

Moreover had a Navy at command, 

The other by his men fetcht all by land. 

In feven months time he took that wealthy-^ town, 

Whofe glory now a fecond time s brought down. 

Two thoufand of the chief he crucifi d, 

Eight thoufand by the fword then alfo di d, 

And thirteen thoufand Gaily flaves he made, 

And thus the Tyrians for miftruft were paid. 

The rule of this he to Philotas gave 

Who was the fon of that Parmenio brave. 

Cilicia to Socrates doth give, 

For now s the time Captains like Kings may live. 

Zidon he on Ephejlion beftowes; 

(For that which freely^ comes, as freely goes) 

He fcorns to have one worfe then had the other, 

So gives his little Lordihip to another. 

fore. d help to him now lend ; Belides, he. 

/ fpace he takes this lofty. g eafily. 

260 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Epheftion having chief command of th Fleet,* 

At Gaza now muft Alexander meet. 

Darius finding troubles Hill increafe, [ X 33] 

By his AmbaiTadors now fues for peace, 

And layes before great Alexanders eyes 

The dangers difficultyes like to rife, 

Firft at Euphrates what he s like to bide, 

And then at Tygris and Araxis lide, 

Thefe he may fcape, and if he fo defire, 

A league of friendfhip make firm and entire. 

His eldeft daughter he in manage prefers/ 

And a moft princely dowry with her offers. * 

All thofe rich Kingdomes large that do abide 

Betwixt the Hellefpont and Halys fide. 

But he with fcorn his courtefie rejects, 

And the diflreffed King no whit l refpe6ls, 

Tells him, thefe proffers great, in truth were none 

For all he offers now was but his own. 

But quoth Parmenio that brave Commander, 

Was I as great, as is great Alexander, 

Darius offers I would not reject, 

But th kingdomes and the Lady "* foon accept. 

To which proud n Alexander made reply, 

And fo if I Parmenio was, would I. 

He now to Gaza goes, and there doth meet, 

His Favorite Ephejlion with his Fleet, 

* And therefore gives this Lord-fliip to another. 
Epeftion now, hath the command o th Fleet, 

* (him). j offers. * proffers. / way. 
* Ladies. brave. o did. 

The Four Monarchies. 261 

Where valiant Betis floutly keeps * the town, 

(A loyal Subject to Darius Crown) 

For more repulfe the Grecians here abide 

Then in the Per/tan Monarchy beiide; 

And by thefe walls fo many men were flain, 

That Greece was forc d to yield q fupply again. 

But yet this well defended Town was taken, [ T 34] 

For twas decree d, that Empire mould be fhaken; 

Thus Betis ta en r had holes bor d through his feet, 

And by command was drawn through every ftreet 

To imitate Achilles in his fhame, 

Who did the like to Heftor (of more fame) 

What haft thou loft thy magnimity/ 

Can Alexander deal thus cruelly? 

Sith valour with Heroicks is renown d, 

Though in an Enemy it mould be found; 

If of thy future fame thou hadft regard, 

Why didft not heap up honours and reward? 

From Gaza to Jerufalem he goes, 

But in no hoflile way, (as I fuppofe) 

Him in his Prieftly Robes high Jaddus meets, 

Whom with great reverence Alexander greets; 

The Prieft mews him good Daniels Prophefy, 

How he mould overthrow this Monarchy, 

By which he was fo much encouraged, 

No future dangers he did ever dread. 

From thence to fruitful Egypt marcht with fpeed, 

Where happily in s wars he did fucceed; 

/ doth defend. 9 muft jeeld a frefh. 

r The Captaine tane. * thy late magnanimity? 

262 Anne Bradftreetfs Works. 

To fee how faft he gain d was no fmall wonder, 

For in few dayes he brought that Kingdome under. 

Then to the Phane of Jupiter he went, 

To be inftall d* a God, was his intent. 

The Pagan Prieft through hire, or elfe mifbake, 

The Son of Jupiter did fhreight him make: 

He Diobolical muft needs remain, 

That his humanity will not retain. 

Thence* back to Egypt goes, and in few dayes; [135] 

Fair Alexandria from the ground doth raife; 

Then fetling all things in lefs Afea\ 

In Syria, Egypt, and Phenicia, 

Unto Euphrates marcht and overgoes, 

For no man s there his Army to oppofe;* 

Had Betis now been there but with his band, 

Great Alexander had been kept from Land. 

But as the King, fo is the multitude, 

And now of valour both are deftitute. 

Yet he (poor prince) another Holt doth mufter, 

Of Perjians, Scythians, Indians in a clufter; 

Men but in ihape and name, of valour none 

Moft fit/ to blunt the Swords of Macedon. 

Two hundred fifty thoufand by account, 

Of Horfe and Foot his Army did amount; 

For in his multitudes his truft fbill lay, 

But on their fortitude he had fmall flay; 

Yet had fome hope that o n the fpacious w plain, 

His numbers might the vi6lory obtain. 

* For to be call d. t Now. 

For no man to refift his valour fhowes ; v Fit for. w that eeven. 

The Four Monarchies. 263 

About this time Darius beautious Queen, 

Who had fore * travail and much forrow feen, 

Now bids the world adue, with pain^ being fpent, 

Whofe death her Lord full fadly did lament/ 

Great Alexander mourns as well as he, 

The more becaufe not fet at liberty ;* 

When this fad news (at firft Darius hears, 

Some injury was offered he fears: 

But when inform d how royally the King, 

Had ufed her, and hers, in every thing, 

He prays the immortal Gods they would reward [136] 

Great Alexander for this good regard; 

And if they down his Monarchy will throw, 

Let them on him this dignity beflow. 

And now for peace he fues as once before, 

And offers all he did and Kingdomes more; 

His eldeft daughter for his princely bride, 

(Nor was fuch match in all the world beiide) 

And all thofe Countryes which (betwixt) did lye 

Phanijian Sea, and great Euphrates high: 

With fertile Egypt and rich Syria, 

And all thofe Kingdomes in lefs AJia. 

With thirty thoufand Talents to be paid, 

For the Queen Mother, and the royal maid ; 

And till all this be well performed, and fure, 

Ochus his Son for Hoftage mould b endure. 

x long. y her time. 

And leaves her wofull Lord for to lament. 
* For this loft Queen (though in captivity) 
* Son a hoftage mail. 

264 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

To this llout Alexander gives no ear, 

No though Parmenio plead, yet will not hear; 

Which had he done, (perhaps) his fame he d kept, 

Nor Infamy had wak d, .when he had flept, 

For his unlimited profperity 

Him boundlefs made in vice and Cruelty. 

Thus to Darius he writes back again, 

The Firmament, two Suns cannot contain. 

Two Monarchyes on Earth cannot abide, 

Nor yet two Monarchs in one world relide; 

The afflicted King finding him fet to jar, 

Prepares againfl to morrow, for the war, 

Parmenio , Alexander, wifht that night, 

To force his Camp, fo vanquifh them by flight/ 

For tumult in the night d doth caufe moft dread, [137] 

And weaknefs of a Foe is covered, 

But he difdain d to fteal a vi6lory: 

The Sun fhould witnefs of his valour be, 

And carelefs in his bed, next morne he lyes, 

By Captains twice is call d before hee l rife, 

The Armyes joyn d a while, the Perjians fight, 

And fpilt the Greeks fome bloud before their flight 

But long they flood not e re they re forc d to run, 

So made an end, As foon as well begun/ 

Forty five thoufand Alexander had, 

But is not known what flaughter here was made, 


c fo put them all to flight ; d dark. 

e Instead of this and the five preceding lines, the first edition has, 

Both Armies meet, Greeks fight, the Per/tans run, 

So make an end, before they well begun ; 

The Four Monarchies. 265 

Some write th other had a million, fome more, 

But Quintus Curtius as before/ 

At Arbela this victory was gain d, 

Together with * the Town alfo obtain d ; 

Darius flript of all to Media came, 

Accompan ed with forrow, fear, and mame, 

At Arbela left his Ornaments and Treafure, 

Which Alexander deals as fuits his pleafure. 

This conqueror to Babylon then goes,* 

Is entertain d with joy and pompous fhowes/ 

With fhowrs of flours the llreets along are ftrown, 

And incenfe burnt the filver Altars on. 

The glory of the Cafble he admires, 

The ftrong Foundation 7 and the lofty Spires, 

In this, a world k of gold and Treafure lay, 

Which in few hours was carried all away. 

With greedy eyes he views this City round, 

Whofe fame throughout the world was fo renownd 

And to poflefs he counts no little blifs [ T 3^] 

The towres and bowres of proud Semiramis, 

Though worne by time, and rac d / by foes full fore, 

Yet old foundations fhew d and fomewhat more. 

With all the pleafures that on earth are m found, 

This city did abundantly abound, 

Where four and thirty dayes he now did ilay, 

And gave himfelf to banqueting and play: 

/ as was faid before. g And now with it, k now goes to Babylon, 
train. / The firme foundations, k mane. / raz d. ** was. 


266 Anne Bradftreef s Works. 

He and his fouldiers wax effeminate, 

And former difcipline begin to hate. 

Whilft revelling at Babylon he lyes, 

Antipater from Greece fends frefh * fupplyes. 

He then to Shujhan goes with his new^ bands, 

But needs no force, tis rendred to his hands. 

He likewife here a world of treafure found; 

For twas the feat of Per/Ian Kings renownd. 

Here flood the royal Houfes of delight, 

Where Kings have mown their glory wealth and might 

The fumptuous palace of Queen EJlher q here, 

And of good Mordicai, her kinfman dear, 

Thofe purple hangings, mixt with green and white 

Thofe beds of gold, and couches of delight. 

And furniture the richeft in all lands, 

Now fall into the Macedonians hands. 

From Shujhan to Perfepolis he goes, 

Which news doth ftill augment Darius woes. 

In his approach the governour fends word, 

For his receipt with joy they all accord, 

With open gates the wealthy town did Hand, 

And all in it was at his high command. 

Of all the Cities that on earth was found, [ X 39] 

None like to this in riches did abound : 

Though Babylon was rich and Shujhan too 

Yet to compare with this they might not doe: 

Here lay the bulk of all thofe precious things 

That did pertain unto the Perjian Kings : 

great. " Stt/kan" here and elsewhere, in the first edition. 

P frefh. q Hefter. 

The Four Monarchies. 267 

For when the fouldiers rifled had their pleafure, 

And taken money plate and golden treafure, 

Statues fome r gold, and filver numberlefs, 

Yet after all, as floryes do exprefs 

The fhare of Alexander did amount 

To an hundred thoufand talents by account. 

Here of his own he fets a Garifon, 

(As firft at ShuJJian and at Babylon) 

On their old Governours titles he laid, 

But on their faithfulnefs he never itaid, 

Their place s gave to his Captains (as was * juft) 

For fuch revolters falfe, what King can* truft? 

The riches and the pleafures of this town 

Now makes this King his virtues* all to drown, 

That wallowing v in all licentioufnefs, 

In pride and cruelty to high excefs. 

Being inflam d with wine upon a feafon, 

Filled with madnefs, and quite void of reafon, 

He at a bold proud * ftrumpets leud defire, 

Commands to fet this goodly town on fire. 

Parmenio wife intreats him to delift 

And layes before his eyes if he perfift 

His fames y difhonour, lofs unto his ftate, 

And juft procuring of the Per/tans hate : 

But deaf to reafon, bent to have his will, [H ] 

Thofe ftately ftreets with raging flame did fill. 

Then to Darius he directs his way, 

Who was retir d as far as z Media, 

r of. * charge. * moft. Prince will. v He walloweth now, 
w to th higheft. * bafe. y names. * and gone to. 

268 Anne Bradftreet s Works. 

And there with forrows, fears & cares furrounded 

Had now his army fourth and laft compounded. 

Which forty thoufand made, but his intent 

Was thefe a in Baftria foon b to augment: 

But hearing Alexander was fo near, 

Thought now this once to try his fortunes here, 

And rather chofe an honourable death, 

Then ftill with infamy to draw his breath: 

But BeJJus falfe, who was his chief Commander 

Perfwades him not to fight with Alexander. 

With fage advice he fets c before his eyes 

The little hope of profit like to rife: 

If when he d multitudes the day he loft, 

Then with fo few, how likely to be croft. 

This counfel for his fafety he pretended, 

But to deliver him to s foe intended. 

Next day this treafon to Darius known 

Tranfported fore with grief and paffion, 

Grinding his teeth, and plucking off his hair, 

Sate overwhelmed with forrow and difpair: 

Then bids his fervant Artabafus true, 

Look to himfelf, and leave him to that crew, 

Who was of hopes and comforts quite bereft, 

And by his guard and Servitors all left. 

Straight BeJJus comes, & with his trait rous hands 

Layes hold on s Lord, and binding him with bands 

Throws him into a Cart, covered with hides, [141] 

Who wanting means t ? refift thefe wrongs abides, 

ftraight b thefe. 

The Four Monarchies. 269 

Then draws the cart along with chains of gold, 

In more defpight the thraled prince to hold, 

And thus t ward^ Alexander on he goes, 

Great recompence for this/ he did propofe: 

But fome detefting this his wicked fa<5t, 

To Alexander flyes and tells 7 this a6t, 

Who doubling of his march, polls on amain, 

Darius from that*" traitors hands to gain. 

Beffus gets knowledg his difloyalty 

Had Alexanders wrath incenfed high, 

Whofe army now was almoft within fight, 

His hopes being dafht prepares himfelf for flight: 

Unto Darius firft he brings a horfe, 

And bids him fave himfelf by fpeedy courfe: 

The wofull King his courtefie refufes, 

Whom thus the execrable wretch abufes, 

By throwing darts gave him his mortal wound, 

Then flew his Servants that were faithfull found, 

Yea wounds the beafts that drew him unto death, 

And leaves him thus to gafp out his laft breath. 

Beffus his partner in this tragedy, 

Was the falfe Governour of Media. 

This done, they with their hoft foon fpeed away, 

To hide themfelves remote in BaElria. 

Darius bath d in blood, fends out his groans, 

Invokes the heav ns and earth to hear his moans: 

His loft felicity did grieve him fore, 

But this unheard of treachery * much more: 

d to. e in s thoughts, / fly, and told. g thofe. k injury. 

270 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

But* above all, that neither Ear nor Eye [ J 4 2 ] 

Should hear nor fee his dying y mifery; 

As thus he lay, Poliftrates a Greek, 

Wearied with his long march, did water feek, 

So chanc d thefe bloudy Horfes to efpy, 

Whofe wounds had made their skins of purple dye 

To them repairs then k looking in the Cart, 

Finds poor Darius pierced to the heart, 

Who not a little chear d to have fome eye, 

The witnefs of this horrid Tragedy; 7 

Prays him to Alexander to commend 

The juft revenge of this his woful end : 

And not to pardon fuch difloyalty, 

Of Treafon, Murther, and bafe Cruelty. 

If not, becaufe Darius thus did pray, 

Yet that fucceeding Kings in fafety may 

Their lives enjoy, their Crowns and dignity, 

And not by Traitors hands untimely dye. 

He alfo fends his humble thankfulnefs, 

For all the Kingly grace he did exprefs; 

To s Mother, Children dear, and wife now gone. 

Which made their long reltraint feem to be none : 

Praying the immortal Gods, that Sea and Land 

Might be fubje6ted to his royal hand, 

And that his Rule as far extended be, 

As men the riling, fetting Sun mall fee, 

This faid, the Greek for water doth intreat, 

To quench his thirft, and to allay his heat: 

* Yea. > groans, and. * he goes, and. I of his dying mifery : 

The Four Monarchies. 271 

Of all good things (quoth he) once in my power, 

I ve nothing left, at this my dying hour; 

Thy fervice and companion to reward, [ X 43] 

But Alexander will, for this regard.* 

This faid, his fainting breath did fleet away, 

And though a Monarch late, now lyes like clay; 

And^ thus muft every Son of Adam lye, 

Though Gods on Earth like Sons of men they^ dye. 

Now to the Eaft, great Alexander goes, 

To fee if any dare his might oppofe, 

For fcarce the world or any bounds thereon, 

Could bound his boundlefs fond Ambition; 

Such as fubmits again he doth reftore 

Their riches, and their honours he makes more, 

On Art ab aces more then all beftow d, 

For his fidelity to s Mafter fhow d. 

Thaleftris Queen of th Amazons now brought 

Her Train to Alexander, (as tis thought.) 

Though moft r of reading befl and foundeil mind, 

Such Country there, nor yet fuch people find. 

Then tell her errand, we had better fpare 

To th ? ignorant, her title will s declare : 

As Alexander in his greatnefs grows, 

So dayly of his virtues doth he lofe. 

He bafenefs counts, his former Clemency, 

And not befeeming fuch a dignity; 

His pail fobriety doth alfo bate/ 

As moft incompatible to his State; 


* pitty. * Wherefore the gods requite thy kinde regard. 

once. P Yea. f fhall. r fome. * may. < hate. 

272 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

His temperance is but a fordid thing, 

No wayes becoming fuch a mighty King; 

His greatnefs now he takes to reprefent 

His fancy d Gods above the Firmament. 

And fuch as fhew d but reverence before, [ T 44] 

Now are commanded ftrictly to adore; 

With Perjian Robes himfelf doth dignifie, 

Charging the fame on his nobility, 

His manners habit, geftures, all did * fafhion 

After that conquer d and luxurious Nation. 

His Captains that were virtuoufly inclined, 

Griev d at this change of manners and of mind. 

The ruder fort did openly deride, 

His feigned Diety and foolilh pride; 

The certainty of both comes to his Ears, 

But yet no notice takes of what he hears : 

With thofe of worth he ftill defires efteem, 

So heaps up gifts his credit to redeem 

And for the reft new wars and travails v finds, 

That other matters might take up their minds, 

And hearing Beffus, makes himfelf a King, 

Intends that Traitor to his end to bring. 

Now that his Hoft from luggage might be free, 

And with his burthen no man burthened be; 

Commands forthwith each man his fardle bring, 

Into the market place before the King; 

Which done, fets fire upon thofe goodly * fpoyles, 

The recompence of travails wars and toyles. 

now doth. v travels. 

w Intends with fpeed, that Traitor down to bring; * coftly. 

The Four Monarchies. 273 

And thus unwifely in a mading^ fume, 

The wealth of many Kingdomes did* confume, 

But marvell tis that without mutiny, 

The Souldiers mould let pafs this injury; 

Nor wonder lefs to Readers may it bring, 

Here to obferve the rafhnefs of the King. 

Now with his Army doth he poft* away [ T 45] 

Falfe Beffus to find out in Battria : 

But much b diftreft for water in their march, 

The drought and heat their bodies fore did c parch. 

At length they came to th river Oxus brink, 

Where fo d immoderately thefe thirfty drink, 

Which more mortality to them did bring, 

Then all their 7 warrs againft the Perjian King. 

Here Alexander^ almoft at a ftand, 

To pafs the River to g the other land. 

For boats here s none, nor near it any wood, 

To make them Rafts to waft them o re the flood : 

But he that was refolved in his mind, 

Would without means fome * tranfportation find. 

Then from the Carriages the hides he takes, 

And Huffing them with ftraw, he bundles makes. 

On thefe together ti d, in fix dayes fpace, 

They all pafs over to the other place. 

y one raging. * Cities doth. haft. 1> fore. 

c much doth. d moft. * This. / did their. 

g How to paffe over, and gaine. 

h Would by fome means a. * So from his. 


274 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Had Beffus had but valour to his will, 

With little pain there might have kept them ftill:- 7 

But Coward durft not fight, nor could he fly, 

Hated of all for s former treachery, 

Is by his own now bound in iron chains, 

A Coller of the fame, his neck contains. 

And in this fort they rather drag then bring 

This Malefa6tor vile * before the King, 

Who to Darius brother gives the wretch, 

With racks and tortures every limb to flretch. 

Here was of Greeks a town in Battria, 

Whom Xerxes from their Country led away, 

Thefe not a little joy d, this day to fee, 

Wherein their own had got the fov raignty 

And now reviv d, with hopes held up their head 

From bondage long to be Enfranchifed. 

But Alexander puts them to the fword 

Without leaf! caufe from m them in deed or word ; 

Nor Sex, nor age, nor one, nor other fpar d, 

But in his cruelty alike they fhar d: 

Nor reafon could he give for this great wrong, 

But that they had forgot their mother tongue. 

While thus fome time he fpent in Battria, 

And in his camp ftrong and fecurely lay, 

Down from the mountains twenty thoufand came 

And there moft fiercely fet upon the fame : 

Repelling thefe, two marks of honour got 

Imprinted in his* leg, by arrows mot. 

He eafily might have made them ftay there ftil ; * vild. 

I had foveraignity. * Without caule, given by. deep in s. 

The Four Monarchies. 275 

The Baftrians againft him now rebel; 

But he their flubbornefs in time doth quell. 

From hence he to Jaxartis River goes. 

Where Scythians rude his army^ doth oppofe, 

And with their outcryes in an hideous fort 

Befet his camp, or military court, 

Of darts and arrows, made fo little fpare, 

They flew fo thick, they feem d to dark the air: 

But foon his fouldiers q forc d them to a flight, 

Their r nakednefs could not endure their might. 

Upon this rivers bank in feventeen dayes 

A goodly City doth compleatly raife, 

Which Alexandria he doth like wife s name, 

And fixty furlongs could but round the fame. 

A" third Supply Antipater now fent, [147] 

Which did his former forces 2 much augment; 

And being one hundred twenty thoufand ftrong; 

He enters then the Indian Kings among: 

Thofe that fubmit, he gives them rule again, 

Such as do not, both them and theirs are flain. 

His warrs with fundry nations Fie omit, 

And alfo of the Mallians what is writ. 

His Fights, his dangers, and the hurts he had, 

How to fubmit their necks at laft they re glad.-* 

o full foone. P valour. 9 the Grecians. r Whofe. 

J alfo. * not. His. Army. w he doth reftore again. 
x Instead of this and the three preceding lines, the first edition has, 

To age, nor fex, no pitty doth exprefie, 

But all fall by his fword, moft mercileffe. 

276 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

To Nifa goes by Bacchus built long lince, 

Whofe feafts are celebrated by this prince; 

Nor had that drunken god one who would take 

His Liquors more devoutly for his fake. 

When thus ten days his brain with wine he d foakt, 

And with delicious meats his palate choakt: 

To th River Indus next his courfe he bends, 

Boats to prepare, Epheftion firft he fends. 

Who coming thither long before his Lord, 

Had to his mind made all things to accord, 

The vefTels ready were at his command, 

And Omphis King of that part of the land, 

Through his perfwafion Alexander meets, 

And as his Sov raign Lord him humbly greets 

Fifty fix Elephants he brings to s hand, 

And tenders him the ftrength of all his land; 

Prefents himfelf firft y with a golden crown, 

Then eighty talents to his captains down: 

But Alexander made z him to behold 

He glory fought, no filver nor no gold; 

His prefents all with thanks he did reilore, 

And of his own a thoufand talents more. 

Thus all the Indian Kings to him fubmit, 

But Porus flout, who will not yeild as yet: 

To him doth Alexander thus declare, 

His pleafure is that forthwith he repair 

Unto his Kingdomes borders, and as due, 

His homage to himfelf * as Soveraign doe: 

y there. * caus d. a unto him. 

The Four Monarchies. 277 

But kingly Porus this brave anfwer fent, 

That to attend him there was his intent, 

And come as well provided as he could, 

But for the reft, his fword advife him mould. 

Great Alexander vext at this reply, 

Did more his valour then his crown envy, 

Is now refolv d to pafs Hydafpes flood, 

And there by force his foveraignty make good. 

Stout Porus on the banks doth ready ftand b 

To give him welcome c when he comes to land. 

A potent army with him like a King, 

And ninety Elephants for warr did bring: 

Had Alexander fuch reliftance feen 

On Tygris fide, here now he had not been. 

Within this fpacious River deep and wide 

Did here and there Ifles full of trees abide. 

His army Alexander doth divide 

With Ptolemy fends part to th other fide; 

Porus encounters them and thinks all s there, 

When covertly the reft get o re elfe where, 

And whilft the firft he valiantly affail d, 

The laft fet on his back, and fo prevailed. 

Yet work enough here Alexander found, [ X 49] 

For to the laft ftout Porus kept his ground : 

Nor was t difhonour at the length to yield, 

When Alexander ftrives to win the field. 

* And there his Soveraignty for to make good ; 

But on the banks doth Porus ready ftand, 
c For to receive him, 

278 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

The kingly Captive fore the Vigor s brought, 

In looks or gefbure not abafed ought, 

But him a Prince of an undaunted mind 

Did Alexander by his anfwers find: d 

His fortitude his royal foe commends, 

Reftores him and his bounds farther extends. 

Now eaftward Alexander would goe ftill, 

But fo to doe his fouldiers had no will, 

Long with exceffive travails wearied, 

Could by no means be farther drawn or led, 

Yet that his fame might to poilerity 

Be had in everlailing memory, 

Doth for his Camp a greater circuit take, 

And for his fouldiers larger Cabbins make. 

His mangers-^ he erected up fo high 

As never horfe his Provender could eye. 

Huge bridles made, which here and there he left, 

Which might be found, and for great wonders kept 

Twelve altars then for monuments he rears, 

Whereon his acts and travels long appears. 

But doubting wearing time might s thefe decay, 

And fo his memory would * fade away, 

He on the fair Hydafpes pleafant fide, 

Two Cities built, his name might there abide, 

Firft Nicea, the next Bucephalon, 

Where he entomb d his ftately Stalion. 

d This and the three preceding lines are not in the first edition. 
Kingly. / Maungers. g would. 

k might. * fame. 

The Four Monarchies. 279 

His fourth and laft fupply was hither fent, 

Then down- Hydaspes with his Fleet he went; 

Some time he after fpent upon that more, 

Whether Ambafladors, ninety or more/ 

Came with fubmiffion from the Indian Kings, 

Bringing their prefents rare, and precious things, 

Thefe all he feafts in ftate on beds of gold, 

His Furniture moft fumptuous to behold; 

His meat & drink, attendants, every thing, 

To th utmoft fhew d the glory of a King. 

With rich rewards he fent them home again, 

Acknowledged their Mailers fovereign; 

Then failing South, and coming to that more, 

Thofe obfcure Nations yielded as before: 

A City here he built, call d by his Name, 

Which could not found too oft with too much fame 

Then failing by the / mouth of Indus floud, 

His Gallyes ftuck upon the flats m and mud; 

Which the ftout Macedonians amazed fore, 

Depriv d at once the ufe of Sail and Oar: 

Obferving well the nature of the Tide, 

In thofe their fears * they did not long abide. 

Faffing fair Indus mouth his courfe he fteer d 

To th coaft which by Euphrates mouth appear d; 

Whofe inlets near unto, he winter fpent, 

Unto his ftarved Souldiers fmall content, 

j down t . k Where one hundred Embaffadours, or more, 

I Hence fajling down by th . fand. * Upon thofe Flats. 

280 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

By hunger and by cold fo many flain, 

That of them all the fourth did fcarce remain. 

Thus winter, Souldiers, and provilions fpent, 

From hence he then unto Gedrojia went. 

And thence he marcht into Carmania, [ I S I ] 

And fo at length drew near to Per/ia, 

Now through thefe goodly Countryes as he paft, 

Much time in feafts and ryoting did wafte; 

Then vifits Cyrus Sepulchre in s way, 

Who now obfcure at P affagardis lay: 

Upon his Monument his Robe * he fpread, 

And fet his Crown on his fuppofed head. 

From hence to Babylon, fome time there fpent, 

He at the laft to royal Shujhan went; 

A wedding Feaft to s Nobles then he makes, 

And Statyra, Darius daughter takes, 

Her Sifter gives to his Epheftian dear, 

That by this match he might be yet more near; 

He fourfcore Perjlan Ladies alfo gave, 

At this fame time unto his Captains brave : 

Six thoufand guefts unto this Feaft invites, 

Whofe Sences all were glutted with delights. 

It far exceeds my mean abilities 

To Ihadow forth thefe fhort felicities, 

Spectators here could fcarce relate the ftory, 

They were fo rapt^ with. this external glory: 

If an Ideal Paradife a man would frame, 

He might this Feaft imagine by the fame; 

Robes. / wrapt. 

The Four Monarchies. 281 

To every guefs 9 a cup of gold he fends, 

So after many dayes the Banquet ends. 

Now Alexanders conquefls all are done, 

And his long Travails r pail and overgone; 

His virtues dead, buried, and quite J forgot, 

But vice remains to his Eternal blot. 

Mongft thofe that of his cruelty did tail, [ X 5 2 ] 

Philotiis was not leaft, nor yet the laft, 

Accus d becaufe he did not certifie 

The King of treafon and confpiracy: 

Upon fufpition being apprehended, 

Nothing was prov d t wherein he had offended 

But lilence, which * was of fuch confequence, 

He was judg d guilty of the fame offence, 

But for his fathers great deferts the King 

His royal pardon gave for this foul w thing. 

Yet is Phylotas unto judgment brought, 

Mult fuffer, not for what is prov d,* but thought. 

His mailer is accufer, judge and King, 

Who to the height doth aggravate each thing, 

Inveighs againil his father now abfent, 

And s brethren who for him their lives had fpent. 

But Philotas his unpardonable crime, 

No^ merit could obliterate, or time: 

He did the Oracle of Jove z deride, 

By which his Majefty was diefi d. 

9 Gueft. r travells. * all. t found. guilt. 

v His death deferv d, for this fo high offence. fame. 
x what he did. y Which no. * lufiter. 


282 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Philotas thus o recharg d with wrong and grief 

Sunk in defpair without hope of Relief, 

Fain would have fpoke and made his own defence, 

The King would give no ear, but went from thence 

To his malicious Foes delivers him, 

To wreak their fpight and hate on every limb. 

Philotas after him fends out this cry, 

O Alexander, thy free clemency 

My foes exceeds in malice, and their hate 

Thy kingly word can ealily terminate. 

Such torments great as wit could worft" invent, [153] 

Or flefh and life could bear, till both were fpent 

Were now inflicted on Parmenio^s fon 

He might b accufe himfelf, as they had done, 

At laft he did, fo they were juftifi d, 

And told the world, that for his guilt c he di d. 

But how thefe Captains mould, or yet their mailer 

Look on Parmenio, after this difafher 

They knew not, wherefore beft now to be done, 

Was to difpatch the father as the fon. 

This found advice at heart pleas d Alexander, 

Who was fo much ingag d to this Commander, 

As he would ne re confefs, nor yet rf reward, 

Nor could his Captains bear fo great regard : 

Wherefore at once, all thefe to fatisfie, 

It was decreed Parmenio fhould dye : 

Polidamus, who feem d Parmenio^ friend 

To do this deed they into Media fend: 

firft. b For to. c for defert. d could. 

The Four Monarchies. 283 

He walking in his garden to and fro, 

Fearing* no harm, becaufe he none did doe, 7 

Mofb wickedly was {lain without lead crime, 

(The moil renowned captain of his time) 

This is Parmenio who fo much had done 

For Philip dead, and his furviving fon, 

Who from a petty King of Macedon 

By him was fet upon the Perjian throne, 

This that Parmenio who ftill overcame, 

Yet gave his Matter the immortal fame, 

Who for his prudence, valour, care and truft 

Had this reward, moft cruel and unjuft. 

The next, who in untimely death had part, [ T S4j 

Was one of more efteem, but lefs defert;^ 

Clitus belov d next to Epheftian, 

And in his cups his chief companion; 

When both were drunk, Clitus was wont to jeer, 

Alexander to rage, to kill, and fwear; 

Nothing more pleaiing to mad Clitus tongue, 

Then s Matters Godhead to defie and wrong; 

Nothing toucht Alexander to the quick, 

Like this againft his Diety to kick: 

Both at a Feaft when they had tippled well, h 

Upon this dangerous Theam fond Clitus fell; 

From jeft to earneft, and at laft fo bold, 

That of Parmenio s death him plainly told. 

Which Alexanders wrath incens d fo high, 

Nought but his life for this could fatisfie ; 

* Thinking. / owe. g defart. 

h Upon a time, when both had drunken well, 

284 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

From one flood by he fnatcht a partizan, 

And in a rage him through the body ran/ 

Next day he tore his face for what he d done, 

And would have flain himfelf for Clitus gone: 

This pot Companion he did more bemoan, 

Then all the wrongs to brave Parmenio done. 

The next of worth that fuffered after thefe, 

Was learned, virtuous, wife Califthenes, 

Who lov d his Mailer more then did the reft, 

As did appear, in flattering him the leaft; 

In his efteem a God he could not be, 

Nor would adore him for a Diety: 

For this alone and for no other caufe, 

Againft his Sovereign, or againft his Laws, 

He on the Rack his Limbs in pieces rent, [ I 55] 

Thus was he tortnr d till his life was fpent. 

Of this unkingly acV doth Seneca 

This cenfure pafs, and not unwifely fay, 

Of Alexander this th eternal crime, 

Which fhall not be obliterate by time. 

Which virtues fame can ne re redeem by far, 

Nor all felicity of his in war. 

When e re tis faid he thoufand thoufands flew, 

Yea, and Califthenes to death he drew. 

The mighty Perjlan King he overcame, 

Yea, and he kill d Calijlthenes of fame/ 

* Instead of this and the three preceding- lines, the first edition has, 
Alexander now no longer could containe, 
But inftantly commands him to be flaine ; 

deed - *b j name. 

The Four Monarchies. 285 

All Countryes, Kingdomes, Provinces, he wan 
From Hellifpont, to th fartheft Ocean. 

All this he did, who knows not to be true? 

But yet withal, Catifthenes he flew. 

From Macedon, his Empire did extend 

Unto the utmonV bounds o th orient: 

All this he did, yea, and much more, tis true, 

But yet withal, Catifthenes he flew. 

Now Alexander goes to Media, 

Finds there the want of wife Parmenio\ 

Here his chief favourite Ephejlian dies, 

He celebrates his mournful obfequies: 

Hangs his Phyfitian, the Reafon why 

He fuffered, his friend Ephejlian dye/ 

This act (me-thinks) his Godhead fhould a fhame, 

To punifh where himfelf deferved blame; 

Or of neceffity he muft imply, 

The other was the greater! Diety. 

The Mules and Horfes are for forrow fhorne, 

The battlements from off the walls are torne. 

Of fbately Ecbatane who now muft fhew, 

A rueful face in this fo general woe; 

Twelve thoufand Talents alfo did intend, 

Upon a fumptuous monument to fpend: 

I furthefi:. 
* After this the first edition has, 

For him eredls a ftately Monument, 

Twelve thoufand Tallents on it franckly fpent; 

Becaufe he let Epheftion to dye. 

286 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

What e re he did, or thought not fo content, 

His meflenger to Jupiter he fent, 

That by his leave his friend Epheftion, 

Among the Demy Gods they might inthrone/ 7 

From Media to Babylon he went, 

To meet him there t Antipater he d fent, 

That he might act alfo^ upon the Stage, 

And in a Tragedy there end his age. 

The Queen Olimpias bears him deadly hate, 

Not fuffering her to meddle with the State, 

And by her Letters did her Son incite, 

This great indignity he fhould^ requite; 

His doing fo, no whit difpleaf d the King, 

Though to his Mother he difprov d the thing. 

But now Antipater had liv d fo long, 

He might well dye though he had done no wrong; 

His fervice great is fuddenly forgot, 

Or if remembred, yet regarded not: 

The King doth intimate twas his intent, 

His honours and his riches to augment: 

Of larger Provinces the rule to give, 

And for his Counfel near the King to live. 

So to be caught, Antipater^ too wife, 

Parmemo s death s too frefh before his eyes; 

He was too fubtil for his crafty foe. . [ T 57] 

Nor by his baits could be infnared fo : 

But his excufe with humble thanks he fends, 

His Age and journy long he then pretends; 

* This and the nine preceding lines are not in the first edition. 
/ might next now a&. g for to. 

The Four Monarchies. 287 

And pardon craves for his unwilling ftay, 

He fhews his grief, he s forc d to difobey. 

Before his Anfwer came to Babylon, 

The thread of Alexanders life was fpun; 

Poyfon had put an end to s dayes ( twas thought) 

By Philip and Caffander to him brought, 

Sons to Antipater, and bearers of his Cup, 

Left of fuch like their Father chance to fup; 

By others thought, and that more generally, 

That through exceffive drinking he did dye: 

The thirty third of s Age do all agree, 

This Conquerour did yield to deftiny. 

When this fad news came to Darius Mother, 

She laid it more to heart, then any other, 

Nor meat, nor drink, nor comfort would me take, 

But pin d in grief till life did her forfake; 

All friends me fhuns, yea, bammed the light, 

Till death inwrapt her in perpetual night/ 

This Monarchs fame J muft laft whilft world doth ftand, 

And Conquefts be talkt of whileft there is land; 

His Princely qualities had he retain d, 

Unparalled for ever had remain d. 

But with the world his virtues overcame, 

And fo with black beclouded, all his fame; 

Wife Ariflotle Tutor to his youth. 

Had fo inftru6ted him in moral Truth: 

The principles of what he then had learn d 

Might to the laft (when fober) be difcern d. 

This and the five preceding lines are not in the first edition. 
* Whole famous Afts. * lhall. 

288 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Learning and learned men he much regarded, 

And curious Artift* evermore rewarded: 

The Illiads of Homer he Hill kept. 

And under s pillow laid them when he flept. 

Achilles happinefs he did envy, 

Caufe Homer kept his acts to memory. 

Profufely bountifull without defert, 

For fuch as v pleas d him had both wealth and heart 

Cruel by nature and by cufbome too, 

As oft his acts throughout his reign doth fhew: 

Ambitious fo, that nought could fatiffie, 

Vain, thirfting after immortality, 

Still fearing that his name might hap to dye, 

And fame not laft unto eternity. 

This Conqueror did oft lament (tis laid) 

There were no more worlds to be conquered. 

This folly great Auguftus did deride, 

For had he had but wifdome to his pride, 

He would had found enough there to be done, 

To govern that he had already won. 

His thoughts are perifht, he afpires no more, 

Nor can he kill or fave as heretofore. 

A God alive, him all muft Idolize, 

Now like a mortal helplefs man he lyes. 

Of all thofe Kingdomes large which he had got, 

To his Pofberity remain d no jot; 

For by that hand which ftill revengeth bloud, 
None of his kindred, nor his race long flood: 

Artifts. v thole that. w More boundles in ambition then the fkie, 

The Four Monarchies. 289 

But as he took delight much bloud to fpill, [ T 59] 

So the fame cup to his, did others fill. 

Four of his Captains now do all divide, 

As Daniel before had prophyfi d. 

The Leopard down, the* four wings gan to rife, 

The great horn broke, the lefs did tyranize.* 

What troubles and contentions did enfue 

We may hereafter mew in feafon due. 


Alexander dead, his Armyes left, 
Like to that Giant of his Eye bereft; 
When of his monftrous bulk it was the guide, 
His matchlefs force no creature could abide. 
But by Uliffes having loft his light, 
All men^ began fbreight to contemn his might; 
For aiming fbill amifs, his dreadful blows 
Did harm himfelf, but never reacht his Foes. 
Now Court and Camp all in confuiion be, 
A King they l have, but who, none can agree; 
Each Captain wifht this prize to bear away, 
But none fo hardy found as fo durft fay: 
Great Alexander did leave z IfTue none, 
Except by Artabafus daughter one; 

-* his. * Dan. vii.6; viii. 8, 22. y Each man. z had left. 


290 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

And Roxane fair whom late he married, 

Was near her time to be delivered. 

By natures right these had enough to claim, 

But meanefs of their mothers bar d the fame, 

Alledg cl by thofe who by their fubtile Plea 

Had hope themfelves to bear the Crown away. 

A Sifter Alexander had, but me 

Claim d not, perhaps, her Sex might hindrance be 

After much tumult they at lafh proclaim d 

His bafe born brother Aridczus nam d, 

That fo under his feeble wit and reign, 

Their ends they might the better ilill attain. 

This choice Perdiccas vehemently difclaim d, 

And Babe unborn of Roxane he proclaimed; 

Some wifhed him to take the ftyle of King, 

Becaufe his Mailer gave to him his Ring, 

And had to him ftill lince Epheftion di d 

More then to th reft his favour teftifi d. 

But he refus d, with feigned modefty, 

Hoping to be ele6l more generally. 

He hold on this occalion mould have laid, 

For fecond offer there was never made. 

Mongft thefe contentions, tumults, jealoufies, 

Seven dayes the corps of their great mafter lies 

Untoucht, uncovered flighted and neglected, 

So much these princes their own ends refpe6led: 

A Contemplation to aftonifh Kings, 

That he who late pofleft all earthly things, 

The Four Monarchies. 291 

And yet not fo content unlefs that he 

Might be efteemed for a Diety; 

Now lay a Spectacle to teftifie, 

The wretchednefs of mans mortality. 

After fome a time, when ftirs began to calm, 

His body did the Egyptians embalme ; * 

His countenance fo lively did appear, 

That for a while they durft not come fo near: 

No iign of poyfon in his intrails found/ 

But all his bowels coloured, well and found. 

Perdiccas feeing Arideus muft be King, 

Under his name began to rule each thing. 

His chief Opponent who Control d his fway, 

Was Meleager w r hom he would take away/ 

And by a wile he got him in his power, 

So took his life unworthily that hour. 

Ufing the name, and the command of th King 

To authorize his a6ls in every thing. 

The princes feeing Perdiccas power and pride, 

For their fecurity did now provide/ 

Antigonus for his mare AJia takes, 

And Ptolemy next fure of Egypt makes : 

Seleucus afterward held Babylon, 

Antipater had long ruFd Macedon. 

a- this. b The next two lines are not in the first edition. 

c On which, no figne of poyfon could be found, 
d His chief opponents who kept off the Crown, 

Was ftiffe Meleager, whom he would take down. 
t Thought timely for themfelves, now to provide. 

292 Anne Bradftreef s Works. 

Thefe now to govern for the king pretends, 

But nothing lefs each one himfelf intends. 

Perdiccas took no province like the reft, 

But held command of th Army (which was beft) 

And had a higher project in his head, 

His Mafters lifter fecretly to wed: 7 

So to the Lady, covertly^ he fent, 

(That none might know, to fruftrate his intent) 

But Cleopatra this Suitor did deny, 

For Leonatus more lovely in her eye, 

To whom me fent a meffage of her mind, 

That if he came good welcome he mould find. 

In thefe tumultuous dayes the thralled Greeks, 

Their Ancient Liberty afrefh now feeks. 

And gladly would the yoke make off, laid on * [162] 

Sometimes by* Philip and his conquering fon. 

The Athenians force Antipaterto fly 

To Lamia where he fhut up doth lye. 

To brave Craterus* then he fends with fpeed 

For fuccours to relieve k him in his need. 

The like of Leonatus he requires, 

(Which at this time well fuited his deiires) 

For to Antipater he now might goe, 

His Lady take in th way, and no man know. 

Antiphilus the Athenian General 

With fpeed his Army doth together call; 

/ Which was his Mafters lifter for to wed : K fecretly. 

h Shakes oft the joke, fometimes before laid on. * By warlike. 

J Craterus. k To come and to releafe. I forces. 


And Leonatus feeks to flop, that fo 

He joyne not with Antipater their * foe. 

The Athenian Army was the greater far, 

(Which did his Match with Cleopatra mar) 

For fighting Hill, while there did hope remain 

The valiant Chief amidil his foes was flain. 

Mongfl all the princes 7 of great Alexander 

For perfonage, none like to this Commander. 

Now to Antipater Craterus goes, 

Blockt up in Lamia fhill by his foes, 

Long marches through Cilicia he makes, 

And the remains of Leonatus takes: 

With them and his he into Grecia went, 

Antipater releas d from prifonment: 

After which time the Greeks did never more 

Acl: any thing of worth, as heretofore: 

But under fervitude their necks remain d, 

Nor former liberty or glory gain d. 

Now di d about the end of th Lamian war 

DemoftkeneS) that fweet-tongue d Orator/ 

Who fear d Antipater would take his life 

For animating the Athenian ftrife: 

To end his dayes by poifon rather chofe 

Then fall into the hands of mortal foes. 

Craterus and Antipater now joyne, 

In love and in affinity- combine, 

Striving to ftop Leonatus, that. 

P The next four lines are not in the first edition. 



294 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Craterus doth his daughter Phila r wed 

Their friendfhip might the more be ftrengthened. 

Whilft they in Macedon do thus agree, 

In AJla they all afunder be. 

Perdiccas griev d to fee the princes bold 

So many Kingdomes in their power to. hold, 

Yet to regain them, how he did not know, 

His * fouldiers gainft thofe captains would not goe 

To fufFer them go on as they begun, 

Was to give way himfelf might be undone. 

With Antipater to joyne he fometimes thought, 

That by his help, the reft might low be brought, 

But this again diilikes; he would remain, 

If not in ftile/ in deed a foveraign;* 

(For all the princes of great Alexander 

Acknowledged for Chief that old Commander) 

Delires the King to goe to Macedon, 

Which once was of his Ancefbors the throne, 

And by his prefence there to nullifie 

The a6ts of his Vice-Roy v now grown fo high. 

Antigonus of treafon firft attaints, 

And fummons him to anfwer his w complaints. 

This he avoids, ancj mips himfelf and fon, [ x 

goes to Antipater and tells what s done. 

He and Craterus, both with him do joyne, 

And gainft Perdiccas all their ftrength combine. 

r Phifa. s For s. * word. 

* The next two lines are not in the first edition. 
v Vice-royes, / thefe. 

The Four Monarchies. 295 

Brave Ptolemy, to make a fourth then fent 

To fave himfelf from danger imminent.* 

In midft of thefe garboyles, with wondrous ftate 

His maflers funeral doth celebrate: 

In Alexandria his tomb he plac d, 

Which eating time hath fcarcely yet defac d/ 

Two years and more, fince natures debt he paid, 

And yet till now at quiet was not laid. 

Great love did Ptolemy by this act gain, 

And made the fouldiers on his lide remain. 

Perdiccas hears his foes are all 2 combined, 

Gainft which to goe, is not refolv d in mind.* 

But firfh gainft Ptolemy he judg d was beft/ 

Neer fl unto him, and farther! from the reft, 

Leaves Eumenes the Afean Coafh to free 

From the invafions of the other three, 

And with his army unto c Egypt goes 

Brave Ptolemy to th utmoft to oppofe. 

Perdiccas furly cariage, and his pride 

Did alinate the fouldiers from his fide. 

But Ptolemy by affability 

His fweet demeanour and his courtelie, 

Did make his own, firm to his caufe remain, 

And from the other fide did dayly gain. 

* dangers eminent; 

y At Alexandria, in sEgypt Land, 

His fumptuous monument long time did ftand ; 
2 now. a is troubled in his minde ; 

* With Ptolomy for to begin was beft. c into. 

296 Anne Bracift reefs Works. 

Perdiccas in his pride did ill intreat 
Python of haughty mind, and courage great. 
Who could not brook fo great indignity, 
But of his wrongs his friends doth certifie; 
The fouldiers gainft Perdiccas they incenfe. 
Who vow to make this captain recompence, 
And in a rage they rufh into his tent/ 
Knock out his brains : to Ptolemy then went 
And offer him his honours, and his place, 
With ftile of the Protestor, him to grace/ 
Next day into the camp came Ptolemy, 
And is receiv d of all moil joyfully. 
Their proffers he refus d with modefhy, 
Yields them to Python for his courtefie/ 
With what he held he was now more^ content, 
Then by more trouble to grow eminent. 
Now comes there news of a great victory 
That Eumenes got of the other three. 
Had it but in Perdiccas life ariv d, 
With greater joy it would have been receiv d. 
Thus Ptolemy rich Egypt did retain, 
And Python turn d to AJla again. 
Whilft Perdiccas encamp d h in Affrica, 
Antigonus did enter Afea, 

d Instead of this and the six preceding lines, the first edition has, 
Pitkon, next Perdicas, a Captaine high, 
Being entreated by him fcornfullj, 
Some of the Souldiers enters Perdiccfs tent, 

e would him grace ; f Confers them Pithon on, for s courtefie ; 

well. * thus ftaid. 

The Four Monarchies. 297 

And fain would Eiimenes draw to their fide, 

But he alone moil i faithfull did abide: 

The other all had Kingdomes in their eye, 

But he was true to s mailers family, 

Nor could Craterus, whom he much did love. 

From his fidelity once make him move: 

Two Battles fought, and had of both the belt/ 

And brave Craterus flew among the reft: 

For this fad^ ftrife he poures out his complaints, [166] 

And his beloved foe full fore laments. 

I mould but fnip a ftory into bits 

And his great Aclis and glory much eclipfe, 

To fhew the dangers Eumenes befel, w 

His ftratagems wherein he did excel: 

His Policies, how he did extricate 

Himfelf from out of Lab rinths intricate : n 

He that at large would fatiffie his mind, 

In Plutarchs Lives his hiftory may find. 

For all that mould be faid, let this fuffice, 

He was both valiant, faithfull, patient, wife. 

Python now chofe Protector of the ftate, 

His rule Queen Euridice begins to hate, 

Sees * Arrideus muft not King it long, 

If once young Alexander grow more ftrong, 

now. j Two battells now he fought, and had the beft, 
k great. I verfe. 

* And much eclipfe his glory to rehearfe 
The difficulties Eumenes befell, 

* The next two lines are not in the first edition. Perceives. 


298 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

But that her hufband ferve for fupplement, 

To warm his^ feat, was never her intent. 

She knew her birth-right gave her Macedon, 

Grand-child to him who once fat on that throne 

Who was Perdiccas, Philips eld eft q brother, 

She daughter to his fon, who had no other. r 

Pythons commands/ as oft me countermands ; 

What he appoints, me purpofely withftands. 

He wearied out at laft would needs be gone, 

Relign d his place, and fo let all alone: 

In s room 2 the fouldiers chofe Antipater, 

Who vext the Queen more then the other far." 

From Macedon to Aria he came, 

That he might fettle matters in the fame. 

He plac d, difplac d, control d rul d as he lift, [167] 

And this no man durft queftion or reliftj 

For all the nobles of King v Alexander 

Their bonnets vail d to him as chief Commander. 

P the. q elder. 

r After this the first edition has, 

Her mother Cyna filter to Alexander, 
Who had an Army, like a great Commander. 
Ceria the Phrigian Qjaeen for to withftand, 
And in a Battell flew her hand to hand ; 
Her Daughter fhe instructed in that Art, 
Which made her now begin to play her part; 

s She ever. t flead. 

* The next two lines are not in fhe first edition. 

v Princes of great. 

The Four Monarchies. 299 

When to his pleafure all things they had done, 

The King and Queen he takes to Macedon 

Two ions of Alexander, and the reft, 

All to be order d there as he thought beft. 

The Army to Antigonus doth leave, 

And Goverment of Afia to him gave. 

And thus Antipater the ground- work layes, 

On which Antigonus his height doth raife, 

Who in few years, the reft fo overtops, 

For univerfal Monarchy he hopes. 

With Eumenes he diverfe Battels fought, 

And by his flights to circumvent him fought: 

But vain it was to ufe his policy, 

Gainft him that all deceits could fcan and try/] 

In this Epitome too long to tell 

How finely x Eumenes did here excell, 

And by the felf fame Traps the other laid, 

He to his coft was righteoufly repaid/ 

But while thefe Chieftains doe in Afia fight, 

To Greece and Macedon lets turn our fight. 

When great Antipater the world muft leave, 

His place to Polifperchon did bequeath, 2 

Fearing his fon Caffander was unftaid, 

Too rafh a to bear that charge, if on him laid. 

w Acknowledged for chief, this old Commander : 

After a while, to Macedon he makes ; 

The King, and Queen, along with him he takes. 
x neatly. y The next two lines are not in the first edition. 
2 Now great Antipater, the world doth leave 

To Polifperchon, then his place he gave, ^ young. 

300 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Antigonus hearing of his deceafe 

On moil part of Affyria doth feize. 

And Ptolemy next to incroach begins, 

All Syria and Phenicia he wins, 

Then Polifperchon gins to at in s place, 

Recalls Olimpias the Court to grace. 

Antipater had banifh d her from thence 

Into Epire for her great turbulence ; 

This new Protector s of another mind, 

Thinks by her Majefly much help to find. 

Cajfander like his Father could not fee, 

This Polifperchons great ability, 

Slights his Commands, his actions he difclaims, 

And to be chief * himfelf now bends his aims; 

Such as his Father had advanc d to place, 

Or by his favours any way had graced 

Are now at the devotion of the Son, 

Preft to accomplim what he would have done; 

Belides he was the young Queens favourite, 

On whom (t was thought) me fet her chief delight 

Unto thefe helps at home c he feeks out more, 

Goes to Antigonus and doth implore, 

By all the Bonds twixt him and s Father pafl, 

And for that great gift which he gave him lafb. 

By thefe and all to grant him fome fupply, 

To take down Polifperchon grown fo high; 

For this Antigonus did need no fpurs, 

Hoping to gain yet more by thefe new ftirs, 

I great. c in Greece, 

The Four Monarchies. 

Streight furninVd him with a fufficient aid/ 
And fo he quick returns thus well appaid, 
With Ships at Sea, an Army for the Land, 
His proud opponent hopes foon to withftand. 
But in his abfence Polifperckon takes 
Such friends away as for his Intereft makes 
By death, by prifon, or by banifhment, 
That no fupply by thefe here might be lent, 
Caffander with his Hofb to Grecia goes, 
Whom Polifperchon labours to oppofe; 
But beaten was at Sea, and foil d at Land, 
Caffanders forces had the upper hand, 
Athens with many Towns in Greece befide, 
Firm (for his Fathers fake) to him abide/ 
Whil fh hot in wars thefe two in Greece remain, 
Antigonus doth all in AJia gain; 
Still labours Eumenes, would-^ with him fide, 
But all in vain/ he faithful did abide: 
Nor Mother could, nor Sons of Alexander, 
Put truft in any but in this Commander. 

d Instead of the next seven lines, the first edition has, 
Cajfander for return all fpeed now made : 
Polifferchon, knowing he did relye 
Upon thofe friends, his father rais d on high, 
Thofe abfent, banifhed, or elfe he flew 
All fuch as he fufpedled to him true. 
e But had the worft at Sea. as well as Land, 
And his opponent ftill got upper hand, 
Athens, with many Townes in Greece befides, 
Firme to Cajfander at this time abides : 
/ might. But to the laft. 


302 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

The great ones now began to fhew their mind, 

And act as opportunity they find. 

Aridczus the fcorn d and fimple King, 

More then he bidden was could a<5t no thing. 

Polifperckon for office hoping long, 

Thinks to inthrone the Prince when riper grown; 

Euridice this injury difdains, 

And to Caffandar of this wrong complains. 

Hateful the name and houfe of Alexander, 

Was to this proud vindicative C offender \ 

He Hill kept lockt^ within his memory, 

His Fathers danger, with his Family; 

Nor thought 2 he that indignity was- 7 fmall, 

When Alexander knockt his head to th wall. 

Thefe with his love unto the amorous Queen, C 1 ? ] 

Did make him vow her fervant to be feen. 

Olimpias, Aridceus deadly hates, 

As all her Husbands, Children by his mates, 

She gave him poyfon formerly ( tis thought) 

Which damage both to mind and body brought; 

She now with Polifperchon doth combine, 

To make the King by force his Seat refigne : 

And her young grand-child in his State inthrone,^ 

That under him, me might rule, all alone. 

For aid me goes f Epire among her friends, 

The better to accomplim thefe her ends; 

Euridice hearing what me intends, 

In hafte unto her friend l Cajfander fends, 

* frefh. * counts. / but. * Nephew in his ftead t inthrone, 

/ deare. 

The Four Monarchies. 303 

To leave his fiege at Tegea and with fpeed, 
To fave the King and her in this their need: * 
Then by intreaties, promifes and Coyne, 
Some forces did procure with her to joyn. 
Olimpias foon" enters Macedon, 
The Queen to meet her bravely marches on, 
But when her Souldiers faw their ancient Queen, 
Calling to mind^ what fometime me had been; 
The wife and Mother of their famous Kings, 
Nor darts, nor arrows, now none moots or flings/ 
The King and Queen feeing their defbiny, 
To fave their lives t Amphipolis do fly; 
But the old Queen purfues them with her hate, 
And needs will have their lives as well as State: 
The King by extream torments had his end, 
And to the Queen thefe prefents fhe did fend; 
A Halter, cup of poyfon, and a Sword, 
Bids chufe her death, fuch kindnefs fhe l afford. 
The Queen with many a curfe, and bitter check, 
At length yields to the Halter her fair neck; 
Praying that fatal day might quickly hafte, 
On which Olimpias of the like might tafte. 
This done the cruel Queen refts not content, 
Gainfl all that lov d Caffander fhe was bent; r 

Tag-fa. * To come and fuccour her, in this great need; 

o now. p Remembring. 

9 Instead of the next four lines, the first edition has, 

The King, and Queen, to Amphipolis doe fly, 

But foone are brought into captivity; 
r Till all that lov d Cajfander was nigh fpent; 

304 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

His Brethren, Kinsfolk and his chiefeft friends, 

That fell s within her reach came to their ends: 

Dig d up his brother dead, gainft natures right, 

And threw his bones about to fhew her fpight: 

The Courtiers wondring at her furious mind, 

Wifht in Epire me had been ftill confin d. 

In Peloponefus then Caff and er lay, 

Where hearing of this news he fpeeds away, 

With rage, and with revenge he s hurried on, 

To find this cruel * Queen in Macedon\ 

But being ftopt, at ftreight Thermopoly, 

Sea paflage gets, and lands in Theffaly\ 

His Army he divides, fends poll* away, 

Polifperchon to hold a while in play; 

And with the reft Olimpias purfues, 

For all her cruelty, to give her dues. 

She with the chief " o th Court to Pydna flyes, 

Well fortifi d, (and on the Sea it lyes) 

There by Caffander fhe s blockt up fo long, 

Untill the Famine grows exceeding ftrong, 

Her Couzen of Epire did what he might, 

To raife the Siege, and put her Foes to flight. 

Caffander is refolved there to remain, [ J 7 2 ] 

So mccours and endeavours proves but vain; 

Fain would this wretched Queen w capitulate, 

Her foe would give no Ear/ (fuch is his hate) 

s were. * So goes to finde this. * part. 

v flow r. ^ would fhe come now to. 

x Cajfander will not heare, 

The Four Monarchies. 

The Souldiers pinched with this fcarcity, 

By Health unto Caffander dayly fly ; 

Olimpias means to hold out^ to the laft, 

Expecting nothing but of death to tail: 

But his occafions calling him away, 2 

Gives promife for her life, fo wins the day. 

No fooner had Ke got her in his hand, 

But made in judgement her accufers Hand; 

And plead the blood of friends and kindreds a fpilt, 

Deiiring juftice might be done for guilt; 

And fo was he acquitted of his word, 

For juftice fake me being put to th Sword: 

This was the end of this moil cruel Queen, 

Whofe fury fcarcely parallel d b hath been. 

The daughter, fifter, Mother, Wife to Kings, 

But Royalty no good conditions brings \ c 

To Husbands death ( tis d thought) me gave confent, 

The murtherer* fhe did fo much lament: 

With Garlands crown d his head, bemoan d his fates, 

His Sword unto Apollo confecrates. 

Her Outrages too tedious to relate, 

How for no caufe but her inveterate hate; 

Her Husbands wives 7 and Children after s death, 

Some flew, fome fry d, of others ftopt the breath : 

y wills to keep it, * But he unwilling longer there to ftay, 

of their deare Kindred. * yet unparalleld. 
f After this the first edition has, 

So boundlefie was her pride, and cruelty, 

She oft forgot bounds of Humanity. 

d twas. e The Authours death. / Wife. 


306 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Now in her Age fhe s forc d .to tail that Cup, 

Which {he had others often made to fup. 

Now many Towns in Macedon fuppreft, [ T 73] 

And Pellas fain to yield among the reft; 

The Funerals Cajfander celebrates, 

Of Aridczus and his Queen with State: 

Among their Anceftors by him they re laid, 

And mews of lamentation for them made. 

Old Thebes he then rebuilt fo much of fame, 

And Caffandria rais d after his name. 

But leave him building, others in their Urne, 

Let s for a while, now into AJia turn. 

True Eumenes endeavours by all Skill, 

To keep Antigonus from ShuJJian ftill; 

Having command o th Treafure he can hire, 

Such as no threats, nor favour could acquire. 

In divers Battels he had good fuccefs, 

Antigonus came off ftill honourlefs; 

When Vi6tor oft he d been, and fo might ftill, 

Peucejles g did betray him by a wile. 

T Antigonus, who took A his Life unjuft, 

Becaufe he never would forgo e * his truft; 

Thus loft he all for his fidelity, 

Striving t uphold his Mafters Family. 

But to a period as that did hafte, 

So Eumenes (the prop) of death muft taft; 

e Penceftas. h Antigonus, then takes. * let go. 

The Four Monarchies. 307 

All Perjia now Antigonus doth gain/ 

And Matter of the Treafure fole remain: 7 

Then with Seleucus ftreight at odds doth fall, 

And he for aid to Ptolomy doth call, 

The Princes all begin now to envy 

Antigonus, he growing up fo high; 

Fearing his force,* and what might hap e re long, [174] 

Enters into a Combination ftrong, 

Seleucus, Ptolemy, Caffander joynes, 

Lyfemachus to make a fourth combines: 

Antigonus delirous of the Greeks, 

To make Caffander odious to them feeks, 

Sends forth his declarations near and far/ 

And clears what caufe he had to make this war, w 

Caffanders outrages at large doth tell, 

Shews his ambitious pra&ifes as well." 

The mother of their King to death he d put, 

His wife and fon in prifon clofe had fhut: 

And aiming now to make himfelf a king, 

And that fome title he might feem to bring, 

Theffalonica he had newly wed, 

Daughter to Philip their renowned head : 

Had built and call d a City by his name, 

Which none e re did, but thofe of royal fame : 

* So Eumenes of deftiny muft tafte. 

Antigonus, all Perjia now gains, 

j he remains; k their ftate, I declaration from a farre, 

* And mews what caufe they had to take up warre. 

n This and the preceding line are not in the first edition. 

308 Anne Bradftreet^s Works * 

And in defpight of their two famous Kings 

Hatefull Olinthians to Greece rebrings. 

Rebellious Thebes he had reedified, 

Which their late King in duil had damnified, 

Requires them therefore to take up their arms 

And to requite this traitor for these harms. 

Then Ptolemy would gain the Greeks like wife, 

And he declares the others injuryes:" 

Firft how he held the Empire in his hands, 

Seleucus driven p from Goverment and lands, 

The q valiant Eumenes unjuftly (lain, 

And Lord of royal Shufhan r did remain ; 

Therefore requefls 5 their help to take him down [175] 

Before he wear the univerfal Crown. 

Thefe princes at the fea foon had a fight, 

Where great Antigonus was put to flight: * 

His fon at Gaza likewife loft the field, 

So Syria to Ptolemy did yield: 

And Seleucus recovers Babylon, 

Still gaining Countryes eafbward he goes on. 

Demetrius with u Ptolemy did fight, 

And coming unawares, put him to flight; 

But bravely fends the prifoners back again, 

With all the fpoyle and booty he v had tane. 

For he declares againft his injuries; P drove. <? Had. 

r o th City SuJIia. s So therefore craves. 

t Antigonus at Sea foone had a fight, 

Where Ptolomy, and the reft put him to flight; 
againe with. v they. 

The Four Monarchies. 309 

Courteous w as noble Ptolemy, or more, 

Who at Gaza did the like to him before. 

Antigonus did much rejoyce, his fon 

With victory, his loft repute had won. 

At laft thefe princes tired out with warrs, 

Sought for a peace, and laid afide their jarrs : 

The terms of their agreement, thus exprefs 

That each mould hold what now he did poflefs, 

Till Alexander unto age was grown, 

Who then mould be enftalled in the throne. 

This toucht Caffander fore for what he d done, 

Imprifoning both the mother and the * fon : 

He fees the Greeks now favour their young Prince 

Whom he in durance held, now, and long lince, 

That in few years he muft be forc d or glad, 

To render up fuch Kingdomes as he had; 

Refolves to quit his fears by one deed done, 

So puts^ to death the Mother and her Son. 

This Roxane for her beauty all commend, 

But for one act me did, juft was her end. 

No fooner was great Alexander dead, 

But me Darius daughters murthered. 

Both thrown into a well to hide her blot, 

^erdiccas was her Partner in this plot. 

The heavens feem d flow in paying her the fame; 

But at the lafl the hand of vengeance came. 

And for that double fact which me had done, 

The life of her mufl goe, and of her fon 

w Curtius, * her. y And put. 

3io Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Perdiccas had before for his amifs, 

But by their hands who thought not once of this. 

Caffanders deed the princes do z deteft, 

But twas in fhew; in heart it pleas d them beft. 

That he is odious to the world, they r glad: 

And now they were free Lords of what they had. 

When this foul tragedy was pafl and done, 

Polyfperchon brings the" other fon 

CalPd Hercules, and elder then his brother, 

(But Olimpias would b prefer the other) 

The Greeks toucht with the murther done of late, 

This Orphan prince gan c to compailionate, 

Begin to mutter much gainfh proud Co/fonder, 

And place their hopes on th heir of Alexander. 

Caffander fear d what might of this enfue, 

So Polifperchon to his counfel drew, 

And gives Peloponefus for his hire/ 

Who flew the prince according to defire. 

Thus was the race and houfe of Alexander 

Extin6l by this inhumane wretch Caffander. 

Antigonus, for all this doth not mourn, [ X 77] 

He knows to s profit, this at laft* will turn, 

But that fome Title now he might pretend, 

To Cleopatra doth for marriage fend; 

Lyjimachus and Ptolemy the fame, 

And lewd 7 Caffander too, flicks not for fhame : 

She then in Lydia at Sardis lay, 

Where by Embaffage all thefe Princes pray. 

s all. up the. b thought to. c This Prince began for. 

d Gives Peloponefus unto him for hire, all i th end. / vile. 

The Four Monarchies. 3 1 1 

Choice above all, of Ptolemy fhe makes, 
With his Embaffador her journy takes ; 
Antigonus Lieutenant ftayes her ftill, 
Untill he further know his Mafbers will: 
Antigonus now had a Wolf by th Ears, 
To hold her ftill, or let her go he fears. 
Refolves at laft the Princefs fhould be flain, 
So hinders him of her, he could not gain; 
Her women are appointed for this deed, 
They for their great reward no better fpeed: 
For by command, they fbreight were put to death, 
As vile Confpirators that ftopt^ her breath. 
And now he hopes/ he s order d all fo well, 
The world muft needs believe what he doth tell; 
Thus Philips houfe was quite extinguifhed, 
Except Co/fanciers wife who yet not dead. 
And by their means who thought of nothing lefs, 
Then vengeance jufb, againft them z to exprefs ; 
Now blood was paid with blood for what was done 
By cruel Father, Mother, cruel Son: y 

& took. A thinks. * the fame. 

j After this the first edition has, 

Who did erec~t their cruelty in guilt, 

And wronging innocents whofe blood thej fpilt, 

Philip and Olympias both were ilain, 

Aridceus and his Queen by {laughters ta ne; 

Two other children by Olympias kill d, 

And Cleopatra s blood, now likewife fpill d, 

If Alexander was not poyfoned, 

Yet in the flower of s age, he muft lie dead. 

His wife and fons then flain by this CaJJluidcr. 

And s kingdomes rent away by each Commander: 

312 Anne Bradjlreet^s Works. 

Thus may we hear, and fear, and ever fay, 

That hand is righteous ftill which doth repay. 

Thefe Captains now the ftile of Kings do take, [178] 

For to their Crowns their s * none can Title make; 

Demetrius firft the royal ftile affum d, 

By his Example all the reft prefum d. 

Antigonus himfelf to ingratiate, 

Doth promife liberty to Athens State; 

With Arms and with provifion ftores them well, 

The better gainft Caffander to rebel. 

Demetrius thether goes, is entertain d 

Not like a King, but like fome God they feign d; 

Molt grofly bafe was their m great Adulation, 

Who Incenfe burnt, and offered oblation: 

Thefe Kings afrefh fall to their wars again, 

Demetrius of Ptolemy doth gain. 

Twould be an endlefs Story to relate 

Their feveral Battels and their feveral fate,* 

Their fights by Sea, their victories by Land, 

How fome when down, ftraight got the upper hand 

Antigonus and Seleucus then fight 

Near Ephefus, each bringing all his might, 

And he that Conquerour fhall now remain, 

The Lordfhip of all AJia p fhall retain; 

k there s. 

I Instead of the next seven lines, the first edition has, 

Demetrius is firft, tha t fo affumes, 

To do as he, the reft full foon prefumes, 

To Athens then he goes, is entertain d, 

* this. n The next two lines are not in the first edition. 

* their. /> Of A/fa the Lordfhip. 

The Four Monarchies. 313 

This day twixt thefe two Kings q ends all the ftrife, 

For here Antigonus loft rule and life: 

Nor to his Son, did e re r one foot remain 

Of thofe vaft Kingdomes/ he did fometimes gain. 

Demetmis with his Troops to Athens flyes, 


Hopes to find fuccours in his miferies; 

But they adoring in profperity, 

Now (hut their gates in his adverfity: 

He forely griev d at this his defperate State [ T 79] 

Tryes Foes, fith u friends will not compaffionate. 

His peace he then with old Seleucus makes. 

Who his fair daughter Stratonica takes, 

Antiochns, Seleucus, dear lov d Son, 

Is for this frem young Lady quite v undone; 

Falls fo extreamly fick, all fear d his life, 

Yet durft not fay, he lov d his Fathers wife, 

When his difeafe the skill d w Phyfitian found, 

His Fathers mind he wittily did found, 

Who did no fooner underftand the fame, 

But willingly reiign d the beautious Dame: 

Caffander now muft dye his race is run, 

And leaves the ill got Kingdomes he had won. 

Two Sons he left, born of King Philips daughter, 

Who had an end put to their dayes by flaughter; 

Which mould fucceed at variance they fell, 

The Mother would, the youngeft might * excell: 

q foes. r there. s Of thofe dominions. 

* Hoping to find fuccour in miferies. fince. v half, 

w skilfull. * ihould. 


314 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

The elcTft inrag d did play the Vipers part, 

And with his Sword did run her through the heart \ 

Rather then Philips race fhould z longer live, 

He whom fhe gave his life her death fhall a give. 

This by Lyjimacus was b after ilain, 

Whofe daughter he not long before had ta ne ; c 

Demetrius is call d in by th ? youngefb Son, 

Againfh Lyjimachus who from him won. 

But he a Kingdome more then s friend did eye, 

Seaz d upon that, and flew him traitroufly/ 

Thus Philips and Caffanders race both e gone. 

And fo falls out to be extinct in one; 

And 7 though Co/fonder died in his bed, 

His Seed to be extirpt, was deitined; 

For blood, which was decre d that he fhould fpill, 

Yet mufb his Children pay for Fathers ill; 

Jehu in killing Akatfs houfe did well, aveng d muft blood of Jezerek 

Demetrius thus Caffander*$ Kingdoms gains, 

And now in Macedon as King he reigns;^ 

Though men and mony both he hath at will, 

In neither finds content if he fits Hill: 

That Seleucus holds AJia grievs him fore, 

Thofe Countryes large his Father got before. 


y did pierce his mothers heart, * child muft. * muft. 

b foon. c unto wife, he d newly ta n. 

d Instead of this and the three preceding lines, the first edition has, 

The youngeft by Demetrius kill d in fight, 

Who took away his now pretended right : 
is. / Yea. The next two" lines are not in the first edition. 

Th e Fo u r Mo n a rch ies . 315 

Thefe to recover, mufters all his might, 

And with his Son in Law will needs go fight;* 

A mighty Navy rig d, an Army flout, 

With thefe he hopes to turn the world about: 

Leaving Antigonus his eldeft Son, 

In his long abfence to rule Macedon. 

Demetrius with fo many troubles met, 

As Heaven and Earth againft him had been fet; 

Difafter on diiafter him purfue, 

His ftory feems a Fable more then true. 

At lafl he s taken and imprifoned 

Within an Ifle that was with pleafures fed, 

Injoy d what ere befeem d his Royalty, 

Only reftrained of his liberty: 

After three years he died, left what he d won, 

In Greece unto Antigonus his Son. 

For his Poflerity unto this day, 

Did ne re regain one foot in AJia\ j 

His Body Seleucus fends to his Son, C 1 ^ 1 ] 

Whofe obfequies with wondrous pomp was done. 

Next di d the brave and noble Ptolemp, 

Renown d for bounty, valour, clemency, 

Rich Egypt left, and what elfe he had won, 

To Philadelphus his more w r orthy Son. 

Of the old Heroes, now but two remain, 

Seleucus and Lyfemachus thefe twain, 

h The next eight lines are not in the first edition. * There was he. 

> The next two lines are not in the first edition. 

316 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Muft needs go try their fortune and their might, 

And fo Lyjimachus was ilain in fight; 

Twas no fmall joy unto Seleucus breaft, 

That now he had out-lived all the reft: 

Poffeflion of Europe thinks to take, 

And fo himfelf the only Monarch make ; 

Whilft with thefe hopes in Greece he did remain, 

He was by Ptolemy Ceraunus (lain. 

The fecond Son of the firft Ptolemy, 

Who for Rebellion unto him did fly; 

Seleucus was a^ Father and a friend, 

Yet by him had this moft unworthy end. 

Thus with thefe Kingly Captains have we done, 

A little now how the Succeffion run, 

Antigonus, Seleucus and Caffander, 

With Ptolemy, reign d after Alexander ; 

CaJJTander s- Sons foon after s death were (lain, 

So three Succeflbrs only did remain: 


Antigonus his Kingdomes loft and life, 
Unto Seleucus, Author of that ftrife. 
His Son Demetrius, all Caffanders gains, 
And his pofterity, the fame retains; 
Demetrius Son was call d Antigonus, 
And his again was nam d l Demetrius. 
\ muft let pafs thofe many Battels fought, 
Betwixt m thofe Kings, and noble Pyrrhus flout, 
And his Son Alexander of Epire, 
Whereby immortal honour they acquire; 

* as. / againe, alfo. * Between. 


The Four Monarchies. 317 


Demetrius had Philip to his Son/ 

(Part of whofe Kingdomes Titus Quintius won) 

Philip had Perfeus, who was made a Thrale 

T ? Emilius the Roman General; 

Him with his Sons in Triumph lead did he, 

Such riches too as Rome did never fee: 

This of Antigonus, his Seed s the Fate, 

Whofe Empire was fubdu d to th Roman State. 

Longer Seleucus held the royalty, 

In Syria by his Poilerity; 

Antiochus Soter his Son was nam d, 

To whom the old^ Berofus (fo much fam d,) 

His Book of Affurs Monarchs dedicates, 

Tells of their names, their wars, their riches, fates; 

But this is perifhed with many more, 

Which oft we wifh was extant as before.* 

Antiochus Theos was Soter s Son, 

Who a long war with Egypts King begun; 

The Affinityes and Wars Daniel fets forth, 

And calls them there the Kings of South & North, f 

This Theos murther d was by his lewd wife/ 

Seleucus reign d, when he had loft his life. 

Instead of the next five lines, the first edition has, 
He Perfeus, from him the kingdom s won, 
T&millius the Roman Generall, 
Did take his rule, his fons, himfelf and all. 

kingdomes were fubdu d by. P whom Ancient. 

* See page 188 and note. t Daniel, chap. xi. 

q This Theos he was murthered by his wife, 

318 Anne Bradftreet s Works. 

A third Seleucus next fits on the Seat, 

And then Antiochus firnam d the great/ 

VVhofe large Dominions after was made fmall, [183] 

By Scipio the Roman General; 

Fourth Seleucus* Antiochus fucceeds, 

And next* Epiphanes whofe wicked deeds, 

Horrid MafTacres, Murthers, cruelties, 

Amongft* the Jews we read in Machabees.* 

Antiochus Eupater was the next, 

By Rebels and Impoftors dayly vext; 

So many Princes itill were murthered, 

The Royal Blood was nigh* extinguifhed ; 

Then Tygranes the great Armenian King, 

To take the Government was called in, 

Lucullus, Him, (the Roman General) 

Vanquifh d in fight, and took thofe Kingdomes all; 

Of Greece and Syria thus the rule did end, 

In Egypt next, a little time wee l fpend. 

Firft Ptolemy being dead, his famous Son 

Call d Philadelphus, did poflefs * the Throne. 

At Alexandria a Library did build/ 

And with feven hundred thoufand Volumes fill d; 

* The next two lines are not in the first edition. s Seleuckus next. 
t then. Againft. 

* i Mace. i. 20-28; 2 Mace. v. 1-22, and elsewhere. After this, the 
first edition has, 

By him was fet up the* abomination 

/ th holy place, which caufed defolation ; 
v quite. w That. * next fat on. 

y The Library at Alexandria built, 


The Four Monarchies. 

The feventy two Interpreters did feek, 
They might tranflate the Bible into Greek.* 
His Son was Evergetes the laft Prince, 
That valour fhew d, virtue, or excellence, 
Philopater was Evergetes Son, 
After Epiphanes fate on the Throne; 
Philometor, Evergetes 2 again, 
And after a him, did falfe Lathurus reign: 
Then Alexander in Lathurus ftead, 
Next Auletes, who cut off Pompeys head. 
To all thefe names, we Ptolemy muft add, 
For fmce the firft, they ftill that Title had. 
Fair Cleopatra next, laft of that race, 
Whom yulius Ccefar fet in Royal place/ 
She with her Paramour, Mark Anthony 
Held for a time, the Egyptian Monarchy, 
Till great Auguftus had with him a fight 
At Aftium, where his Navy s put to flight / 
He feeing his honour loft, his Kingdome end, 
Did by his Sword his life foon after fend/ 

* This account, which is that of Archbishop Usher, of the origin of the 
Greek version of the Old Testament, known as the " Septuagint," is not 
now credited. The translation was made at Alexandria, and was probably 
begun as early as about 280 B.C. 

2 then Evergetes. a next to. 

b After this, the first edition has, 

Her brother by him, loft his trayterous head 
For Pomfefs life, then plac d her in his ftead, 

c At Atfium flam, his Navy put to flight. 

d This and the preceding line are not in the first edition. 

320 Anne Brad/I reefs Works. 

His brave Virago Afpes fets to her Arms/ 

To take her life, and quit her from all harms; 

For twas not death nor danger me did dread, 

But fome difgrace in triumph to be led. 

Here ends at laft the Grecian Monarchy, 

Which by the Romans had its deftiny; 

Thus King 7 & Kingdomes have their times & dates. 

Their Handings, overturnings, bounds and fates : 

Now up, now down now chief, & then broght under, 

The heavn s thus rule, to fil the world g with wonder 

The Affyrian Monarchy long time did fband, 

But yet the Perjian got the upper hand; 

The Grecian them did utterly fubdue, 

And millions w r ere fubjecl:ed unto few: 

The Grecian longer then the Perjian Hood, 

Then came the Roman like a raging flood; 

And with the torrent of his rapid courfe, 

Their Crowns their Titles, riches bears by force. 

The firft was likened to a head of gold. 

Next Arms and breaft of filver to behold, 

The third, Belly and Thighs of brafs in fight, [185] 

And lafb was Iron, which breaketh all with might; 

The fhone out of the mountain then did rife, 

and fmote thofe feet thofe legs, thofe arms & thighs 

Then gold, filver, brafs, Iron and all the h fbore, 

Became like Chaff upon the threfhing Floor. 55 

e Then poyfonous Afpes fhe fets unto her Armes, f Kings, 

earth. A that. * Dan. ii. 31-35. 

The Four Monarchies. 321 

The firft a Lion, fecond was a Bear, 

The third a Leopard, which four wings did rear; 

The lafb more ftrong and dreadful then the reft, 

Whofe Iron teeth devoured every Beaft, 

And when he had no appetite to eat, 

The refidue he ftamped under feet; * 

Yet fhall 1 this Lion, Bear, this Leopard, Ram, 

All trembling ftand before the powerful Lamb.f 

With thefe three Monarchyes now have I done, 

But how the fourth, their Kingdomes from them won, 

And how from fmall beginnings it did grow, 

To fill the world with terrour and with woe; 

My tyred brain leavs to fome better pen, 

This task befits not women like to men: 

For what is paft, I blufh, excufe to make, 

But humbly ftand, fome grave reproof to take; 

Pardon to crave for errours, is but vain, 

The Subject was too high, beyond my ftrain, 

To frame Apology for fome offence, 

Converts our boldnefs into impudence: 

This my prefumption fome now to requite, 

Ne futor ultra crepidum may write. 

The End of the Grecian Monarchy! 

* Dan. vii. 3-7. But yet. f Dan. vii. 12-14. 

j This is not in the first edition. 

3 22 

Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

After fome dayes of reft, my reftlefs heart 

To finifh what s begun, new thoughts impart, 

And maugre all refolves, my fancy wrought 

This fourth to th other three, now might be brought 

Shortnefs of time and inability, 

Will force me to a confus d brevity. 

Yet in this Chaos, one mall eafily fpy 

The vaft Limbs of a mighty Monarchy, 

What e re is found amifs take in good * part, 

As faults proceeding from my head, not heart. 

* beft. 

The Romane Monarchy, 
being the fourth and laft, be 
ginning Anno Mundi, 

3 2 

OTout Romulus, Romes founder, and firft King, 

^-^ Whom veftal Rhea to the 7 world did bring; 

His Father was not Mars as fome devis d, 

But ^Emulus in Armour all difguiz d: 

Thus he deceiv d his Neece, me might not know 

The double injury he then did do. 

Where fheperds once had Coats & Iheep their folds [187] 

Where Swains & ruftick Peafants kept m their holds, 

A City fair did Romulus erect, 

The Miftrefs of the World, in each refpe6t, 

His brother Rhemus there by him was flain, 

For leaping o re the wall with fome difdain. 

The ftones at firft was cemented with blood, 

And bloody hath it prov d, fince firft it ftood. 

I into th . t made. 

324 Anne Bradftreef* s Works. 

This City built and Sacrifices done, 

A Form of Government, he next begun; 

A hundred Senators he likewife chofe, 

And with the ftyle of Patres, honoured thofe, 

His City to replenifh, men he wants, 

Great priviledges then to all he grants; 

That will within thofe ftrong built walls refide, 

And this new gentle Government abide. 

Of wives there was fo great a fcarcity, 

They to their neighbours fue for a fupply; 

But all difdain Alliance, then to make, 

So Romulus was forc d this courfe to take : 

Great mews he makes at Tilt and Turnament, 

To fee thefe fports, the Sabins all are bent. 

Their daughters by the Romans then were caught, 

Then to recover them a Field was fought; 

But in the end, to final peace they come, 

And Sabins as one people dwelt in Rome. 

The Romans now more potent gin to grow, 

And Fedinates they wholly overthrow. 

But Romulus then comes unto his end. 

Some feigning to the Gods n he did afcend: 

Others the feven and thirtyeth of his reign, 

Affirm, that by the Senate he was flain. 

* faining fay, to heav n. 

The Four Monarchies. 325 

Numa Pompilius. 

IV TUMA Pompilius next chofe they King," 

^ Held for his piety forne facred thing, 

To Janus he that famous Temple built: 

Kept fhut in peace, fet^ ope when blood was fpilt; 

Religious Rites and Cuftomes inftituted, 

And Priefls and Flamines likewife he deputed, 

Their Augurs ftrange, their geftures^ and attire, 

And veftal maids to keep the holy fire. 

The Nymph r ^Egeria this to him told, 

So to delude the people he was bold: 

Forty three years he rul d with general praife, 

Accounted for a* God in after dayes. 

Tullius Hoftilius. 

T^ULLIUS Hoftilius was third Roman King, 

Who Martial difcipline in ufe did bring; 
War with the antient Albans he did wage, 
This ftrife to end fix brothers did ingage. 
Three call d Horatii on the Romans fide, 
And Curiatii three Albans provide: 
The Romans conquer, th other yield the day, 
Yet in * their Compact, after falfe they play. 

o is next chofen King, / but. 9 habit, 

r Goddeffe. * fome. < for. 

326 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

The Romans fore incens d, their General flay, 

And from old Alba fetch the wealth away; 

Of Latin Kings this was long fince the Seat, 

But now demolifhed, to make Rome great. 

Thirty two years did Tullus reign, then dye, [189] 

Left Rome in wealth, and power ftill growing high. 

Ancus Martins. 

TV TEXT Ancus Martius fits upon the Throne, 
* ^ Nephew unto Pompilius dead and gone; 
Rome he inlarg d, new built again the wall, 
Much ftronger, and more beautiful withal; 
A ftately Bridge he over Tyber made, 
Of Boats and Oars no more they need the aid. 
Fair Oftia he built this Town, it ilood 
Clofe by the mouth of famous Tyber floud, 
Twenty four years time of his Royal race, 
Then unto death unwillingly gives place. 


Tarquinius Prifcus 

ARQUIN a Greek at Corinth born and bred, 
Who from his Country for Sedition fled. 

The Fo 21 r Mo n a rch ies. 327 

Is entertain d at Rome, and in fhort time, 

By wealth and favour doth to honour clirnbe; 

He after Martins death the Kingdome had, 

A hundred Senators he more did add. 

Wars with the Latins he again renews, 

And Nations twelve of Tufcany fubdues, 

To fuch rude triumphs as young Rome then had, 

Some State and fplendor* did this Prifcus add: 

Thirty eight years (this fhronger born *) did reign, 

And after all, by Ancus Sons was flain. 

Servius Tullius. [ I 9] 

NEXT Servius Tullius gets into w the Throne, 
Afcends not up By merits of his own, 
But by the favour and the fpecial grace 
Of Tanquil* late Queen, obtains the place. 
He ranks the people into each degree, 
As wealth had made them of ability; 
A general Mufter takes, which by account, 
To eighty thoufand Souls then did amount. 
Forty four years did Servius Tullius reign, 
And then by Tarquin Prifcus Son was flain. 

* Much ftate, and glory, Stranger borne, 

w fits upon. x Tanaquil, 

328 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Tarquinius Superbus the laji 
King of the Romans y 

HT^ARQUIN the proud, from manners called fo, 

Sat on the Throne, when he had flain his Foe. 
Sextus his Son did moft unworthily, 
Lucretia force, mirrour of Chaftity: 
She loathed fo the faft, me loath d her life, 
And med her guiltlefs blood with guilty knife 
Her Husband fore incens d to quit this wrong, 
With Junius Brutus rofe, and being ftrong, 
The Tarquins they from Rome by force * expel, 
In banifhment perpetual to dwell; 
The Government they change, a new one bring, 
And people fwear ne r to accept of King.* 

An Apology.* [ I 9 I ] 

r I ^O finiih what s begun, was my intent, 

-* My thoughts and my endeavours thereto bent; 
Effays I many made but ilill gave out, 
The more I mus d, the more I was in doubt: 

y Roman King. * with fpeed. 

a After this the first edition has, 

The end of the Roman Monarchy, 

being the fourth and laft. 
* This Apology is not in the first edition. 

An Apology. 329 

The fubject large my mind and body weak, 
With many moe difcouragements did fpeak. 
All thoughts of further progrefs laid afide, 
Though oft perfwaded, I as oft deny d, 
At length refolv d, when many years had part, 
To profecute my ftory to the laft; 
And for the fame, I hours not few did fpend, 
And weary lines (though lanke) I many pen d: 
But fore I could accomplim my delire, 
My papers fell a prey to th raging fire.* 
And thus my pains (with better things) I loft, 
Which none had caufe to wail, nor I to boaft. 
No more Pie do fith I have fuffer d wrack, 
Although my Monarchies their legs do lack: 
Nor matter is t this laft, the world now fees, 
Hath many Ages been upon his knees. 

* See page 40. 

A Dialogue between Old En- 

gland and New; concerning their 
prefent Troubles, Anno, 164.2. 


A Las dear Mother, faireft Queen and beft, 
-*- * With honour, wealth, and peace, happy and blefl; 
What ails thee hang thy head, & crofs thine arms ? 
And fit i th duft, to figh thefe fad alarms? 
What deluge of new woes thus over-whelme 
The glories of thy ever famous Realme? 
What means this wailing tone, this mournful b guife ? 
Ah, tell thy daughter, me may fympathize. 

Old England. 

Art ignorant indeed of thefe my woes? 
Or muft my forced tongue thefe griefs difclofe ? 
And muft myfelf diffeft my tatter d ftate, 
Which mazed Chriftendome ftands wondring at? 

* mourning. 

Old England and New. 33 1 

And thou a Child, a Limbe, and doft not feel 

My fainting weakned body now t o reel? 

This Phyfick purging potion, I have taken, [ J 93l 

Will bring confumption, or an Ague quaking, 

Unlefs fome Cordial, thou fetch from high, 

Which prefent help may eafe my malady. 

If I deceafe, doft think thou malt furvive? 

Or by my wafting ftate doft think to thrive? 

Then weigh our cafe, if t be not juftly fad; 

Let me lament alone, while thou art glad. 

Neiv-Engla n d. 

And thus (alas) your ftate you much deplore 
In general terms, but will not fay wherefore: 
What medicine fhall I feek to cure this woe, 
If th wound d fo dangerous I may not know.* 
But you perhaps, would have me ghefs it out: 
What hath fome Hengift like that Saxon ftout 
By fraud or force ufurp d thy flowring crown, 
Or* by tempeftuous warrs thy fields trod down/ 
Or hath Canutus, that brave valiant Dane 
The Regal peacefull Scepter from thee tane / 
Or is t a Norman, whofe victorious hand 
With Englifh blood bedews thy conquered land ? 
Or is t Inteftine warrs that thus offend? 
Do Maud and Stephen for the crown contend ? 


c this. d wound s. 

* A question in the first edition. e And. 

332 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Do Barons rife and fide againft their King, 
And call in foraign aid to help the thing? 
Mull Edward be depos d ? or is t the hour 
That fecond Richard muft be clapt i th tower ? 
Or is t the fatal Jarre, again begun 
That from the red white pricking rofes fprung? 
Muft Richmonds aid, the Nobles now implore? [194] 
To come and break the Tufhes of the Boar,* 
If none of thefe dear Mother, what s your woe ? 
Pray do you 7 fear Spains bragging Armadot 
Doth your Allye, fair France, confpire your wrack, 
Or do the Scots play falfe, behind your back? 
Doth Holland quit you ill for all your love ? 
Whence is the ftorm from Earth or Heaven above ? 
Is t drought, is t famine, or is t peftilence? 
Doft feel the fmart, or fear the Confequence ? 
Your humble Child intreats you, mew your grief, 
Though Arms, nor Purfe me hath for your relief, 
Such is her poverty: yet lhall be found 
A Suppliant for your help, as fhe is bound. 

* Richard III. He is called the "boar" several times in Shakespeare s 
tragedy of Richard III. " Richard s armorial supporters were white boars. 
A white boar was also his favourite badge. In his letter from York he 
orders " four standards of sarcenet and thirteen gonfanons of fustian, with 
boars." Richard s favourite badge of cognizance was worn by the higher 
order of his partisans appendant to a collar of roses and suns." KNIGHT S 
Shakspere : Histories, vol. ii. p. 239.. 

f not. 

Old England and New. 333 

Old England. 

I muft confefs fome of thofe fores you name, 

My beauteous body at this prefent maime; 

But forreign foe, nor feigned friend I fear, 

For they have work enough (thou knowft) elfewhere 

Nor is it Aides Son,* nor^ Henryes daughter; f 

Whofe proud contention caufe this (laughter, 

Nor Nobles liding, to make John no King, 

French Jews J unjuflly to the Crown to bring; 

No Edward, Richard, to lofe rule and life, 

Nor no Lancastrians to renew old ftrife: 

No Duke of Tork, nor Earl of March to foyle 

Their hands in kindreds blood whom they did foil 

No crafty Tyrant now ufurps the Seat, 

Who Nephews flew that fo he might be great \ h 

No need of Tudor, 1 Rofes to unite, [ J 95] 

None knows which is the red, or which the white; 

Spains braving Fleet, a fecond time is funk, 

France knows how oft y my fury me hath drunk: 

* Stephen, son of Stephen of Blois, Count Palatine of Champagne, and 
Adela, fourth daughter of William the Conqueror. Her name is sometimes 
given as Adelicia, Adeliza, or Alice ; and the contraction from one of these 
forms into Alcie would be simple. 

g and. 

t The Empress Matilda, or Maud, the daughter of Henry I. See page 
331, last line. 

J A misprint for " Lewis " in the first edition. 

* No Crook-backt Tyrant, now ufurps the Seat, 
Whofe .tearing tusks did wound, and kill, and threat: 

* Teder. J of. 

334 Anne Bradftreef* s Works. 

By Edward third, and Henry fifth of fame, 
Her Lillies in mine Arms avouch the fame. 
My Sifter Scotland hurts me now no more, 
Though me hath been injurious heretofore; 
What Holland is I am in fome fufpence f 
But truft not much unto his excellence. 
For wants, fure fome I feel, but more I fear, 
And for the Peflilence, who knows how near; 
Famine and Plague, two Sifters of the Sword, 
Deftru6tion to a Land, doth foon afford: 
They re for my punifhment ordain d on high, 
Unlefs our * tears prevent it fpeedily.* 
But yet I Anfwer not what you demand, 
To mew the grievance of my troubled Land ? 
Before I tell th ? Effea, Pie mew the Caufe 
Which are my iins the breach of facred Laws, 
Idolatry fupplanter of a Nation, 
With foolifh Superfluous Adoration, 
Are l lik d and countenanc d by men of might, 
The Gofpel troden down and hath no right: 
Church Offices were n fold and bought for gain, 
That Pope had hope to find, Rome here again, 
For Oaths and Blafphemies, did ever Ear, 
From Belzebub himfelf fuch language hear; 
What fcorning of the Saints of the mofl high ? 
What injuries did daily on them lye ? 

k thy. * The Great Plague came in 1665, about twenty years after. 

1 And. tn. i s trod. are. 

Old England and New. 335 

What falfe reports, what nick-names did they take [196] 

Not for their own, but for their Matters fake ? 

And thou poor foul, wert jeer d among the reft, 

Thy flying for the truth was * made a jeft. 

For Sabbath-breaking, and for drunkennefs, 

Did ever land profanefs more exprefs? 

From crying blood yet cleanfed am not I, 

Martyres and others, dying caufelefly. 

How many princely heads on blocks laid down 

For nought but title to a fading crown ? 

Mongft all the crueltyes by great ones done^ 

Of Edwards youths, q and Clarence haplefs fon, 

Jane why didft thou dye in flowring prime ? 
Becaufe of royal ftem, that was thy crime. 
For bribery Adultery and lyes/" 

Where is the nation, I can t parallize. 

With ufury, extortion and oppreflion, 

Thefe be the Hydraes of my ftout tranfgreffion. 

Thefe be the bitter fountains, heads and roots, 

Whence flow d the fource,the fprigs,the boughs & fruits 

Of more then thou canft hear or I relate, 

That with high hand I ftill did perpetrate : 

For thefe were threatned the wofull day, 

1 mockt the Preachers, put it far away; 
The Sermons yet upon Record do ftand 
That cri d deftruction to my wicked land: 

I. / which I have done, 9 Oh, Edwards Babes, 

For Bribery, Adultery, for Thefts, and Lyes, 

336 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

I then believ d not, now I feel and fee, 

The plague of ftubborn incredulity/ 

So-me loft their livings, fome in prifon pent, 

Some fin d, from houfe & friends to exile went. 

Their filent tongues to heaven did vengeance cry, [197] 

Who faw their wrongs, & hath judg d righteoufly * 

And will repay it feven-fold in my lap: 

This is fore-runner of my Afterclap. 

Nor took I warning by my neighbours falls, 

I faw fad Germany es difmantled walls, 

I faw her people famifh d, Nobles (lain, 

Her fruitfull land, a barren Heath remain. 

I faw unmov d, her Armyes foil d and fled, 

Wives forc d, babes tofs d, her houfes calcined. 

I faw ftrong Rochel yielded v to her Foe, 

Thoufands of ftarved Chriftians there alfo. 

I faw poor Ireland bleeding out her laft, 

Such crueltyes as all reports have paft;* 

Mine heart obdurate flood not yet agaft. 

s Instead of this and the preceding line, the first edition has, 
Thefe Prophets mouthes (alas the while) was ftopt, 
Unworthily, fome backs whipt, and eares cropt ; 
Their reverent cheeks did beare the glorious markes 
Of ftinking, ftigmatizing, Romilh Clerkes ; 

referring probably to the persecutions of Prynne, Bastwick, and Burton. 

Prynne himself says of the letters " S. L." branded on his cheeks, 

"Bearing LAVD S STAMPS on my cheeks, I retire, 
Triumphing, God s sweet Sacrifice, by Fire." 

t Some grcfiely fin d, from. 

* Who heard their caufe, and wrongs judg d righteoufly, 
v yielding. -w cruelty. * See page 164 and note. 

Old England and New. 337 

Now fip I of that cup, and juft t may be 
The bottome clreggs referved are for me. 

. f 
New- England. 

To all you ve faid, fad Mother I affent, 

Your fearfull fins great caufe there s to lament, 

My guilty hands in part, hold up with you, 

A Sharer in your punifhment s my due. 

But all you fay amounts to this effect, 

Not what you feel, but what you do expect, 

Pray in plain terms, what is your prefent grief? 

Then let s joyn heads & hearts * for your relief. 

Old England. [198] 

Well to the matter then, there s grown of late 
Twixt King and Peers a Quefbion of State, 
Which is the chief, the Law, or elfe the King. 
One faid/ it s he, the other no fuch thing. 
Tis faid, my beter part in Parliament z 
To eafe my groaning Land, fhew d" their intent, 
To crufh the proud, and right to each man deal, 
To help the Church, and flay the Common-weal. 
So many Obftacles came b in their way, 
As puts me to a fhand what I mould fay; 

x hands. y faith. Mj better part in Court of Parliament, 

a Ihew. 6 comes. 


338 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Old cuftomes, new Prerogatives flood on, 

Had they not held Law fafl, all had been gone: 

Which by their prudence flood them in fuch flead 

They took high Strafford lower by the head. 

And to their Laud be t fpoke, they held i th tower 

All Englands Metropolitane that hour;* 

This done, an act they would have pafled fain, 

No Prelate fhould his Bifhoprick retain; 

Here tugg d they hard (indeed,) for all men faw 

This mufl be done by Gofpel, not by Law. 

Next the Militia they urged fore, 

This was deny d, (I need not fay wherefore) 

The King difpleas d at York, himfelf abfents, 

They humbly beg return, mew their intents; 

The writing, printing, pofling too and fro, 

Shews all was done, Pie therefore let it go. 

But now I come to fpeak of my difafler, 

Contention grown, twixt Subjects & their Mafler; 

They worded it fo long, they fell to blows, [ T 99] 

That thoufands lay on heaps, here bleeds my woes, 

I that no wars fo many years have known, 

Am now deflroy d and flaught red by mine own; 

But could the Field alone this flrife c decide, 

One Battel two or three I might abide: 

* A play upon words is not often to be met with in the writings of our 
grave author. Archbishop Laud was committed to the Tower Feb. 26, 1641, 
and was confined there until his execution. His trial took place in March, 
1644. He was beheaded Jan. 10, 1645. 

c caufe. 

Old England and New. 339 

But thefe may be beginnings of more woe 

Who knows, but this may be my overthrow/ 

Oh pity me in this fad perturbation, 

My plundred Towns, my houfes devaftation, 

My weeping* Virgins and my young men ilain; 

My wealthy trading fall n, my dearth of grain, 

The feed-times come, but ploughman hath no hope 

Becaufe he knows not who mall inn his Crop: 

The poor they want their pay, their children bread, 

Their woful Mothers tears unpittied, 

If any pity in thy heart remain, 

Or any child-like love thou doft retain, 

For my relief, do what there lyes in thee, 

And recompence that .good I ve done to thee/ 

New England. 
Dear Mother ceafe complaints & wipe your eyes, 

.. .- 

Shake off your duft, chear up, and now arife, 
You are my Mother Nurfe, and \* your flefh, 
Your funken bowels gladly would refrem, 
Your griefs I pity, but foon hope to fee, 
Out of your troubles much good fruit to be; 

d Who knows, the worft, the beft may overthrow ; 
Religion, Gofpell, here lies at the ftake, 
Pray now dear child, for facred Zions fake, 
/ For my relief now ufe thy utmoft skill, 

And recompence me good, for all my ill. 
? nurfe, I once. 

340 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

To fee thofe latter dayes of hop d for good, 

Though now beclouded all with tears and blood :* 

After dark Popery the day did clear, [ 2O ] 

But now the Sun in s brightnefs fhall appear. 

Bleft be the Nobles of thy noble Land, 

With ventur d lives for Truths defence that Hand. 

Bleft be thy Commons, who for common good, 

And thy infringed Laws have boldly flood. 

Bleft be thy Counties, who did * aid thee ftill, 

With hearts and States to teftifie their will. 

Bleft be thy Preachers, who do chear thee on, 

O cry the Sword of God, and Gideon ; * 

And fhall I not on them wifh Merc s curfe, 

That help thee not with prayers, Arms and purfe ? f 

And for my felf let miferies abound, 

If mindlefs of thy State I e re be found. 

Thefe are the dayes the Churches foes to crufh, 

To root out Popelings 7 head, tail, branch and rum; 

Let s bring Baals veftments forth* to make a fire, 

Their Mytires, Surplices, and all their Tire, 

Copes, Rotchets, Croffiers, and fuch empty tram/ 

And let their Names confume, but let the flafh 

* Your griefs I pity much, but fhould do wrong, 
To weep for that we both have pray d for long, 
To fee thefe latter dayes of hop d for good, 

That Right may have its right, though t be with blood ; 

* which do. * Judg. vii. 18, 20. 

t " Curse ye Meroz, said the angel of the LORD, curse ye bitterly the 
inhabitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the LORD, to 
the help of the LORD against the mighty." JUDG. v. 23. 

J Prelates. * out. / fuch trafh, 

Old England and New. 341 

Light Chriflendome, and all the world to fee 

We hate Romes whore, with all her trumpery. 

Go on brave Effex with a Loyal heart, 

Not falfe to King, nor to the better part;"* 

But thofe that hurt his people and his Crown, 

As duty binds, expel and tread them down." 

And ye brave Nobles chafe away all fear, 

And to this hopeful" Caufe clofely adhere; 

O Mother can you weep, and have fuch Peers, 

When they are gone, then drown your felf in tears 

If now you weep fo much, that then no more [ 2QI ] 

The briny Ocean will o reflow your more. 

Thefe, thefe are they I trufl, with Charles our King, 

Out of all mifls fuch glorious dayes fhall ^ bring; 

That dazled eyes beholding much fhall wonder 

At that thy fetled peace, thy wealth and fplendor. 

Thy Church and weal eftablim d in fuch manner, 

That all fhall joy, that thou difplay dft thy Banner; 

And difcipline erected fo I truft, 

That nurfing Kings fhall come and lick thy dufl: 

Then Juftice fhall in all thy Courts take place, 

Without refpect of perfon/ or of cafe; 

Then Bribes fhall ceafe, & Suits fhall not flick long 

Patience and purfe of Clients oft r to wrong: 

f " Go on brave EJfex, mew whole fon thou art, 

Not falfe to King, nor Countrej in thy heart, 
By force expell, deftroy, and tread them down : 

Let Gaoles be fill d with th remnant of that pack, 

And rturdy Tyburn loaded till it crack, 
* blefied. p will. 9 perfons. r for. 

34 2 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Then high Commiffions fhall fall to decay, 

And Purfivants, and Catchpoles want their pay. 

So fhall thy happy Nation ever flourifh, 

When truth & righteoufnes they thus fhall nourifh 

When thus in peace, thine Armies brave fend out, 

To fack proud Rome, and all her Vaffals rout; 

There let thy Name, thy fame, and glory * mine, 

As did thine Anceftors in Pale/line: 

And let her fpoyls full pay, with Intereft be, 

Of what unjuftly once me polPd from thee. 

Of all the woes thou canft, let her be fped, 

And on her pour the vengeance threatned; 

Bring forth the Beaft that ruPd the World with s beck, 

And tear his flefh, & fet your feet on s neck; 

And make his filthy Den fo defolate, 

To th flonimment of all that knew his ftate: 

This done with brandifh d Swords to Turky goe, [202] 

For then what is t, but Englifh blades dare do, 

And lay her wafte for fo s the facred Doom, 

And do to Gog as thou haft done to Rome. 

Oh Abraham s feed lift up your heads on high, 

For fure the day of your Redemption s nigh; 

The Scales fhall fall from your long blinded eyes, 

And him you fhall adore who now defpife, 

Then fulnefs of the Nations in fhall flow, 

And Jew and Gentile to one worfhip go; 

Then follows dayes of happinefs and reft; 

Whofe lot doth fall, to live therein is bleft: 

s thy valour. * Execute toth full. 

Old England and New. 343 

No Canaanite fhall then be found i th Land, 
And holinefs on horfes bells fhall Hand.* 
If this make way thereto, then ligh no more, 
But if at all, thou didft not fee t before; 
Farewel dear Mother, righteft caufe* prevail, 
And in a while, you le tell another tale. 

* " In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS 
UNTO THE LORD; . . . and in that day there shall be no more the 
Canaanite in the house of the Lord of hosts." ZECH. xiv. 20, 21. 

* Parliament, 

An Elegie upon that Honou- [203] 

rable and renowned Knight Sir Philip Sidney, 
who was untimely flam at the Siege 
of Zutphen, Anno, 158 6.* 

T T 7Hen England did enjoy her Halfion dayes, 

* ^ Her noble Sidney wore the Crown of Bayes; 
As well an honour to our Britifh Land, 
As fhe that fway d the Scepter with her hand; 

* So many changes were made in this poem in the second edition, and 
so much of the original was omitted, that it is here given entire as it 
appeared in the first edition. 

An Elegie upon that Ho 
nourable and renowned Knight, 

Sir Philip Sidney, who was untime 
ly flaine at the Seige of Zutphon, 
Anno 1586. 

By A. B. in the yeare, 1638. 

Hen England di<5 injoy her Halfion dayes, 
Her noble Sidney wore the Crown of Bayes ; 
No lefie an Honour to our BritiJJi Land, 
Then me that fway d the Scepter with her hand : 

Elegy upon Sir Philip Sidney. 345 

Mars and Minerva did in one agree, 

Of Arms and Arts he fhould a pattern be, 

Calliope with Terpjichore did ling, 

Of Poefie, and of mufick, he was King; 

His Rhetorick ftruck Polimina dead, 

His Eloquence made Mercury wax red ; 

His Logic k from Euterpe won the Crown, 

More worth was his then Clio could fet down. 

Thalia and Melpomene fay truth, 

(Witnefs Arcadia penned in his youth,) 

Are not his tragick Comedies fo acted, 

As if your ninefold wit had been compacted. 

Mars and Minerva did in one agree, 
Of Armes, and Arts, thou fhould ft a patterne be. 
Calliope with Terpfechor did ling, 
Of Poelie, and of Mulick thou wert King ; 
Thy Rhethorick it ftruck Polimnia dead, 
Thine Eloquence made Mercury wax red ; 
Thy Logick from Euterpe won the Crown, 
More worth was thine, then Clio could fet down. 
Thalia, and Melpomene, fay th truth, 
(Witneffe Arcadia, penn d in his youth) 
Are not his Tragick Comedies fo adled, 
As if your nine-fold wit had been compacted ; 
To mew the world, they never faw before, 
That this one Volumne mould exhauft your ftore. 
I praife thee not for this, it is unfit, 
This was thy fhame, O miracle of wit : 
Yet doth thy fhame (with all) purchafe renown, 
What doe thy vertues then ? Oh, honours crown ! 
In all records, thy Name I ever fee, 
Put with an Epithet of dignity ; 

Which Ihewes, thy worth was great, thine honour fuch, 
The love thy Country ought thee, was as much. 

346 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

To fhew the world, they never faw before, 
That this one Volume fhould exhauft your (lore; 
His wifer dayes condemn d his witty works, 
Who knows the fpels that in his Rhetorick lurks, 
But fome infatuate fools foon caught therein, [204] 
Fond Cupids Dame had never fuch a gin, 
Which makes feverer eyes but flight that ftory, 
And men of morofe minds envy his glory: 
But he s a Beetle-head that can t defcry 
A world of wealth within that rubbifh lye, 
And doth his name, his work, his honour wrong, 
The brave refiner of our Britifh tongue, 

Let then, none dif-allow of thefe my ftraines, 
Which have the felf-fame blood yet in my veines ; * 
Who honours thee for what was honourable, 
But leaves the reft, as moft unprofitable : 
Thy wifer dayes, condemn d thy witty works, 
Who knowes the Spels that in thy Rethorick lurks ? 
But fome infatuate fooles foone caught therein, 
Found Cupids Dam, had never fuch a Gin ; 
Which makes feverer eyes but fcorn thy Story, 
And modeft Maids, and Wives, blufh. at thy glory ; 
Yet, he s a beetle head, that cann t difcry 
A world of treafure, in that rubbifh lye ; 
And doth thy felfe, thy worke, and honour wrong, 
(O brave Refiner of our Brittijh Tongue ;) 
That fees not learning, valour, and morality, 
Juftice, friendmip, and kind hofpitality; 
Yea, and Divinity within thy Book, 
Such were prejudicate, and did not look : 
But to fay truth, thy worth I lhall but ftaine, 
Thy fame, and praife, is farre beyond my ftraine ; 

* See page 347, line 10, and Introduction. 

Elegy upon Sir Philip Sidney. 347 

That fees not learning, valour and morality, 

Juftice, friendfhip, and kind hofpitality, 

Yea and Divinity within his book, 

Such were prejudicate, and did not look. 

In all Records his name I ever fee 

Put with an Epithite of dignity, 

Which mews his worth was great, his honour fuch, 

The love his Country ought him, was as much. 

Then let none difallow of thefe my ftraines 

Whilft Englifh blood yet runs within my veins. 

O brave Achilles, I wifh fome Homer would 

Engrave in Marble, with Characters of gold 

The valiant feats thou didfl on Flanders coaft, 

Which at this day fair Belgia may boaft. 

The more I fay, the more thy worth I ftain, 

Thy fame and praife is far beyond my flrain. 

O Zutphcn, Zutphen that moil fatal City 

Made famous by thy death, much more the pity: 

Ah! in his blooming prime death pluckt this rofe 

E re he was ripe, his thread cut Atropos. 

Yet great Auguftus was content (we know) 
To be faluted by a filly Crow ; 
Then let fuch Crowes as I, thy praifes ling, 
A Crow s a Crow, and Ccefar is a King. 
O brave Achilles, I wifh fome Homer would 
Engrave on Marble, in characters of Gold, 
What famous feats thou didft, on Flanders coaft, 
Of which, this day, faire Belgia doth boaft. 
O Zutphon, Zutphon, that moft fatall City, 
Made famous by thy fall, much more s the pitty ; 

348 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Thus man is born to dye, and dead is he, 

Brave Heftor, by the walls of Troy we fee. 

O who was near thee but did fore repine [ 2O 5] 

He refcued not with life that life of thine : 

But yet impartial Fates this boon did give, 

Though Sidney di d his valiant name mould live: 

And live it doth in fpight of death through fame, 

Thus being overcome, he overcame. 

Where is that envious tongue, but can afford 

Of this our noble Scipio fome good word. 

Great Bartas this unto thy praife adds more, 

In fad fweet verfe, thou didft his death deplore. 

And Phcenix Spencer doth unto his life, 

His death prefent in fable to his wife. 

Stella the fair, whofe flreams from Conduits fell 

For the fad lofs of her dear AftropheL* 

Ah, in his blooming prime, death pluckt this Rofe, 
E re he was ripe ; his thred cut Atropos. 
Thus man is borne to dye, and dead is he, 
Brave Hetfor by the walls of Troy, we fee : 
Oh, who was neare thee, but did fore repine ; 
He refcued not with life, that life of thine, 
But yet impartiall Death this Boone did give, 
Though Sidney dy d, his valiant name mould live ; 
And live it doth, in fpight of death, through fame, 

Thus being over-come, he over-came. 

, ^ 

* " Aftrophel. A Paftorall Elegie upon the Death of the moft noble and 
valorous Knight, Sir Philip Sidney. Dedicated to the moft beautifull 
and vertuous Ladie, the Counteffe of Effex." Lady Sidney, three years 
after her husband s death, married the Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth s 
celebrated favorite. Child s Spenser. Boston, 1855. vol. iv. p. 415. 

Elegy upon Sir Philip Sidney. 349 

Fain would I fhew how he fames paths did tread, 
But now into fuch Lab rinths I am lead, 
With endlefs turnes, the way I find not out, 
How to perfift my Mufe is more in doubt; 
Which makes me now with Silve/ler confefs, 
But Sidney s Mufe can fing his worth inefs.* 

Where is that envious tongue, but can afford, 
Of this our noble Scipio fome good word ? 
Noble Bartas, this to thy praife adds more, 
In fad, fweet verfe, thou didft his death deplore ; 
Illuftrious Stella, thou didft thine full well, 
If thine afpedl was milde to Aft r op hell ; 
I feare thou wert a Commet, did portend 
Such prince as he, his race Ihould ihortly end : 
If fuch Stars as thefe, fad prefages be, 
I wilh no more fuch Blazers we may fee ; 
But thou art gone, fuch Meteors never laft, 
And as thy beauty, fo thy name would waft, 
But that it is record by Philips hand, 
That fuch an omen once was in our land, 

Princely Philip, rather Alexander, 

Who wert of honours band, the chief Commander. 
How could that Stella, fo confine thy will ? 
To wait till me, her influence diftill, 

1 rather judg d thee of his mind that wept, 
To be within the bounds of one world kept,f 
But Omphala, fet Hercules to fpin, 

And Mars himfelf was ta n by Venus gin; 
Then wonder leffe, if warlike Philip yield 
When fuch a Hero fhoots him out o th field, 

* " Although I knoiv none, but a Sidney s Mufe, 

Worthy to Jtng a Sidney s WorthinrJJe : " 

Dedication to An Elegiac Epiftle on the deceafe of Sir William Sidney, 
by Joshua Sylvester. 
f See page 288. 

350 Anne Bradftreef s Works. 

The Mufes aid I crav d, they had no will 

To give to their Detractor any quill, 

With high difdain, they faid they gave no more, 

Since Sidney had exhaufled all their ftore. 

They took from me the fcribling pen I had, 

(I to be eas d of fuch a task was glad) 

Yet this preheminence thou haft above, 

That thine was true, but theirs adult rate love. 

Fain would I fhew, how thou fame s path didft tread, 

But now into fuch Lab rinths am I led 

With endlefie turnes, the way I find not out, 

For to perfift, mj mufe is more in doubt : 

Calls me ambitious fool, that durft afpire, 

Enough for me to look, and fo admire. 

And makes me now with Sylvejler confefie, 

But Sydney s, Mufe, can fing his worthinefie. 

Too late mj errour fee, that durft prefume 

To fix my faltring lines upon his tomb : 

Which are in worth, as far Ihort of his due, 

As Vulcan is, of Venus native hue. 

Goodwill, did make my head-long pen to run, 

Like unwife Phaeton his ill guided fonne, 

Till taught to s coft, for his too hafty hand, 

He left that charge by Phoebus to be man d : 

So proudly foolifh I, with Phaeton ftrive, 

Fame s flaming Chariot for to drive. 

Till terrour-ftruck for my too weighty charge. 

I leave t in brief, Apollo do t at large. 

Apollo laught to patch up what s begun, 

He bad me drive, and he would hold the Sun ; 

Better my hap, then was his darlings fate, 

For dear regard he had of Sydney s ftate, 

Who in his Deity, had fo deep" fhare, 

That thofe that name his fame, he needs muft fpare, 

He promis d much, but th mufes had no will, 

To give to their detractor any quill. 

Elegy upon Sir Philip Sidney. 351 

Then to reveng this wrong, themfelves engage, 
And drave me from Parnajfus in a rage. 
Then wonder not if I no better fped, 
Since I the Mufes thus have injured. 
I penlive for my fault, fate down, and then [206] 

Errata through their leave, threw me my pen, 
My Poem to conclude, two lines they deign 
Which writ, me bad return t to them again ; 

9 O 7 

So Sidneys fame I leave to Englands Rolls, 
His bones do lie interr d in {lately Pauls. 


His Epitaph. 

Here lies in fame under this ftone, 
Philip and Alexander both in one; 

With high difdain, they faid they gave no more, 
Since Sydney had exhaufted all their ftore, 
That this contempt it did the more perplex, 
In being done by one of their own fex; 
They took from me, the fcribling pen I had, 
I to be eas d of fuch a tafk was glad. 
For to revenge his wrong, themfelves ingage, 
And drave me from ParnaJJTus in a rage, 
Not becaufe, fweet Sydney s fame was not dear, 
But I had blemilh d theirs, to make t appear : 
I peniive for my fault, fat down, and then, 
Errata, through their leave threw me my pen, 
For to conclude my poem two lines they daigne, 
Which writ, me bad return t to them again. 
So Sydney s fame, I leave to England s Rolls, 
His bones do lie interr d in ftately Pauls. 

His Epitaph. 

Here lies intomVd in fame, under this ftone, 
Philip and Alexander both in one. 


Anne Brad/I reefs Works. 

Heir to the Mufes, the Son of Mars in Truth, 
Learning, Valour, Wifdome, all in virtuous youth, 
His praife is much, this mall fuffice my pen, 
That Sidney dy d mong moft renown d of men. 

Heire to the Mufes, the Son of Mars in truth, 
Learning, valour, beauty, all in virtuous youth : 
His praife is much, this JJiall fuffice my pen, 
That Sidney dfd the quintejfence of men. 

In honour of Du Bartas^ i 6 4 i.* 

A mong the happy wits this age hath fhown, 
4 *- Great, dear, fweet Bartas thou art matchlefs 


My ravifh d Eyes and heart with faltering tongue. 
In humble wife have vow d their fervice long, 
But knowing th task fo great, & ftrength but fmall, 
Gave o re the work before begun withal, 
My dazled fight of late review d thy lines, 
Where Art, and more then Art, in nature fhines, 
Reflection from their beaming Altitude, 
Did thaw my frozen hearts ingratitude; 
Which Rayes darting upon fome richer ground, [207] 
Had caufed flours and fruits foon to abound; 
But barren I my Dafey here do bring, 
A homely flour in this my latter Spring, 
If Summer, or my Autumn age do yield, 
Flours, fruits, in Garden, Orchard, or in Field, 
They fhall be confecrated in my Verfe, 
And proftrate offered at great Bartas Herfe; 

* For an account of Du Bartas, see Introduction. 


354 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

My mufe unto a Child I may" compare, 

Who fees the riches of fome famous Fair, 

He feeds his Eyes, but underftanding lacks 

To comprehend the worth of all thofe knacks: 

The glittering plate and Jewels he admires, 

The Hats and Fans, the Plumes and Ladies tires, 

And thoufand times his mazed mind doth wim 

Some part (at leaft) of that brave wealth was his, 

But feeing empty wimes nought obtain, 

At night turns to his Mothers cot again, 

And tells her tales, (his full heart over glad) 

Of all the glorious fights his Eyes have had: 

But finds too foon his want of Eloquence, 

The filly pratler fpeaks no word of fenfe; 

But feeing utterance fail his great defires, 

Sits down in lilence, deeply he admires: 

Thus weak brain d I, reading thy lofty ftile, 

Thy profound learning, viewing other while; 

Thy Art in natural Philofophy, 

Thy Saint like mind in grave Divinity; 

Thy piercing skill in high Aftronomy, 

And curious infight in Anatomy: 

Thy Phyfick, mufick and ftate policy, [208] 

Valour in warr, in peace good husbandry. 

Sure lib ral Nature did with Art not fmall, 

In all the arts make thee moft liberal. 

A thoufand thoufand times my fenflefs fences 

Movelefs flancl charm d by thy fweet influences; 

a I fitly may. 

In Honour of Du Bartas. 355 

More fenflefs then the ftones to Amphions Lute, 

Mine eyes are fightlefs, and my tongue is mute, 

My full aflonim d heart cloth pant to break, 

Through grief it wants a faculty to fpeak: 

Volleyes of praifes could I eccho then, 

Had I an Angels voice, or Bartas pen : 

But wifhes can t accomplim my delire, 

Pardon if I adore, when I admire. 

O France thou did ft in him more glory gain 

Then in thy Martel, Pipin, Charlemain, 

Then in St. Lewes, or thy lafb Henry Great, 

Who tam d his foes in warrs, in bloud b and fweat. 

Thy fame is fpread as far, I dare be bold, 

In all the Zones, the temp rate, hot and cold. 

Their Trophies were but heaps of wounded flain, 

Thine, the quinteflence of an heroick brain. 

The oaken Garland ought to deck their brows, 

Immortal Bayes to thee all men allows. 

Who in thy tryumphs never won by wrongs, 

Lead ft millions chaind by eyes, by ears, by tongues 

Oft have I wondred at the hand of heaven, 

In giving one w r hat would have ferved feven. 

If e re this golden gift was fhowr d on any, 

Thy double portion would have ferved many. 

Unto each man his riches is aflign d [ 2O 9] 

Of Name, of State, of Body and of Mind : 

Thou hadft thy part of all, but of the laft, 

O pregnant brain, O comprehenlion vaft: 

b foes, in bloud, in skarres. 

356 Anne Bradjlreef* s Works. 

Thy haughty Stile and rapted wit fublime 

All ages wondring at, fhall never climb. 

Thy facred works are not for imitation, 

But Monuments to future Admiration. 

Thus Bartas fame fhall lafb while ftarrs do Hand, 

And whilft there s Air or Fire, or Sea or Land. 

But leaft mine ignorance mould do thee wrong, 

To celebrate thy merits in my Song. 

Fie leave thy praife to thofe fhall do thee right, 

Good will, not skill, did caufe me bring my Mite. 

His Epitaph. 

Here lyes the Pearle of France, Parnaffus Glory; 
The World rejoyc d afs birth, at^s death was forry. 
Art and Nature joy rid, by heavens high decree 
Now /hew* d what once they ought, Humanity : 
And Natures Law, had it been revocable 
To refcue him from death, Art had been able. 
But Nature vanquiftfd Art,fo Bartas dy*d\ 
But Fame out-living both, he is revived. 

In Honour of that High and Mighty Princefs [210] 

Queen Elizabeth . 


The Proeme. 

\ Lthough great Queen thou now in lilence lye 
4* 1 Yet thy loud Herald Fame doth to the sky 
Thy wondrous worth proclaim in every Clime, 
And fo hath vow d while there is world or time. 
So great s thy glory and thine excellence, 
The found thereof rapts b every humane fence, 
That men account it no impiety, 
To fay thou wert a flefhly Diety: 
Thoufands bring offerings (though out of date) 
Thy world of honours to accumulate, 
Mongft hundred Hecatombs of roaring verfe, 
Mine bleating ftands before thy royal Herfe. 
Thou never didft nor canft thou now difdain 
T accept the tribute of a loyal brain. 

a of moft happy memory. 


358 Anne Bradftreet s Works. 

Thy clemency did yerfl efteem as much 

The acclamations of the poor as rich, 

Which makes me deem my rudenefs is no wrong, 

Though I refound thy praifes^ mongft the throng. 

The Poem. [ 2I1 ] 

No Phoenix pen, nor Spencers poetry, 
No Speeds* nor Cambdens^ learned Hiftory, 
Elizahs works, warrs, praife, can e re compact, 
The World s the Theatre where me did a6t. 
No memoryes nor volumes can contain 
The leven^ Olympiads of her happy reign: 
Who was fo good, fo juft, fo learn d fo wife, 
From all the Kings on earth me won the prize. 

c greatnefie. <t nine. 

Their Originals, Manners, Habits, VVarres, Coines, and Scales : with the 
Succefsions, Liues, Adls, and Iffues of the ENGLISH MONARCHS, from 
IVLIVS C/ESAR, to our moft gracious Soueraigne, KING IAMES." " By 
IOHN SPEED." London, 1623. 


and Victorious Princeffe ELIZABETH, Late Queen of England. Con- 
tayning all the Important and Remarkable Passages of State, both at Home 
and Abroad, during her Long and Prosperous Reigne. Written in Latin 
by the learned Mr WILLIAM CAMDEN. Translated into EngliJJi by 
R. N. Gent. Together -with divers Additions of the Authors never before 
publi/hed. The third Edition" London, 1635. 

In Honour of >ueen Elizabeth. 359 

Nor fay I more then duly is her due, 

Millions will teflifie that this is true. 

She hath wip d off th afperlion of her Sex, 

That women wifdome lack to play the Rex: 

Spains Monarch, fayes not fo, nor yet his hoft: 

She taught them better manners, to their colt. 

The Salique law, in force now had not been, 

If France had ever hop d for fuch a Queen. 

But can you Doctors now this point difpute, 

She s Argument enough to make you mute. 

Since firft the fun did run his nere run race, 

And earth had once a year, a new old face, 

Since time was time, and man unmanly man, 

Come mew me fuch a Phoenix if you can ? 

Was ever people better rul d then hers / 

Was ever land more happy freed from ftirrs ? 

Did ever wealth in England more 7 abound ? 

Her vidloryes in forreign Coafts refouncl, 

Ships more invincible then Spain^s, her foe 

She wrackt, me fackt, me funk his Armado: 

Her ilately troops advanced to Lisbons wall [ 2I2 ] 

Don Anthony in s right there to inftall. 

She frankly helpt, Franks brave diftreffed King, 

The States united now her fame do fing, 

She their Prote6lrix was, they well do know 

Unto our dread Virago, what they owe. 

Her Nobles facrific d their noble blood, 

Nor men nor Coyn (he fpar d to do them good. 

f twice. / fo. 

360 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

The rude untamed IrifJi, fhe did quel, 

Before her picture the proud Tyrone fell.^ 

Had ever prince fuch Counfellours as fhe ? 

Her felf Minerva caus d them fo to be. 

Such Captains and fuch fouldiers never feen, 

As were the Subjects of our Pallas Queen. 

Her Sea-men through all ftraights the world did round ; 

Terra incognita might know the h found. 

Her Drake came laden home with Spanifh gold: 

Her EJfex took Cades, their Herculean Hold: 

But time would fail me, fo my tongue would to, 

To tell of half fhe did, or fhe could doe. 

Semiramis to her, is but obfcure, 

More infamy then fame, fhe did procure. 

She built- 7 her glory but on Babels walls, 

Worlds wonder for a while, but yet it falls. 

Fierce Tomris, (Cyrus heads-man) Scythians queen, 

Had put her harnefs off, had fhee but feen 

Our Amazon in th Camp of Tilbury f 

Judging all valour and all Majefty 

Within that Princefs to have relidence, 

And proftrate yielded to her excellence. 

Dido firft Foundrefs of proud Carthage walls, [213] 

(Who living confummates her Funeralls) 

A great Eliza, but compar d with ours, 

How vanifheth her glory, wealth and powers. 

Profufe, proud Cleopatra, whofe wrong name, 

Inftead of glory, prov d her Countryes fhame: 

And Tiron bound, before her pidlure fell. h her. 

i wit. j plac d. k at Tilberry: 

In Honour of J^jieen Elizabeth. 361 

Of her what worth in Storyes to be feen, 

But that fhe was a rich Egyptian Queen. 

Zenobya potent .Zfmprefs of the Eafl, 

And of all thefe, without compare the befb, 

Whom none but great Aurelius could quel; 

Yet for our Queen is no fit Parallel. 

She was a Phoenix Queen, fo mall fhe be, 

Her afhes not reviv d, more Phcenix fhe. 

Her perfonal perfections, who would tell, 

Muft dip his pen in th Heleconian Well, 

Which I may not, my pride doth but afpire 

To read what others write, and fo / admire. 

Now fay, have women worth/ or have they none? 

Or had they fome, but with our Queen is t gone ? 

Nay Mafculines, you have thus taxt us long, 

But fhe, though dead, will vindicate our wrong. 

Let fuch as fay our Sex is void of Reafon, 

Know tis a Slander now, but once was Treafon. 

But happy England which had fuch a Queen ; 

Yea w happy, happy, had thofe dayes flill been: 

But happinefs lyes in a higher fphere, 

Then wonder not Eliza moves not here. 

Full fraught with honour, riches and with dayes 

She fet, fhe fet, like Titan in his rayes. 

No more mall rife or fet fo * glorious fun [ 2I 4l 

Untill the heavens great revolution, 

If then new things their old forms mall " retain, 

Eliza fhall rule Albion once again. 

/ then. ^ O. fuch. mufb 


362 Anne Brad/lree? s Works. 


Here Jleeps THE Queen, this is the Royal Bed, 

Of th? Damask Rofe, fprung from the white and red, 

Whofe fweet perfume fills the all- filling Air\ 

This Rofe is withered, once fo lovely fair. 

On neither tree did grow fuch Rofe before, 

The greater was our gain, our lofs the more. 


Here lyes the pride of Queens, Pattern of Kings, 
So blaze it Fame, her J s feathers for thy wings. 
Here lyes the envied, yet unpar ailed Prince, 
Whofe living virtues f peak, (though dead long fence) 
If many worlds, as that Fanta/lick fram* d, 
In every one be her great glory f 

* This is dated 1643 in the first edition. 

Davids Lamentation for [215] 
Saul and Jonathan* 

2. Sam. i. 19. 

A Las (lain is the Head of Ifrael, 
* ^ Illuftrious Saul whofe beauty did excell, 
Upon thy places mountainous and high, 
How did the Mighty fall, and falling dye? 
In Gath let not this things be fpoken on, 
Nor publifhed in ftreets of Askalon, 
Left daughters of the Philiftines rejoyce, 
Left the uncircumcis d lift up their voice. 
O Gilbo Mounts, let never pearled dew, 
Nor fruitfull fhowres your barren tops beftrew, 
Nor fields of offrings ever on you grow, 
Nor any pleafant thing e re may you (how; 
For there the" Mighty Ones did foon decay, 
The fhield of Saul was vilely caft away, 

* This is the last piece but one in the first edition. The last, " Of the 
vanity of all worldly creatures" is printed on pages 233-235 of the second 
edition, under the title of " The Vanity of all -worldly things." All the 
following poems, with this exception, were published for the first time in 
the second edition. a For the. 

364 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

There had his dignity fo fore a foyle, 
As if his head ne re felt the facred oyle. 
Sometimes from crimfon, blood of gaftly ilain, 
The bow of Jonathan ne re turned in vain: 
Nor from the fat, and fpoils of Mighty men 
With bloodlefs fword did Saul turn back agen. 
Pleafant and lovely, were they both in life, 
And in their death was found no parting ftrife. 
Swifter then fwiftefl Eagles fo were they, 
Stronger then Lions ramping for their prey. 
O Ifraels Dames, o reflow your beauteous eyes 
For valiant Saul who on Mount Gilbo lyes, 
Who cloathed you in Cloath of richeft Dye, 
And choice delights, full of variety, 
On your array put ornaments of gold, 
Which made you yet more beauteous to behold 
O! how in Battle did the mighty fall 
In midft of fbrength not fuccoured at all. 
O lovely Jonathan\ how wail thou ilain? 
In places high, full low thou didft remain. 
Diftreft for thee I am, dear Jonathan, 
Thy love was wonderfull, furpaffing man/ 
Exceeding all the love that s Feminine, 
So pleafant haft thou been, dear brother mine, 
How are the mighty fall n into decay? 
And warlike weapons perifhed away? 

^ paffing a man. 

To the Memory of my dear and ever honoured Father 

Thomas Dudley Efq; 

Who deceafed, July 31. 1653. and of his Age, 77. 

T3 Y duty bound, and not by cuftome led 

*-^ To celebrate the praifes of the dead, 

My mournfull mind, fore preft, in trembling verfe 

Prefents my Lamentations at his Herfe, 

Who wa s my Father, Guide, Inftru6ter too, 

To whom I ought whatever I could doe: 

Nor is t Relation near my hand fhall rye; 

For who more caufe to boaft his worth then \? 

Who heard or faw, obferv d or knew him better? 

Or w r ho alive then I, a greater debtor? 

Let malice bite, and envy knaw its fill, 

He was my Father, and He praife him ftill. 

Nor was his name, or life lead fo obfcure 

That pitty might fome Trumpeters procure. 

Who after death might make him falfly feem 

Such as in life, no man could juftly deem. 

Well known and lov d, where ere he liv d, by moft 

Both in his native, and in foreign coaft, 

366 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

Thefe to the world his merits could make known, 

So needs no Teftimonial from his own; 

But now or never I muft pay my Sum; 

While others tell his worth, Fie not be dumb: 

One of thy Founders, him Neiv- En gland know, [218] 

Who ftaid thy feeble fides when thou waft low, 

Who fpent his ftate, his ftrength, & years with care 

That After-comers in them might have fhare. 

True Patriot of this little Commonweal, 

Who is t can tax thee ought, but for thy zeal ? 

Truths friend thou wert, to errors ftill a foe, 

Which caus d Apoftates to maligne fo. 

Thy love to true Religion e re mall mine, 

My Fathers God, be God of me and mine. 

Upon the earth he did not build his neft, 

But as a Pilgrim, what he had, pofleft. 

High thoughts he gave no harbour in his heart, 

Nor honours pufft him up, when he had part: 

Thofe titles loath d, which fome too much do love 

For truly his ambition lay above. 

His humble mind fo lov d humility, 

He left it to his race for Legacy: 

And oft and oft, with fpeeches mild and wife, 

Gave his in charge, that Jewel rich to prize. 

No orientation feen in all his wayes, 

As in the mean ones, of our foolifh dayes, 

Which all they have, and more ftill fet to view, 

Their greatnefs may be judg d by what they mew. 

To the Memory of her Father. 367 

His thoughts were more fublime, his actions wife, 

Such vanityes he juflly did defpife. 

Nor wonder twas, low things ne r much did move 

For he a Manfion had, prepared above, 

For which he figh d and pray d & long d full fore 

He might be cloath d upon, for evermore. 

Oft fpake of death, and with a fmiling chear, [219] 

He did exult his end was drawing near, 

Now fully ripe, as mock of wheat that s grown, 

Death as a Sickle hath him timely mown, 

And in celeftial Barn hath housed him high, 

O 7 

Where ftorms, nor fhowrs, nor ought can damnifie. 

His Generation ferv d, his labours ceafe; 

And to his Fathers gathered is in peace. 

Ah happy Soul, mongft Saints and Angel s bleft, 

Who after all his toyle, is now at reft: 

His hoary head in righteoufnefs was found: 

As joy in heaven on earth let praife refound. 

Forgotten never be his memory, 

His bleffing reft on his pofterity: 

His pious Footfteps followed by his race, 

At laft will bring us to that happy place 

Where we with joy each others face fhall fee, 

And parted more by death fhall never be. 

His Epitaph. 

Within this Tomb a Patriot lyes 
That was both pious^juft and -wife, 

368 Anne Bradftree*s Works. 

To Truth ajhield, to right a Wall, 

To Seftaryes a whip and Maul, 

A Magazine of Hi/lory, 

A Prizer of good Company 

In manners pleafant and fevere 

The Good him lotfd, the bad did fear, 

And when his time with years W as f pent 

If fome rejoyc*d, more did lament. 

An EPITAPH [220] 

On my dear and ever honoured Mother 

Mrs. Dorothy Dudley, 

who deceafed Decemb. 27. 1643. and of her age, 61 : 

Here lyes, 
Worthy Matron of unfpotted life, 


A loving Mother and obedient -wife, 
A friendly Neighbor, pitiful to poor, 
Whom oft Jhe fed, and clothed with herftore; 
To Servants wifely aiveful, but yet kind, 
And as they did,fo they reward did find\ 
A true Inftru&er of her Family, 
The which Jhe ordered -with dexterity. 
The publick meetings ever did frequent, 
And in her Clofet conftant hours Jlie fpent; 
Religious in all her -words and wayes, 
Prep aringjl ill for death, till end of dayes: 
Of all her Children, Children, liv>d to fee, 
Then dying, left a bleffed memory. 



OOme time now paft in the Autumnal Tide, 
ls -^ When Phaebits wanted but one hour to bed, 
The trees all richly clad, yet void of pride, 
Where gilded o re by his rich golden head. 
Their leaves & fruits feem d painted, but was true 
Of green, of red, of yellow, mixed hew, 
Rapt were my fences at this delectable view. 

I wift not what to wiih, yet lure thought I, 
If fo much excellence abide below; 
How excellent is he that dwells on high? 
Whofe power and beauty by his works we know. 
Sure he is goodnefs, wifdome, glory, light. 
That hath this under world fo richly dight: 
More Heaven then Earth was here no winter & no 


Then on a ftately Oak I caft mine Eye, 
Whole ruffling top the Clouds feem d to afpire; 
How long lince thou wail in thine Infancy? 
Thy ftrength, and ftature, more thy years admire, 
Hath hundred winters paft lince thou waft born f 
Or thoufand fince thou brakeft thy fhell of horn, 
If fo, all thefe as nought, Eternity doth fcorn. 

4 [223] 

Then higher on the gliftering Sun I gaz d, 

Whofe beams was fhaded by the leavie Tree, 

The more I look d, the more I grew amaz d, 

And foftly faid, what glory s like to thee ? 

Soul of this world, this Univerfes Eye, 

No wonder, fome made thee a Deity: 

Had I not better known, (alas) the fame had I. 

Thou as a Bridegroom from thy Chamber rufhes, 

And as a ftrong man, joyes to run a race, 

The morn doth ufher thee, with fmiles & blufhes, 

The Earth reflects her glances in thy face. 

Birds, infects, Animals with Vegative, 

Thy heart from death and dulnefs doth revive: 

And in the darkfome womb of fruitful nature dive. 

372 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 


Thy fwift Annual, and diurnal Courfe, 

Thy daily ftreight, and yearly oblique path, 

Thy pleafing fervor, and thy fcorching force, 

All mortals here the feeling knowledg hath. 

Thy prefence makes it day, thy abfence night, 

Quaternal Seafons caufed by thy might: 

Hail Creature, full of fweetnefs, beauty & delight. 

Art thou fo full of glory, that no Eye 

Hath ftrength, thy mining Rayes once to behold? 

And is thy fplendid Throne erecl fo high? 

As to approach it, can no earthly mould. 

How full of glory then muft thy Creator be ? 

Who gave this bright light lufter unto thee: 

Admir d, ador d for ever, be that Majefty. 

8 [222] 

Silent alone, where none or faw, or heard, 

In pathlefs paths I lead my wandring feet, 

My humble Eyes to lofty Skyes I rear d 

To fmg fome Song, my mazed Mufe thought meet. 

My great Creator I would magnifie, 

That nature had, thus decked liberally: 

But Ah, and Ah, again, my imbecility! 

Con templations. 

I heard the merry grafhopper then fing, 

The black clad Cricket, bear a fecond part, 

They kept one tune, and plaid on the fame firing, 

Seeming to glory in their little Art. 

Shall Creatures abject, thus their voices raife f 

And in their kind reibund their makers praife: 

Whilft I as mute, can warble forth no higher layes. 


When prefent times look back to Ages part, 

And men in being fancy thofe are dead, 

It makes things gone perpetually to laft, 

And calls back moneths and years that long fince fled 

It makes a man more aged in conceit, 

Then was Methufelah, or s grand-fire great: 

While of their perfons & their a6ts his mind doth treat. 


Sometimes x in Eden fair, he feems to be, 
Sees glorious Adam there made Lord of all, 
Fancyes the Apple, dangle on the Tree, 
That turn d his Sovereign to a naked thral. 
Who like a mifcreant s driven from that place, 
To get his bread with pain, and fweat of face: 
A penalty impos d on his backfliding Race. 

374 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

12 [224] 

Here fits our Grandame in retired place, 
And in her lap, her bloody Cain new born, 
The weeping Imp oft looks her in the face, 
Bewails his unknown hap, and fate forlorn; 
His Mother fighs, to think of Paradife, 
And how fhe loft her blifs, to be more wife, 
Believing him that was, and is, Father of lyes. 

Here Cain and Abel come to facrfiice, 

Fruits of the Earth, and Fatlings each do bring, 

On Abels gift the fire defcends from Skies, 

But no fuch fign on falfe Cairfs offering; 

With fullen hateful looks he goes his wayes. 

Hath thoufand thoughts to end his brothers dayes, 

Upon whofe blood his future good he hopes to raife 


There Abel keeps his fheep, no ill he thinks, 
His brother comes, then acl;s his fratricide, 
The Virgin Earth, of blood her firft draught drinks 
But fince that time me often hath been cloy d; 
The wretch with gaftly face and dreadful mind, 
Thinks each he fees will ferve him in his kind, 
Though none on Earth but kindred near then could he 



Who fancyes not his looks now at the Barr, 

His face like death, his heart with horror fraught, 

Nor Male-fa6tor ever felt like warr, 

When deep difpair, with wiih of life hath fought, 

Branded with guilt, and crufht with treble woes, 

A Vagabond to Land of Nod he goes. 

A City builds, that wals might him fecure from foes. 

16 [225] 

Who thinks not oft upon the Fathers ages. 

Their long defcent, how nephews fons they faw, 

The ftarry obfervations of thofe Sages, 

And how their precepts to their fons were law, 

How Adam iigh d to fee his Progeny, 

Cloath d all in his black finfull Liver} 7 , 

Who neither guilt, nor yet the punifhment could fly. 


Our Life compare we with their length of dayes 

Who to the tenth of theirs doth now arrive? 

And though thus fhort, we fhorten many wayes, 

Living fo little while we are alive; 

In eating, drinking, fleeping, vain delight 

So unawares comes on perpetual night, 

And puts all pleafures vain unto eternal flight. 

376 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 


When I behold the heavens as in their prime, 
And then the earth (though old) ftil clad in green, 
The ftones and trees, infenfible of time, 
Nor age nor wrinkle on their front are feen; 
If winter come, and greenefs then do fade, 
A Spring returns, and they more youthfull made; 
But Man grows old, lies down, remains where once 
he s laid. 

20 [19] 

By birth more noble then thofe creatures all, 

Yet feems by nature and by cuftome curs d, 

No fooner born, but grief and care makes fall 

That flate obliterate he had at firft: 

Nor youth, nor ftrength, nor wifdom fpring again 

Nor habitations long their names retain, 

But in oblivion to the final day remain. 

20 2 

Shall I then praife the heavens, the trees, the earth 
Becaufe their beauty and their ftrength laft longer 
Shall I wifh there, or never to had birth, 
Becaufe they re bigger, & their bodyes ftronger? 
Nay, they mall darken, perifh, fade and dye, 
And when unmade, fo ever mall they lye, 
But man was made for endlefs immortality. 

Contemplations. ^ y 7 


Under the cooling fhadow of a ftately Elm 

Clofe fate I by a goodly Rivers fide, 

Where gliding ftreams the Rocks did overwhelm; 

A lonely place, with pleafures dignifi d. 

I once that lov d the fhady woods fo well, 

Now thought the rivers did the trees excel, 

And if the fun would ever mine, there would I dwell. 


While on the ftealing fbream I fixt mine eye, 
Which to the long d for Ocean held it s courfe, 
I markt, nor crooks, nor rubs that there did lye 
Could hinder ought, but flill augment its force: 
O happy Flood, quoth I, that holds thy race 
Till thou arrive at thy beloved place, 
Nor is it rocks or fhoals that can obftruct thy pace 


Nor is t enough, that thou alone may ft flide, 
But hundred brooks in thy cleer waves do meet, 
So hand in hand along with thee they glide 
To Thetis houfe, where all imbrace and greet: 
Thou Emblem true, of what I count the belt, 
O could I lead my Rivolets to reft, 

So may we prefs to that vaft manfion, ever bleft. 

4 8 

378 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

24 [227] 

Ye Fifh which in this liquid Region bide, 

That for each feafon, have your habitation, 

Now fait, now frefh where you think beft to glide 

To unknown coafts to give a vifitation, 

In Lakes and ponds, you leave your numerous fry, 

So nature taught, and yet you know not why, 

You watry folk that know not your felicity. 

2 5 

Look how the wantons frisk to tail the air, 
Then to the colder bottome ftreight they dive, 
Eftfoon to Neptun s glaffie Hall repair 
To fee what trade they great ones there clo drive, 
Who forrage o re the fpacious fea-green field, 
And take the trembling prey before it yield, 
Whofe armour is their fcales, their fpreading fins their 


While muling thus with contemplation fed, 

And thoufand fancies buzzing in my brain, 

The fweet-tongu d Philomel percht ore my head, 

And chanted forth a moil melodious ftrain 

Which rapt me fo with wonder and delight, 

I judg d my hearing better then my fight, 

And wiiht me wings with her a while to take my flight. 

Co n te mp latio us. 

28 [27] 

O merry Bird (faid I) that fears no fhares, 

That neither toyles nor hoards up in thy barn, 

Feels no fad thoughts, nor cruciating cares 

To gain more good, or fhun what might thee harm 

Thy cloaths ne re wear, thy meat is every where, 

Thy bed a bough, thy drink the water cleer, 

Reminds not what is pail, nor whats to come doft fear 

28 [228] 

The dawning morn with fongs thou doft prevent, 

Sets hundred notes unto thy feathered crew, 

So each one tunes his pretty infbrument, 

And warbling out the old, begin anew, 

And thus they pafs their youth in fummer feafon, 

Then follow thee into a better Region, 

where winter s never felt by that fweet airy legion 


Man at the beft a creature frail and vain, 
In knowledg ignorant, in ilrength but weak, 
Subject to forrows, lofles, licknefs, pain, 
Each ftorm his ftate, his mind, his body break, 
From fome of thefe he never finds ceflation, 
But day or night, within, without, vexation, 
Troubles from foes, from friends, from deareft, near ft 

380 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 


And yet this finfull creature, frail and vain, 

This lump of wretchednefs, of fin and forrow, 

This weather-beaten veflel wrackt with pain, 

Joyes not in hope of an eternal morrow; 

Nor all his lofles, crofTes and vexation, 

In weight, in frequency and long duration 

Can make him deeply groan for that divine Tranflation, 

3 1 

The Manner that on fmooth waves doth glide, 
Sings merrily, and fleers his Barque with eafe, 
As if he had command of wind and tide, 
And now become great Matter of the feas; 
But fuddenly a ftorm fpoiles all the fport, 
And makes him long for a more quiet port, 
Which gainft all adverfe winds may ferve for fort. 

32 [229] 

So he that faileth in this world of pleafure, 
Feeding on fweets, that never bit of th fowre, 
That s full of friends, of honour and of treafure, 
1 Fond fool, he takes this earth ev n for heav ns bower. 
But fad affliction comes & makes him fee 
Here s neither honour, wealth, nor fafety; 
Only above is found all with fecurity. 

77/6? Flefli and the Spirit. 381 


O Time the fatal wrack of mortal things, 

That draws oblivions curtains over kings, 

Their fumptuous monuments, men know them not, 

Their names without a Record are forgot, 

Their parts, their ports, their pomp s all laid in th duft 

Nor wit nor gold, nor buildings fcape times ruft; 

But he whofe name is grav d in the white ilone * 

Shall lail and mine when all of thefe are gone. 

The Flejh and the Spirit.^ 

IN fecret place where once I flood 
Clofe by the Banks of Lacrim flood 

I heard two fitters reafon on 

Things that are pail, and things to come; 
One flefh was calPd, who had her eye 
On worldly wealth and vanity; 
The other Spirit, who did rear 
Her thoughts unto a higher fphere: 
Sifter, quoth Fleih, what liv ft thou on 
Nothing but Meditation? 

* Rev. ii. 17. 

f This poem seems to be an expansion of the idea of Saint Paul, of the 
strife between the Flesh and the Spirit, or the law of the members and 
the law of the mind. 

382 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Doth Contemplation feed thee fo [ 2 3] 

Regardlefly to let earth goe ? 

Can Speculation fatiffy 

Notion without Reality? 

Doft dream of things beyond the Moon 

And doft thou hope to dwell there foon? 

Haft treafures there laid up in ftore 

That all in th world thou count ft but poor? 

Art fancy lick, or turn d a Sot 

To catch at ihadowes which are not? 

Come, come, He mew unto thy fence, 

Induftry hath its recompence. 

What canft delire, but thou maift fee 

True fubfbance in variety? 

Doft honour like? acquire the fame, 

As fome to their immortal fame: 

And trophyes to thy name erecl: 

Which wearing time mall ne re deje6l. 

For riches doft thou long full fore? 

Behold enough of precious ftore. - 

Earth hath more filver, pearls and gold, 

Then eyes can fee, or hands can hold. 

Affect s thou pleafure? take thy fill, 

Earth hath enough of what you will. 

Then let not goe, what thou maift find, 

For things unknown, only in mind. 

Spir. Be ftill thou unrege nerate part, 

Difturb no more my fetled heart, 

The Fhjh and the Spirit. 383 

For I have vow d, (and fo will doe) 

Thee as a foe, Hill to purfue. 

And combate with thee will and muft, [ 2 3 T ] 

Untill I fee thee laid in th cluft. 

Sifters we are, ye twins we be, 

Yet deadly feud twixt thee and me; 

For from one father are we not, 

Thou by old Adam waft begot, 

But my arife is from above, 

Whence my dear father I do love. 

Thou fpeakft me fair, but hat ft me fore, 

Thy flatt ring mews He truft no more. 

How oft thy Have, haft thou me made, 

when I believ d, what thou haft faid, 

And never had more caufe of woe 

Then when I did what thou bad ft doe. 

He flop mine ears at thefe thy charms, 

And count them for my deadly harms. 

Thy finfull pleafures I doe hate, 

Thy riches are to me no bait, 

Thine honours doe, nor will I love; 

For my ambition lyes above. 

My greateft honour it mall be 

When I am victor over thee, 

And triumph mall, with laurel head, 

When thou my Captive malt be led, 

How I do live, thou need ft not feoff, 

For I have meat thou know ft not off; 

384 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

The hidden Manna I doe eat, 

The word of life it is my meat. 

My thoughts do yield me more content 

Then can thy hours in pleafure fpent. 

Nor are they fhadows which I catch, [ 2 3 2 ] 

Nor fancies vain at which I fnatch, 

But reach at things that are fo high, 

Beyond thy dull Capacity; 

Eternal fubflance I do fee, 

With which inriched I would be: 

Mine Eye doth pierce the heavens, and fee 

What is Invifible to thee. 

My garments are not filk nor gold, 

Nor fuch like tram which Earth doth hold, 

But Royal Robes I mall have on, 

More glorious then the gliilring Sun; 

My Crown not Diamonds, Pearls, and gold, 

But fuch as Angels heads infold. 

The City* where I hope to dwell, 

There s none on Earth can parallel; 

The ilately Walls both high and ftrong, 

Are made of pretious Jafper ftone ; 

The Gates of Pearl, both rich and clear, 

And Angels are for Porters there; 

The Streets thereof tranfparent gold, 

Such as no Eye did e re behold, 

A Chryltal River there doth run, 

Which doth proceed from the Lambs Throne: 

* Rev. xxi. 10-27; an d xx ii- I- 5- 

The Flejh and the Spirit. 385 

Of Life, there are the waters fure, 

Which fhall remain for ever pure, 

Nor Sun, nor Moon, they have no need, 

For glory doth from God proceed: 

No Candle there, nor yet Torch light, 

For there fhall be no darkfome night. 

From ficknefs and infirmity, [ 2 33] 

For evermore they fhall be free, 

Nor withering age fhall e re come there, 

But beauty fhall be bright and clear; 

This City pure is not for thee, 

For things unclean there fhall not be: 

If I of Heaven may have my fill, 

Take thou the world, and all that will. 



The Vanity of all worldly things* 

A S he faid vanity, fo vain fay I, 
* * Oh! vanity, O vain all under Sky; 
Where is the man can fay, lo I have found 
On brittle Earth a Confolation found? 
What is t in honour to be fet on high ? 
No, they like Beafts and Sons of men mall dye: 
And whil ft they live, how oft doth turn their fate,* 
He s now a captive/ that was King* of late. 
What is t in wealth, great Treafures to obtain ? rf 
No, that s but labour, anxious care and pain, 
He heaps up riches, and he heaps up forrow, 
It s his to day, but who s his heir to morrow ? 
What then? Content in pleafures canft thou find, 
More vain then all, that s but to grafp the wind. 
The fenfual fenfes for a time they pleafe, 
Mean while the confcience rage, who mall appeafe? 
What is t in beauty ? No that s but a fnare, [ 2 34] 

They re foul enough to day, that once were fair. 
What is t in flowring youth, or manly age ? 
The firft is prone to vice, the laft to rage. 

* See note to page 215. <* State/ <* flave, 

c a Prince. d for to gain ? 

The Vanity of all Worldly Things. 387 

Where is it then, in wifdom, learning arts? 

Sure if on earth, it rnufb be in thofe parts: 

Yet thefe the wifefl man of men did find 

But vanity, vexation of mind. 

And he that knowes the moft, doth ftill bemoan 

He knows not all that here is to be known. 

What is it then, to doe as Stoicks tell, 

Nor laugh, nor weep, let things go ill or well. 

Such Stoicks are but Stocks fuch teaching vain, 

While man is man, he fhall have eafe or pain. 

If not in honour, beauty, age nor treafure, 

Nor yet in learning, wifdome, youth nor pleafure, 

Where fhall I climb, found, feek fearch or find 

That Summum Bonum which may flay my mind? 

There is a path, no vultures eye hath feen, 

Where Lion^ fierce, nor lions whelps have been, 

Which leads unto that living Cryflal Fount, 

Who drinks thereof, the world doth nought account 

The depth & fea have faid tis not in me, 

With pearl and gold, it fhall not valued be. 

For Saphire, Onix, Topaz who would f change: 

Its hid from eyes of men, they count it fbrange. 

Death and definition the fame hath heard, 

But where & what it is, from heaven s declar d, 

It brings to honour, which fhall ne re* decay, 

It fhores * with wealth which time can t wear away. 

It yieldeth pleafures far beyond conceit, [ 2 35] 

And truly beautifies without deceit, 

of the. / lions. x will. h not. * fteeres. 

388 Anne Bradftreet ) s Works. 

Nor ftrength, nor wifdome nor frefti youth mall fade 
Nor death fhall fee, but are immortal made. 
This pearl of price, this tree of life, this fpring 
Who is pofleffed of, fhall reign a King. 
Nor change of ftate, nor cares fhall ever fee, 
But wear his crown unto eternity: 
This fatiates the Soul, this flayes the mind, 
And all the reft, but Vanity we find/ 

j The reft s but vanity, and vain we find. 


The Author to her Book. 

THHou ill-form d offspring of my feeble brain, 

"* Who after birth did ft by my fide remain, 
Till fnatcht from thence by friends, lefs wife then true 45 " 
Who thee abroad, expos d to publick view, 
Made thee in raggs, halting to th prefs to trudg, 
Where errors were not leifened (all may judg) 
At thy return my blufhing was not fmall, 
My rambling brat (in print) fhould mother call, 
I carl thee by as one unfit for light, 
Thy Vifage was fo irkfome in my light; 
Yet being mine own, at length affection would 
Thy blemifhes amend, if fo I could: 
I wafh d thy face, but more defects I faw, 
And rubbing off a fpot, flill made a flaw. 
I ftretcht thy joynts to make thee even feet, 
Yet Hill thou run ft more hobling then is meet; 
In better drefs to trim thee was my mind, 
But nought fave home-fpun Cloth, i th houfe I find 
In this array, mongft Vulgars mayft thou roam 
In Criticks hands, beware thou doft not come; 

* See pages 82-90 and notes. 


Anne J3radjl reefs Works. 

And take thy way where yet thou art not known, 
If for thy Father askt, fay, thou hadft none: 
And for thy Mother, fhe alas is poor, 
Which caus d her^thus to fend thee out of door. 


Several other Poems made by the Author upon 

Diverfe Occajions, tvere found among" her Papers 

after her Death, -which Jhe never meant Jhould 

come to publick view, amongft which, thefe 

folio-wing (at the defere of fome friends 

that knevo her ivelt) are here inferted 

Upon a Fit of Sicknefs, Anno. 1632. 
^Etatis fuce, 19. 

T^Wice ten years old, not fully told 

Since nature gave me breath, 
My race is run, my thread is fpun, 

lo here is fatal Death. 
All men muft dye, and fo mufl I 

this cannot be revok d 
For Adams fake, this word God fpake 

when he fo high provok d. 
Yet live I mall, this life s but fmall, 

in place of higher! blifs, 
Where I mall have all I can crave, 

no life is like to this. 
For what s this life, but care and finfe? 

iince firft we came from womb, 
Our ftrength doth wafbe, our time doth haft, 

and then we go to th Tomb. 

Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

O Bubble blaft, how long can ft laft? [238] 

that alwayes art a breaking, 
No fooner blown, but dead and gone, 

ev n as a word that s fpeaking. 
O whil ft I live, this grace me give, 

I doing good may be, 
Then deaths arreft I mall count beft, 

becaufe it s thy decree; 
Beftow much coil there s nothing loft, 

to make Salvation fure, 
O great s the gain, though got with pain, 

comes by profeffion pure. 
The race is run, the field is won, 

the victory s mine I fee, 
For ever know, thou envious foe, 

the foyle belongs to thee. 

Vponfome diftemper of body. 

In anguifh of my heart repleat with woes, 

And wafting pains, which beft my body knows, 

In tolling {lumbers on my wakeful bed, 

Bedrencht with tears that flow d from mournful head. 

Till nature had exhaufted all her ftore, 

Then eyes lay dry, difabled to weep more; 

And looking up unto his Throne on high, 

Who fendeth help to thofe in mifery; 

He chac d away thofe clouds, and let me fee 

My Anchor caft i th vale with fafety. 

Before the Birth of a Child. 393 

He eas d my Soul of woe, my flefh of pain, 

And brought me to the more from troubled Main; 

Before the Birtk of one of her Children. [239] 

All things within this fading world hath end, 

Adveriity doth flill our joyes attend; 

No tyes fo fbrong, no friends fo dear and fweet, 

But with deaths parting blow is fure to meet. 

The fentence part is mofb irrevocable, 

A common thing, yet oh inevitable; 

How foon, my Dear, death may my fteps attend, 

How foon t may be thy Lot to lofe thy friend, 

We both are ignorant, yet love bids me 

Thefe farewell lines to recommend to thee, 

That when that knot s unty d that made us one, 

I may feem thine, who in effect am none. 

And if I fee not half my dayes that s due, 

What nature would, God grant to yours and you; 

The many faults that well you know I have, 

Let be interr d in my oblivions grave ; 

If any worth or virtue were in me, 

Let that live frefhly in thy memory 

And when thou feel ft no grief, as I no harms, 

Yet love thy dead, who long lay in thine arms: 

And when thy lofs (hall be repaid with gains 

Look to my little babes my dear remains. 

And if thou love thy felf, or loved fl me 

Thefe O protect from ftep Dames injury. 


394 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

And if chance to thine eyes fhall bring this verfe, 
With fome fad fighs honour my abfent Herfe; 
And kifs this paper for thy loves dear fake, 
Who with fait tears this laft Farewel did take. 


To my Dear and loving Husband. [240] 

TF ever two were one, then furely we. 

* If ever man were lov d by wife, then thee; 

If ever wife was happy in a man, 

Compare with me ye women if you can. 

I prize thy love more then whole Mines of gold, 

Or all the riches that the Eaft doth hold. 

My love is fuch that Rivers cannot quench, 

Nor ought but love from thee, give recompence. 

Thy love is fuch I can no way repay, 

The heavens reward thee manifold I pray. 

Then while we live, in love lets fo perfever, 

That when we live no more, we may live ever. 

A Letter to her Husband, abfent upon 

Publick employment. 


My head, my heart, mine Eyes, my life, nay more, 

My joy, my Magazine of earthly {lore, 

If two be one, as furely thou and I, 

How ftayeft thou there, whilil I at Ipfwich lye? 

Letters to her Husband. 395 

So many fleps, head from the heart to fever 

If but a neck, foon mould we be together: 

I like the earth this feafon, mourn in black, 

My Sun is gone fo far in s Zodiack, 

Whom whilft I joy d, nor ilorms, nor froils I felt, 

His warmth fuch frigid colds did caufe to melt. 

My chilled limbs now nummed lye forlorn; 

Return, return fweet Sol from Capricorn; 

In this dead time, alas, what can I more [ 2 4 T ] 

Then view thofe fruits which through thy heat I bore? 

Which fweet contentment yield me for a fpace, 

True living Pictures of their Fathers face. 

ilrange effe6t! now thou art Southward gone, 

1 weary grow, the tedious day fo long; 

But when thou North-ward to me malt return, 
I wifh my Sun may never fet, but burn 
Within the Cancer of my glowing breaft, 
The welcome houfe of him my deareil gueft. 
Where ever, ever ftay, and go not thence, 
Till natures fad decree fhall call thee hence; 
Flefh of thy flefh, bone of thy bone, 
I here, thou there, yet both but one. 

A. B. 


Phoebus make hafte, the day s too long, be gone, 
The filent night s the fittelt time for moan; 
But flay this once, unto my fuit give ear, 
And tell my griefs in either Hemifphere: 

396 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

(And if the whirling of thy wheels don t drown d) 

The woful accents of my doleful found, 

If in thy fwift Carrier thou canft make ftay, 

I crave this boon, this Errand by the way, 

Commend me to the man more lov d then life, 

Shew him the forrows of his widdowed wife; 

My dumpifh thoughts, my groans, my brakifh tears <? 

My fobs, my longing hopes, my doubting fears, 

And if he love, how can he there abide? 

My Intereft s more then all the world befide. 

He that can tell the ftarrs or Ocean fand, [ 2 4 2 ] 

Or all the grafs that in the Meads do Hand, 

The leaves in th woods, the hail or drops of rain, 

Or in a corn-field number every grain, 

Or every mote that in the fun-mine hops, 

May count my lighs, and number all my drops : 

Tell him, the countlefs fteps that thou doft trace, 

That once a day, thy Spoufe thou mayft imbrace; 

And when thou canft not treat by loving mouth, 

Thy rayes afar, falute her from the fouth. 

But for one moneth I fee no day (poor foul) 

Like thofe far fcituate under the pole, 

Which day by day long wait for thy arife, 

O how they joy when thou doft light the skyes. 

O Phoebus, hadft thou but thus long from thine 

Reftrain d the beams of thy beloved fhine, 

At thy return, if fo thou could ft or durft 

Behold a Chaos blacker then the firft. 

Letters to her Husband. 397 

Tell him here s worfe then a confufed matter, 
His little world s a fathom under water, 
Nought but the fervor of his ardent beams 
Hath power to dry the torrent of thefe itreams. 
Tell him I would fay more, but cannot well, 
Opprefled minds, abruptefl tales do tell. 
Now poft with double fpeed, mark what I fay, 
By all our loves conjure him not to flay. 

Another. [ 2 43] 

As loving Hind that (Hartlefs) wants her Deer, 
Scuds through the woods and Fern with harkning ear, 
Perplext, in every bum & nook doth pry, 

Her deareft Deer, might anfwer ear or eye; 


So doth my anxious foul, which now doth mifs, 
A dearer Dear (far dearer Heart) then this. 
Still wait with doubts, & hopes, and failing eye, 
His voice to hear, or perfon to difcry. 
Or as the penfive Dove doth all alone 
(On withered bough) moil uncouthly bemoan 
The abfence of her Love, and loving Mate, 
Whofe lofs hath made her fo unfortunate: 
Ev n thus doe I, with many a deep fad groan 
Bewail my turtle true, who now is gone, 
His prefence and his fafe return, ilill wooes, 
With thoufand dolefull fighs & mournfull Cooes. 
Or as the loving Mullet, that true Fifh, 
Her fellow loft, nor joy nor life do wifh, 

398 Anne Bradftreef.s Works. 

But lanches on that fhore, there for to dye, 

Where fhe her captive husband doth efpy. 

Mine being gone, I lead a joylefs life, 

I have a loving phere, yet feem no wife: 

But worfb of all, to him can t fleer my courfe, 

I here, he there, alas, both kept by force: 

Return my Dear, my joy, my only Love, 

Unto thy Hinde, thy Mullet and thy Dove, 

Who neither joyes in pailure, houfe nor llreams, 

The fubftance gone, O me, thefe are but dreams. 

Together at one Tree, oh let us brouze, [ 2 44] 

And like two Turtles rooft within one houfe, 

And like the Mullets in one River glide, 

Let s fhill remain but one, till death divide. 

Thy loving Love and Dearejl Dear, 
At home, abroad, and every where. 

A. B. 

To her Father with fome verfes. 

MOft truly honoured, and as truly dear, 
If worth in me, or ought I do appear, 
Who can of right better demand the fame? 
Then may your worthy felf from whom it came. 
The principle might yield a greater fum, 
Yet handled ill, amounts but to this crum; 

Verfes to her Father. 399 

My flock s fo fmall, I know not how to pay, 
My Bond remains in force unto this day; 
Yet for part payment take this fimple mite, 
Where nothing s to be had Kings loofe their right 
Such is my debt, I may not fay forgive, 
But as I can, Pie pay it while I live: 
Such is my bond, none can difcharge but I, 
Yet paying is not payd until I dye. 


In reference to her Children, 23. June, 1656.* [245] 

T Had eight birds hatcht in one neft:, 

* Four Cocks there were, and Hens the reft, 

I nurft them up with pain and care, 

Nor coft, nor labour did I fpare, 

Till at the laft they felt their wing. 

Mounted the Trees, and learn d to fmg; 

Chief of the Brood then took his flight, 

To Regions far, and left me quite : f 

My mournful chirps I after fend, 

Till he return, or I do end, 

Leave not thy neft, thy Dam and Sire, 

Fly back and fing amidft this Quire. 

My fecond bird did take her flight, 

And with her mate flew out of light; 

Southward they both their courfe did bend, 

And Seafons twain they there did fpend: 

Till after blown by Southern gales, 

They Norivard fleer d with filled fayles. 

* This date is clearly wrong, as events are referred to in the course of 
the poem which took place more than a year later. It is probably a mis 
print for 1658. 

t Samuel, who sailed for England Nov. 6, 1657 (see page 24), and re 
turned home July 17, 1661 (see page 28). 

Concerning her Children. 401 

A prettier bird was no where feen, 

Along the Beach among the treen.* 

I have a third of colour white, 

On whom I plac d no fmall delight; 

Coupled with mate loving and true, 

Hath alfo bid her Dam adieu : 

And where Aurora firft appears, 

She now hath percht, to fpend her years ; f 

One to the Academy flew [246] 

To chat among that learned crew: 

Ambition moves ftill in his breaft 

That he might chant above the reft, 

Striving for more then to do well, 

That nightingales he might excell. J 

My fifth, whofe down is yet fcarce gone 

Is mongft the fhrubs and bufhes flown, 

And as his wings increafe in ftrength, 

On higher boughs he l pearch at length. 

My other three, ftill with me neft, 

Untill they r grown, then as the reft, 

Or here or there, they l take their flight, 

As is ordain d, fo mall they light. 

* Dorothy, who married the Rev. Seaborn Cotton, June 25, 1654. In 
1655 her husband preached at Wethersfield, Conn., but in 1660 he became 
the second minister of Hampton, N.H. 

t Sarah, who married Richard Hubbard, of Ipswich, a brother of the 
Rev. William Hubbard, the historian. 

J "June 25, 1656, I was admitted into the vniverfity, M r Charles 
Chauncy being Prefident." REV. SIMONBRADSTREET S Manuscript Diary. 

For an account of him, and of Mrs. Bradstreet s other children, see 


402 Anne JBradft reefs Works. 

If birds could weep, then would my tears 

Let others know what are my fears 

Left this my brood fome harm mould catch, 

And be furpriz d for want of watch, 

Whilft pecking corn, and void of care 

They fall un wares in Fowlers fnare: 

Or whilft on trees they fit and fing, 

Some untoward boy at them do fling: 

Or whilft allur d with bell and glafs, 

The net be fpread, and caught, alas. 

Or leaft by Lime-twigs they be foyl d, 

Or by fome greedy hawks be fpoyl d. 

O would my young, ye faw my breaft, 

And knew what thoughts there fadly reft, 

Great was my pain when I you bred, 

Great was my care, when I you fed, 

Long did I keep you foft and warm, [ 2 47] 

And with my wings kept off all harm, 

My cares are more, and fears then ever, 

My throbs fuch now, as fore were never: 

Alas my birds, you wifdome want, 

Of perils you are ignorant, 

Oft times in grafs, on trees, in flight, 

Sore accidents on you may light. 

O to your fafety have an eye, 

So happy may you live and die : 

Mean while my dayes in tunes He fpend, 

Till my weak layes with me fhall end. 

Concerning her Children. 403 

In fhady woods Pie fit and ling, 

And things that paft, to mind Fie bring. 

Once young and pleafant, as are you, 

But former toyes (no joyes) adieu. 

My age I will not once lament, 

But fing, my time fo near is fpent. 

And from the top bough take my flight, 

Into a country beyond fight, 

Where old ones, inftantly grow young, 

And there with Seraphims fet fong: 

No feafons cold, nor rtorms they fee; 

But fpring lafts to eternity, 

When each of you mall in your neft 

Among your young ones take your reft, 

In chirping language, oft them tell, 

You had a Dam that lov d you well, 

That did what could be done for young, 

And nurft you up till you were ftrong, 

And fore me once would let you fly, [ 2 4&] 

She fhew d you joy and mifery; 

Taught what was good, and what was ill, 

What would fave life, and what would kill / 

Thus gone, amongft you I may live, 

And dead, yet fpeak, and counfel give : 

Farewel my birds, farewel adieu, 

I happy am, if well with you. 

A. B. 

In memory of my dear grand-child Elizabeth 

Bradftreet,* who deceafed Auguft, 1665. 

being a year and half old. 

FArewel dear babe, my hearts too much content, 
Farewel fweet babe, the pleafure of mine eye, 
Farewel fair flower that for a fpace was lent, 
Then ta en away unto Eternity. 
Bleft babe why fhould I once bewail thy fate, 
Or figh the dayes fo foon were terminate, 
Sith thou art fetled in an Everlafting itate. 


By nature Trees do rot when they are grown. 
And Plumbs and Apples throughly ripe do fall, 
And Corn and grafs are in their feafon mown, 
And time brings down what is both fhrong and tall. 
But plants new fet to be eradicate, 
And buds new blown, to have fo fhort a date, 
Is by his hand alone that guides nature and fate. 

* The eldest child of her son Samuel. 

In memory of my dear grand-child [249] 

Anne Bradftreet.* 

Who deceafed June 20. 1669. being three years and 
feven Moneths old. 

T \ 71th troubled heart & trembling hand I write, 

* * The Heavens have chang d to forrow my delight. 
How oft with disappointment have I met, 
When I on fading things my hopes have fet? 
Experience might fore this have made me wife, 
To value things according to their price: 
Was ever liable joy yet found below? 
Or perfect blifs without mixture of woe. 
I knew me was but as a withering flour, 
That s here to day, perhaps gone in an hour* 
Like as a bubble, or the brittle glafs, 
Or like a fhadow turning as it was. 

* "June. 20. 69 My B r Samuel 8 eldeft child which was a daughter, be 
tween 3 & four yeares old dyed. He buried y e first y* euer had (w ch alfo 
was a daughter) about 4 yeares fince. The Ld teach him, and me, and 
all who it efpec. concernes good thereby." REV. SIMON BRADSTREET S 
Manuscript Diary. 

406 Anne Bradftreefs Works. 

More fool then I to look on that was lent, 

As if mine own, when thus impermanent. 

Farewel dear child, thou ne re mall come to me, 

But yet a while, and I mall go to thee; 

Mean time my throbbing heart s chear d up with this 

Thou with thy Saviour art in endlefs blifs. 

On my dear Grand-child Simon Braditreet,* [250] 
Who dyed on 16. Novemb. 1669. being but 
a moneth, and one day old. 

IV TO fooner come, but gone, and fal n afleep, 

* ^ Acquaintance fhort, yet parting caus d us weep, 

Three flours, two fcarcely blown, the laft i th bud, 

Cropt by th Almighties hand; yet is he good, 

With dreadful awe before him let s be mute, 

Such was his will, but why, let s not difpute, 

With humble hearts and mouths put in the duft, 

Let s fay he s merciful as well as juft. 

He will return, and make up all our lofles, 

And fmile again, after our bitter croffes. 

Go pretty babe, go reft with Sifters twain 

Among the bleft in endlefs joyes remain. 

A. B. 

* The fourth child of her eldest son, Samuel. 

Funeral Elegies. 407 

To the memory of my dear Daitghter in Law, 

Mrs. Mercy^ Bradftreet, -who deceafed Sept. 6. 

1669. in the 28. year of her Age.* 

A ND live I ftill to fee Relations gone, 

^ And yet furvive to found this wailing tone ; 
Ah, woe is me, to write thy Funeral Song, 
Who might in reafon yet have lived long, 
I faw the branches lopt the Tree now fall, 
I ftood fo nigh, it crufht me down withal; 
My bruifed heart lies fobbing at the Root, 
That thou dear Son hath loft both Tree and fruit: 
Thou then on Seas failing to forreign Coaft; 
Was ignorant what riches thou hadft loft. 
But ah too foon thofe heavy tydings fly, [ 2 S T ] 

To ftrike thee with amazing mifery; 
Oh how I fimpathize with thy fad heart, 
And in thy griefs ftill bear a fecond part: 
I loft a daughter dear, but thou a wife, 
Who lov d thee more (it feem d) then her own life. 
Thou being gone, fhe longer could not be, 
Becaufe her Soul fhe d fent along with thee. 

* " Sept. ( ) 1670 Mj B r Samuel Bradftreet his wife dyed, wch was a 
foar affli<5lion to him, and all his friends. May god giue us all a fanclifyed 
vfe of this, and all other his Difpenfations." REV. SIMON BRADSTREET S 
Manuscript Diary. She was a daughter of William Tyng. It appears 
from this poem that she died soon after the premature birth of a child, 
which did not long survive her. This child was Anne, born Sept. 3, 1670, 
so that the date of the mother s death, as given in the heading, must be a 
misprint for 1670. See N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, vol. ix. p. 113, note JJ. 

408 Anne Bradftreet*s Works. 

One week fhe only paft in pain and woe, 

And then her forrows all at once did go; 

A Babe fhe left before, fhe foar d above, 

The fifth and laft pledg of her dying love, 

E re nature would, it hither did arrive, 

No wonder it no longer did furvive. 

So with her Children four, fhe s now a reft, 

All freed from grief (I truft) among the bleft; 

She one hath left, a joy to thee and me,* 

The Heavens vouchfafe fhe may fo ever be. 

Chear up, (dear Son) thy fainting bleeding heart, 

In him alone, that caufed all this fmart; 

What though thy flrokes full fad & grievous be, 

He knows it is the befb for thee and me. 


* A daughter, Mercy, born Nov. 20, 1667. Governor Bradstreet, in his 
will, signed Feb. 20, 1688, O. S., mentions her as one "whom I have been 
forced to educate and maintain at considerable charge ever since Septem 
ber 1670." Suffolk Probate Records, Lib. xi. Fol. 277-8. She afterwards 
married James Oliver, a physician in Cambridge. See N. E. Hist. Gen. 
Register, vol. viii. p. 314, and vol. ix. p. 113. 

A Funeral Elogy, 

2 1 

Upon that Pattern and Patron of Virtue, the 
truely pious, peerlefs & matchlefs Gentlewoman 

Mrs. Anne Bradftreet, 

right Panaretes,* 

Mirror of Her Age, Glory of her Sex, ivhofe 

Heaven-born- Soul leaving its earthly Shrine, 

chofe its native home, and was taken to its 

Reft, upon i6th. Sept. 1672. 

A Sk not why hearts turn Magazines of paffions, 
* * And why that grief is clad in fev ral fafhions; 
Why She on progrefs goes, and doth not borrow 
The fmalleft refpite from th extreams of forrow, 
Her mifery is got to fuch an height, 
As makes the earth groan to fupport its weight, 
Such florms of woe, fo ftrongly have befet her, 
She hath no place for worfe, nor hope for better; 
Her comfort is, if any for her be, 
That none can mew more caufe of grief then fhe. 

* Gr. Travdperof, all-virtuous. 

410 Anne Bradftreet^s Works. 

Ask not why fome in mournfull black are clad; 

The Sun is fet, there needs mull be a ihade. 

Ask not why every face a fadnefs flirowdes; 

The fetting Sun ore-caft us hath with Clouds. 

Ask not why the great glory of the Skye [ 2 53] 

That gilds the ftarrs with heavenly Alchamy, 

Which all the world doth lighten with his rayes, 

The Perflan God, the Monarch of the dayes; 

Ask not the reafon of his extafie, 

Palenefs of late, in midnoon Majefty, 

Why that the palefac d Emprefs of the night 

Difrob d her brother of his glorious light. 

Did not the language af the ftarrs foretel 

A mournfull Sccene when they with tears did fwell? 

Did not the glorious people of the Skye 

Seem fenlible of future mifery.^ 

Did not the lowring heavens feem to exprefs 

The worlds great lofe, and their unhappinefs? 

Behold how tears flow from the learned hill, 

How the bereaved Nine do daily fill 

The bofome of the fleeting Air with groans, 

And wofull Accents, which witnefs their moanes. 

How doe the GoddefTes of verfe, the learned quire 

Lament their rival Quill, which all admire ? 

Could Maro s Mufe but hear her lively ilrain, 

He would condemn his works to fire again. 

Methinks I hear the Patron of the Spring, 

The unfhorn Diety abruptly fmg. 

A Funeral Elogy upon the Author. 41 1 

Some doe for anguifh weep, for anger I 

That Ignorance fhould live, and Art fhould die. 

Black, fatal, difmal, inaufpicious day, 

Unbleft for ever by Sot s precious Ray, 

Be it the firft of Miferies to all; 

Or laft of Life, defam d for Funeral. 

When this day yearly comes, let every one, [254] 

Caft in their urne, the black and difmal ftone. 

Succeeding years as they their circuit goe, 

Leap o re this day, as a fad time of woe. 

Farewell my Mufe, fmce thou haft left thy fhrine, 

I am unbleft in one, but bleft in nine. 

Fair Thefpian Ladyes, light your torches all, 

Attend your glory to its Funeral, 

To court her afhes with a learned tear, 

A briny facrifice, let not a fmile appear. 

Grave Matron, whofo feeks to blazon thee, 

Needs not make ufe of witts falfe Heraldry; 

Whofo fhould give thee all thy worth would fwell 

So high, as twould turn the world infidel. 

Had he great Maro^ Mufe, or Tultys tongue, 

Or raping numbers like the Thracian Song, 

In crowning of her merits he would be 

fumptuoufly poor, low in Hyperbole. 

To write is eafie; but to write on thee, 

Truth would be thought to forfeit modefty. 

He l feem a Poet that fhall fpeak but true; 

Hyperbole s in others, are thy due. 

412 Anne Bradft reefs Works. 

Like a moft fervile flatterer he will fhow 

Though he write truth, and make the fubject, You. 

Virtue ne re dies, time will a Poet raife 

Born under better Starrs, mall ling thy praife. 

Praife her who lift, yet he mail be a debtor 

For Art ne re feign d, nor Nature fram d a better. 

Her virtues were fo great, that they do raife 

A work to trouble fame, aftonifh praife. 

When as her Name doth but falute the ear, [ 2 5SJ 

Men think that they perfections abftract hear. 

Her breaft was a brave Pallace, a Broad-ftreet, 

Where all heroick ample thoughts did meet, 

Where nature fuch a Tenement had tane, 

That others fouls, to hers, dwelt in a lane. 

Beneath her feet, pale envy bites her chain, 

And poifon Malice, whetts her fting in vain. 

Let every Laurel, every Myrtel bough 

Be ftript for leaves t adorn and load her brow. 

Victorious wreathes, which caufe they never fade 

Wife elder times for Kings and Poets made. 

Let not her happy memory e re lack 

Its worth in Fames eternal Almanack, 

Which none fhall read, but ftraight their lofs deplore, 

And blame their Fates they were not born before. 

Do not old men rejoyce their Fates did laft, 

And infants too, that theirs did make fuch haft, 

In fuch a welcome time to bring them forth, 

That they might be a witnefs to her worth. 

A Funeral Elogy upon the Author. 413 

Who undertakes this fubject to commend 
Shall nothing find fo hard as how to end. 

Finis & non. John Norton.* 
Omnia Romans Ji leant Miracula Gentis. 

* This clergyman was a nephew of the Rev. John Norton, of the First 
Church in Boston. He graduated at Harvard College in 1671, and was 
ordained pastor of the First Church in Hingham, Nov. 27, 1678, as successor 
of the Rev. Peter Hobart. He died Oct. 3, 1716, in the 66th year of his age, 
after a ministry of nearly thirty-eight years. " LINCOLN S History of Hing 
ham," pp. 24-25. 

It has been suggested that he edited the second edition of Mrs. Brad- 
street s " Poems." N. E. HIST. GEN. REGISTER, vol. ix. p. 113, note +. 




Abbot, Archbishop, his treatment 
of the Nonconformists, xxii-iii. 

Abel, 374. 

Abiram, 112 n. 

Abram, 187. 

Abrocomas, 239 and . 

Abydos, 226. 

Acheemenes, 208, 216. 

Achilles, 253, 261, 288, 347. 

Actium, Battle of, 319. 

Adam, 177 and ., 373, 375, 383. 

Address to the Reader, 83. Poetical, 
of I. W. to the author, 86. Of H. 
S., 92. 

Adela, 333 n. 

./Egeria, The Nymph, 325. 

Agawam (Ipswich) settled, xxxv. 
Simple Cobbler of, 85 n. 

Age, Middle, xli, 156-61. Old, xli, 

Ages, The Four, of Man, xli, Ixv, 

Agesilaus, 244-5. 

Ahab, 314. 

Ahaz, 194-5. 

Aire, or Air, xli, 119-22. 

Albert, Archduke of Austria, 162 
and n. 

Albion, 117 ., 361. 

Alcies Son, 333. Explanation of the 
term, 333 . 

Alexander the Great, 211, 250, 251- 
91, 302, 310, 316, 349, 351. Mrs. 
Bradstreet s account of his murder 
of Callisthenes, taken from Ra 
leigh s " History of the World," 
xliv-v. Mrs. Bradstreet s account 
of his visit to the tomb of Cyrus, 
taken from Raleigh, xlvi. His 

quarrel with and murder of Clei- 
tus, Mrs. Bradstreet s account of, 
taken from Raleigh, and from 
North s " Plutarch s Lives," xlvi- 
vii, xlix-1. Mrs. Bradstreet s de 
scription of the state of things 
after his death, taken from Ra 
leigh, xlix. 

Alexander (Aegus), 297, 309, 310. 

Alexander of Epire, 316. 

Alexander, Ptolemy, 319. 

Alexandria, 295. Building of, 262. 
Builton the Jaxartes, 275. Library 
at, 318. 

Algiers (Algere), Charles the Fifth 
before, 121. 

Allibone, Mr., as to the publication 
of the first edition of the " Poems," 
xli n. 

Amaziah, 192. 

"Ambrose," the, xxvii. 

Amestris, 231. 

Amiens, Gov. T. Dudley at the siege 
of, xii. 

Amorges, 236. 

Amraphel, Ninias supposed to be, 

Amulius (^Ernulus), 323. 

Amyntas, 251. 

Anagrams on the author s name, 92. 

Ancus Marcius, 326. 

Andover, Ixiii, Ixvii ., 88 ., 89. 
Land reserved for planting the 
town of, xxxvi. Gathering of 
Church at, ib. Land for, bought 
of Cutshamache, xxxvii. Situa 
tion of first settlements, ib. Burn 
ing of the Bradstreet house at, Ixi 
ii. Mrs. Bradstreet s burial-place 
not to be found in, Ixv. 

Andrews, Bishop, xx. 



Andros, Sir Edmund, Governor of 
New England, Ixx. Deposed, 

Annius of Viterbo, iSS n. 

Antigonus, 291, 294, 296, 299, 300, 
301, 306-13, 3I5-I7- 

Antiochus, 313, 316. Soter, 317. 
Theos, 317. The Great, 318. Eu- 
pator, 318. 

Antipater, 253, 266, 286, 291-4, 298- 

Antiphilus, 292. 

Antony, Mark, 319. 

Apis, 213. 

Apology, An, for not finishing the 
Roman Monarchy, 328. To her 
father for her verses, 180. 

Appleton s " Cyclopaedia of Biog 
raphy " as to the publication of 
the first edition of the "Poems," 
xli . 

Appleton, Dr. John, x. 

Arabia, 205. 

Arbaces, 189-93, 208. 

Arbela, Battle of, 264-5. 

" Arbella," the, xxvi. Contained the 
principal people, xxvii. 

Aridseus, 289-91, 297, 302-3, 306, 
311 n. 

Aristotle, xliii, 116, 287. 

Armada, The Spanish, 332, 333, 359. 
Destruction of, 162 n. 

Arpad, 197. 

Arsames, 248 and #., 249 . 

Arses, 248 and ., 249 n. 

Artabanus, 226, 232. 

Artabazus, 268, 271, 289. 

Artaxerxes Longimanus, 233-35. 
Mnemon, 237-46. 

Artemisia, 224. 

Asphaltites Lake, 116. 

Aspinwall, William, xxxi. 

Assur s, Monarchs, 317. 

Assyrian Monarch} , xli, 181-207. 

Astrophel, Spenser s, 348 and ., 


Astyages, 208. 
Athens, 221, 229, 252. 
Athos, Mount, sea passage behind, 


Atossa, 222. 
Augustus, 288, 319. August takes 

its name from, 175. Anecdote of, 

Auletes, Ptolemy (killed Pompey), 

3 9- 

Aurelian, the Emperor, 361. 
Author to her Book, 389-90. 
Autumn, xli, 176-9. 


Baal, 182. 
Baalpeor, 182. 
Babel, 181, 186, 200-2, 360. 
Babylon, 185-6, 205, 206, 265-7. 
Taken, 192. Taken by Cyrus, 


Baca, Valley of, 21 and ., 23. 

Bacon, Francis, Baron of Verulam, 

Bagoas, 247-9, 2 49 n - 

Bajazet I. becomes Sultan of the 
Turks, 173 n. Anecdote of, 173 
and n. 

Baladan, Merodach, 207. 

Bancroft, Archbishop, his treatment 
of the Nonconformists, xxii. 

Bartas. See Du Bartas. 

Bastwick, 336 n. 

Bay Psalm Book, 21 n., 35 n. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, xvi. 

Bedlam, 156. 

Beelzebub, 182, 334. 

Before the Birth of one of her Chil 
dren, Verses, 393-4. 

Bel, Temple of, 185. 

Belochus, 193-4. 

Belosus, 193-4. 

Belshazzar, 205-7, 2I - 

Belus, 182. 

Ben Merodach, 198. 

Berosus, 188 and ., 317. 

Bessus, 250, 268, 269, 272, 273, 274. 

Betis, 261-2. 

Beverwyck, Jean Van (Beverovicius), 

Bias, 160. His saying, 160 n. 

Bible, publication of the common 
version of, xvii. Mrs. Bradstreet s 
familiarity with the, 1. Trans 
lation of, into Greek, 319 and n. 
See Genevan -version and Septua- 

Blaxton, William, first white settler 
of Boston, xxxii. 

Blood, xli, 129-36. 

Bohemia, 163 n. Reformed Religion 
in, ib. 

Book, The Author to her, 389-90. 

Books written by Women, Ixii, 83- 

Boston, First Church at, xv, xxxi, 
5. 413 n. First signers of the 
Covenant, xxxi. Removal of 
Winthrop s company to, xxxii. 
Winthrop s company leave, ib. 
Rising in, in April, 1689, Ixx. 
First book printed in, Ixvi-vii. 



In Lincolnshire, Dudley s resi 
dence at, xiii. 

Bowtell, Stephen, publisher of the 
first edition of the "Poems," 79. 

Bradstreet, Anna, a modern poet, 
Ixix n. 

Bradstreet, Anne, v-x, 2, 3, 21, 24, 
30 ., 39, 44 ., 46, 73, 74, 78, 79, 
Si, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88 and n.,go, 
91, 92, 93, 96, 99, 165, 180, 346 ., 

39 1 394, 395> 39$, 399> 4i ., 403* 
406, 408, 413 n. 

Earliest poet of her sex in Amer 
ica, xi. Daughter of Gov. Thomas 
Dudley, ib. Wife of Gov. Simon 
Bradstreet, ib. Her ancestry, xi 
ii. Her father, xi-iv. Her mother, 
xii-iii, xxxi, lii-iii. Her birth, xiv. 
Her education, xiv. Her youth 
and religious experiences, xiv-v, 
3-10. Her reminiscence of an 
English fair, xv, 354. Opportu 
nities for improving her literary 
tastes, xv-xxi. Comfort she took 
in reading the Bible, xiv, xvii, 4. 
Literary age in which she was 
brought up, xv-xxi. Her mar 
riage, xv, xxi, liii n., 5. Goes to 
America, xv, 5. Embarks, prob 
ably on the " Arbella," xxvii. The 
passage, xxvii-viii. Lands at Sa 
lem, xxix. Goes to Charlestown, 
xxxi. Signs the covenant of the 
First Church, xv, xxxi-ii, 5. Life 
at Charlestown, xxxii Moves to 
Boston, ib. Moves to Cambridge, 
xxxiii. House at Cambridge, ib. 
Life at Cambridge, xxxiii - iv. 
Moves to Ipswich, xxxv. Her 
residence at Ipswich, xxxvi, 85 ., 
394. Moves to Andover, xxxvi. 
Her house there, xxxvii-viii. Its 
burning, xxxvii, Ixi-ii, 40, 329. 
Publication of her " Poems " with 
out her knowledge, by her brother- 
in-law, the Rev. John Woodbridge, 
xxxix-xl. Her character, xl. Com 
mended in verse by the Rev. N. 
Ward and others, xl-xli. Ana 
grams on her name, xli, 98. Ar 
rangement and plan of her 
"Poems," xli-ii. Their merit, 
xlii. How far original, xlii-lii. 
Her knowledge of the Greek and 
Latin writers, xliii-iv. Her in 
debtedness to Sir Walter Raleigh s 
" History of the World," xliii-ix; 
to Archbishop Usher s "Annals," 
xliii-iv; to the Hebrew Writings, 

xliii ; to Pemble s Treatise, ib. ; 
to North s Plutarch, xlix-1; to 
Crooke s Anatomy, 1. Her famili 
arity with the Bible and use of the 
Genevan version, ib. Her obliga 
tion to Sylvester s translation of 
Du Bartas, li. Her fondness for 
Sidney s works and her criticisms 
on them, lii. Her knowledge of 
the works of Speed, Camden, and 
Spenser, ib. Time when her earlier 
" Poems " were written, ib. Her 
mother s death and her epitaph on 
her, lii-iii. Her father s death, 
liii-iv. Her father her teacher, 
Iv. Her eight children, Ivii. Her 
verses on them, ib. Writes her 
religious experiences for them, ib. 
Her delicate constitution and fre 
quent sicknesses, ib. Her Chris 
tian resignation, Ivii-viii. Her 
religious doubts, Iviii. Her love 
for her children, ib. Her morbid 
views of life, ib. Her belief in the 
efficacy of prayer, ib. Her son 
Samuel s visit to England, Iviii-ix. 
Had no child for a long time af 
ter marriage, lix. Her husband s 
mission to England in January, 
1661-2, lix-lxi. Her verses to him 
during his absence, 32-9. Writes 
the " Meditations, "Ixi. Dedicates 
them to her son Simon, ib., 47. 
Their originality, Ixi. Loss of her 
papers by the burningof her house, 
Ixi-ii, 40, 329. Her daily life, Ixii. 
Her position as a woman writer, 
ib. Her rambles in the woods 
and along the Merrimac, Ixiii. 
Writes the " Contemplations," ib. 
Their excellence, ib. Revision 01 
her " Poems," Ixiv. Nature of her 
alterations, ib. A Puritan and yet 
a Monarchist, ib. Her hatred of 
Papists, ib., 9, 340-1. Longing 
for death, ib. Her last sickness 
and death, Ixiv-v, 409. Her burial- 
place unknown, Ixv. No portrait 
of her in existence, ib. Edward 
Phillips s notice of her, ib. Cotton 
Mather s eulogy on her, Ixv-vi. 
Rev. John Norton s Funeral Elegy 
on her, 409-13. . Her handwriting, 
viii. Fac-simile of it, between 
46 and 47, first edition of her 
"Poems." v, vii-viii, x, xl-iii, 
xlix, lii, 79. Second edition, v, 
vii-viii, xli n., xlix-1, lii, Ixiii, Ixiv, 
Ixvi, 81,413. Third edition, v-vii. 



Her children all survived her ex 
cept Dorothy, Ixvii-viii. Notices 
of, Ixvii n. Her verses concerning 
them, 400-3. Her descendants, 

Bradstreet, Anne, daughter of Sam 
uel, verses on the death of, 405. 

Bradstreet, Anne, another daughter 
of Samuel, her death in infancy, 
407 n. and 408. 

Bradstreet, Anne, second wife of Gov. 
Bradstreet, daughter of Emanuel 
Downing, Ixix. 

Bradstreet, Dorothy, daughter of 
Mrs. Anne, death of, Ixvii. No 
tice of, Ixvii n. Marries Rev. 
Seaborn Cotton, 400-1, and 401 n. 

Bradstreet, Dudley, son of Mrs. 
Anne, sketch of, Ixvii n. Refuses 
to act as Counsellor under the 
Provisional Government, Ixx. 

Bradstreet, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Samuel, verses on the death of, 

Bradstreet, Hannah, sketch of, Ixvii 
n. Marries Andrew Wiggin, 
28 n. 

Bradstreet. John, son of Mrs. Anne, 
notice of, Ixvii n. 

Bradstreet, Mercy, daughter of Mrs. 
Anne, sketch of, Ixvii n. 

Bradstreet, Mercy, wife of Samuel, 
verses on the death of, 407-8. 

Bradstreet, Mercy, daughter of Sam 
uel, 408 and n. 

Bradstreet, Pedigree of the Family, 
Ixix n. 

Bradstreet, Samuel, son of Mrs. 
Anne, notice of, Ixvii n. His 
birth, 5. Some time after the 
marriage of his parents, lix, 5, 
24. Graduates at Harvard Col 
lege, Iviii-ix. His age, lix. Goes 
to England, Iviii-ix, Ixvii #, 400 
and n. His mother s verses on 
his departure, 24. Returns, lix, 
Ixvii n. His mother s verses on 
that event, 28. Death of his eld 
est child, Elizabeth, 404, 405 n. ; 
of his daughter Anne, 405 and 
//. ; of his fourth child, Simon, 
406; of his wife, 407-8. and 407 
n. ; of Anne, an infant child of, 
407 .,4o8. His daughter, Mercy 
Bradstreet, 408 and n. 

Bradstreet, Samuel, of Dorchester, x. 

Bradstreet, Sarah, notice of, Ixvii . 
Marries Richard Hubbard, of Ips 
wich, 401 and n. 

Bradstreet, Rev. Simon, father of 
Gov. Bradstreet, xxi. 

Bradstreet, Gov. Simon, 17, 91. 
Engraving of, x. Husband of 
Anne Bradstreet. xi. Marries her, 
xxi, liii n. His father and grand 
father, ib. His birth, ib. Educa 
tion, xxi-ii. Goes into the Earl 
of Lincoln s family, xxii. Enters 
Emmanuel College, and receives 
his bachelor s and master s de 
grees, ib. Takes Dudley s place 
as steward of the Earl of Lin 
coln, ib. Becomes steward of the 
Countess of Warwick, ib. Chosen 
Assistant of the Massachusetts 
Company, xxvi. His important 
position afterwards in the Massa 
chusetts Colony, ib. Embarks for 
America, xxvii. Probably on 
the " Arbella," ib. The passage, 
xxviii. Arrives in Salem, xxviii- 
ix. Goes to Charlestown, xxx- 
xxxi. Signs the covenant of the 
First Church, xxxi. Moves to 
Boston, xxxii. To Newtown 
(Cambridge), xxxiii. His house 
and lot there, ib. Moves to Ips 
wich, xxxv. One of those allowed 
to begin a plantation at " Merri- 
mack," xxxvi. Establishes him 
self at Andover, xxxvi-vii. De 
scription of his house there, 
xxxvii-viii. His mission to Eng 
land with the Rev. John Norton, 
lix-lxi, 32-9. His wife s verses to 
him during that time, 32-9. Burn 
ing of his house at Andover, 
xxxvii, Ixi-ii, 40, 329. His loss 
thereby, Ixi - ii. His children, 
Ixvii /z., 400-3. His descendants, 
Ixviii-ix. His second wife, Ixix. 
Becomes Deputy- Governor, Ixx. 
Governor, ib. . Refuses to act as 
Counsellor under Joseph Dudley, 
ib. Head of the " Council of Safe 
ty," ib. Acts as Governor until 
the receipt of the New Charter, 
Ixx-i. A Counsellor under that, 
Ixxi. His death, ib. His tomb, 
Ixxi n. Its desecration, ib. His 
epitaph, ib. Supports his son 
Samuel s children, Ixvii ., 408 n. 
Verses on his restoration from an 
ague, 27. Verses on his going to 
England, 32. Verses in solitary 
hours during his absence, 34. 
Verses in acknowledgment of let 
ters received from him, 37. Verses 



in thankful acknowledgment of his 
safe arrival home, 38. Poetical 
Letters to him, 394-8. 

Bradstreet, Rev. Simon, of New 
London, Conn., son of Anne 
Bradstreet, Ixviii, 2, 73 #., 74 
and n., 405 ., 407 n. Sketch of, 
Ixvii . His account of his birth 
and education, xxxvi-vii. Enters 
Harvard College, 401 and n. 
"Meditations" written at his re 
quest, and dedicated to him, Ixi, 
47. His account of the burning 
of the house at Andover, and his 
own and his father s loss thereby, 
Ixi-ii. His manuscript copy of 
his mother s " Religious Experi 
ences and Occasional Pieces," viii, 
2. His handwriting, viii. His 
account of his mother s last sick 
ness and death, Ixiv-v. 

Bradstreet, Rev. Simon, of Charles- 
town, Mass., Ixviii-ix. 

Bradstreet, Rev. Simon, of Marble- 
head, Mass., sketch of, 74 n. His 
Latin translation of the Dedica 
tion and first four "Meditations," 
74, viii-ix. 

Bradstreet, Simon, son of Samuel, 
verses on the death of, 406. 

Bradstreet, Tomb at Salem, desecra 
tion of, Ixxi n. 

Britain, how cut from France, 117. 

Brutus, Junius, 328. 

Bucephala, 278. 

Buchanan, George, xix. 

Buckingham, Duke of, xxiii. His 
unsuccessful attempt to take the 
Isle de Rhe, 163 and n. Assassi 
nation of, 164 and ., 165 . 

Buckminster, Rev. Joseph, a de 
scendant of Mrs. Bradstreet, Ixix. 

Buckminster, Rev. J. S., a descend 
ant of Mrs. Bradstreet, ib. 

Budington, Rev. W. I., D.D., his 
articles on Mrs. Bradstreet, and re 
print of some of her writings, ix-x. 

Burning of her house, Verses on 
the, 40. 

Burton, 336 n. 

Burton s Anatomy of Melancholy, 

B. W,, explanation of the initials, 
89 n. 


Cadiz (Cades), 163 ., 165 n. Taken 
by the Earl of Essex, 360. 

Caesar, Julius, 319. Gives his name 

to July, 174. 
Cam, 374. 
Calais won, 162. Surprise of, in 

1596, 162 . Spanish Armada 

put to flight before, ib. 
Caligula, Anecdote of, 108. 
Callisthenes, xlvii. Mrs. Bradstreet s 

account of the murder of, taken 

from Raleigh, xliv-v. Murder of, 


Calvin, xxiv. 

Cambridge, The Agreement at, xxv. 
Cambridge (Newtown), founding of, 

xxxii-iii. Laid out in squares, 

xxxiii. Arrival of Rev. Thomas 

Hooker s congregation in, xxxiv. 

Wood s description of, ib. Its 

limits enlarged, xxxv. 
Cambyses, 113, 212-17, 219. Father 

of Cyrus, 208. And Darius Hys- 

taspes, Interregnum between, 216- 

Camden, William, his "Britannia" 
and " Annales," xix. His " An- 
nales," 358 and . Mrs. Brad- 
street s knowledge of, lii. 

Canaan, 196, 205. 

Canute, 331. 

Carter, Robert, his description of 
the appearance of Mt. Desert from 
the sea, xxviii. 

Cassander, 299-316. Son of Anti- 
pater, 287. 

Cassandreia, 306. 

Cavalier, a British, 155. Mrs. Brad- 
street s opinion of, Ixiv. 

C. B., Commendatory verses by, 90. 
Others, 92. 

Cecil, Sir Edward, his expedition to 
Cadiz, 163 n. 

Cena, 298 n. 

Ceraunus, Ptolemy, 316. 

Cervantes, xvi. 

Chaldeans, 201. 

Channing, Rev. Wm. E., a descend 
ant of Mrs. Bradstreet, Ixix. 

Chapman s Homer, xvii. 

Charlemagne, 355. 

Charles I. of England, xxiii, 30 #., 
338, 34i- Thrust from his throne, 
164 and n. Beheaded, 164 and . 
And Parliament, xxv. 

Charles II. of England, Ixix, 30 n. 
Restoration of, 165 n. Relations 
between him and Massachusetts 
Colony, lix-lx. 

Charles V. before Algiers, 121. His 
taking Milan, ib. 

4 22 


Charlestown, Mass., settlement of, 
xxx. Arrival of Winthrop s com 
pany at, xxx-i. Condition of the 
people in, in 1630, xxxii. Re 
moval of Winthrop s company 
from, to Boston, ib. 

Charter of the Massachusetts Com 
pany, dissolution of the, Ixx. 

Charter Government, temporary re- 
establishment of, in Massachu 
setts, Ixx. The new, Ixx-i. 

Charter- Street burying-ground in 
Salem, Bradstreet s tomb in, Ixxi. 

Chaucer, 85. 

Childhood, xli, 149-52. 

Children, Poem before the birth of 
one of her, 393-4. 

Children, Poem in reference to her, 
400-3. Misprint in, Ixvii n. and 
401 n. 

Chinoes, 196. 

Choler, xli, 124-9. 

Christmas, 179. 

Church, The Established, of Eng 
land, division of, xxiii-iv. Regard 
of the Massachusetts Colonists for, 

Church, First, at Boston, xv, xxxi, 

5i 413 

Cicero, 411. Quoted, 160 n. 

Civil War in England, 165 and n. 
Course of the Massachusetts Col 
ony during the, lix. 

Clarence, Duke of, 335. 

Clarendon, the Earl of, quoted, xxiii. 

Clark, master of ship " Society," 38 n. 

Cleitus, or Clitus, quarrel of Alex 
ander with, and death of, 283-4. 
Mrs. Bradstreet s account of his 
murder by Alexander the Great, 
taken from Raleigh s " History 
of the World," and from North s 
"Plutarch s Lives, "xlvi-vii,xlix-l. 

Cleopatra, 115, 292, 293, 310, 311. 
Daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, 319- 
20, 360. 

Clipsham, in the county of Rutland, 
Dudley s residence at, xiv. 

Cochichewick, The, xxxviii. First 
settlements at Andover made near, 
xxxvii. Land about, reserved for 
a plantation, afterwards Andover, 
xxxvi. Andover, xxxvii. 

Colborne, William, xxxi. 

Commendatory Verses by N. Ward, 
85. I. W., 86-88. B. W., 89. C. 
B., 90. R. Q., 90 n. N. H., 91. 
C. B., 92. H. S., 92. Rev. J. 
Rogers, 93-96. 

Compton, William Lord, afterwards 
Earl of Northampton, takes Dud 
ley into his family, xii. Recom 
mends Dudley to the Earl of Lin 
coln as steward, xiii. 

Consolations, Meditations on Spirit 
ual, 16. 

Constitution, The Four Humours in 
Man s, xli, Ixv, 123-46. 

Contemplations, a Poem, 370-81. 
Its merits considered, Ixiii. 

Corinnses, The Three, Ixvi. 

Cotton. Rev. John, xiii, xviii, xxi. 
His son marries Dorothy Brad- 
street, Ixvii n. 

Cotton, Sir Robert, xix. 

Cotton, Rev. Seaborn, 401 n. Hus 
band of Dorothy Bradstreet, Ixvii 
n. Notice of, ib. 

Council of Safety, Ixvii ., Ixx. 

Cradock, Gov. Matthew, proposes 
the removal of the Massachusetts 
Company to America, xxiv. 

Craterus, 292-4, 297. 

Croesus (Cressus), 205, 209-10. 

Cromwell, Ixix. Mrs. Bradstreet s 
views concerning, Ixiv, 164 and n. 

Crooke, Helkiah, M D., Mrs. Brad- 
street s knowledge of, 1, 144. Watt s 
notice of his works, 1 //. 

Curiatii, 325. 

Curtius, M., 113 n. 

Curtius, Quintus, xliii, xlvi, 257, 265. 

Curwen, Sam., his note concerning 
the sale of Gov. Bradstreet s tomb, 
Ixxi n. 

Cutshamache, Indian Sagamore, 
sells land on which Andover was 
settled, xxxvii. 

Cyclops, xlix, 289. 

Cyna, 298 n. 

Cyrus, 208-12, 222, 248, 249. 280. 
Mrs. Bradstreet s account of Alex 
ander the Great s visit to his tomb, 
taken from Raleigh, xlvi. 

Cyrus, the younger, 237-41. 


Dagon, 184. 

Damascus, 194-5. 

Dana, Mr. Richard H., a descendant 

of Mrs. Bradstreet s , Ixix. 
Dana, Hon. R. H., Jr., a descendant 

of Mrs. Bradstreet s, ib. 
Daniel, 200, 204, 206, 207, 211, 261, 

289, 317. 
Darius, uncle of Cyrus, 208. 



Darius Hystaspes, Interregnum be 
tween Cambyses and, 216-17. 
Made king, 217. Hystaspes, 218- 
22. Xerxes son, 232. Nothus, 


Darius Ochus, 247 and n. Codoma- 
nus, 249 and #., 254-61, 263-71. 

Dathan, 112 and n. 

David s Lamentation for Saul and 
Jonathan, xlii, 363-4. 

Davis, Mr., of New Haven, 29 ., 
32 n. 

Dealings, Divine, 25. 

Death as a sheriff s officer, 156 nn. 

Dedication to Meditations, Ixi, 47. 
Fac-simile of, between 46 and 47. 
Latin Translation of, 74. 

Dedication of the " Poems," Hi, Iv, 
97. Date of, xli, Hi. 

Deliverance from a Fever, 12. Same 
subject, 13. From a Fit of Faint 
ing. 15- 

Delphi, 228. 

Demades, xlix. 

Demetrius, 308, 312-17. 

Demosthenes, 293. 

Denison, Major-General Daniel, 96 
n. Chosen Captain for Ipswich, 
xxxvi. One of the first settlers at 
Andover, ib. Marries Patience 
Dudley, liii n. Marries Rev. Si 
mon Bradstreet to his cousin, Lucy 
Woodbridge, Ixvii n. 

Denison, Elizabeth, 96 n. 

Dercyllidas, 244. 

Deucalion, Deluge of, 118. 

Dialogue between Old England and 
New, 330-43, xli-ii, Hi. 

Dido, Queen, 360. 

Distemper of the body, Poem upon 
some, 392-3. 

Divine Dealings, 25. 

Dodd, Rev. John, xiii. 

Don Anthony, 359. 

Donne, Dr. John, xx. 

Don Quixote, xvi. 

Downing, Anne, second wife of Gov. 
Bradstreet, Ixix. Her step-son s 
opinion of her, ib. 

Downing, Emanuel, his daughter 
marries Gov. Bradstreet, ib. 

Downing, Sir George, Bart., ib. 

Drake, Mr. S. G., x. 

Drake, Sir Francis, 360. 

Du Bartas, 85, 92, 98, 100, 348, 349. 
Notice of, li n. Works translated 
by Sylvester, xvii, li. Mrs. Brad- 
street s obligations to, 98, li. Her 
fondness for his works, li-lii. Mil 

ton s obligations to, ib. Poem in 
honor of, xlii, Hi, 353-6. 

Duclleiaii Lectures at Harvard Col 
lege, founding of, liii ;/. 

Dudley, Dean, his articles on Mrs. 
Bradstreet, x. 

Dudley, Deborah, liii n. 

Dudley, Dorothy, wife of Governor 
Dudley, xii - xiii. Signs church 
covenant, xxxi. Her death und 
virtues, as described by Mrs. Brad- 
street, Hi-iii. Epitaph on, 369. 

Dudley, Dorothy, daughter of Gov. 
Thomas Dudley, liii n. 

Dudley, John, Duke of Northumber 
land, supposed ancestor of Gov. 
Dudley, xi-xii. 

Dudley, Joseph, notice of, liii ;/. 
Made President of the Provision 
al Government of Massachusetts, 

Dudley, the Lady Mary, mother of 
Sir P. Sidney, xii. 

Dudley, Mercy, notice of, liii n. 
Wife of Rev. John Woodbridge, 

Dudley, Patience, 96 n. Notice of, 
liii n. 

Dudley, Paul, son of Gov. T. Dud 
ley, notice of, liii n. 

Dudley, Paul, son of Joseph Dudley, 
notice of, ib. 

Dudley, Capt. Roger, father of Gov. 
Dudley, xii. 

Dudley, Samuel, first child of Gov. 
Dudley, xiv. One of the first set 
tlers at Andover, xxxvi. Notice 
of, liii n. 

Dudlej , Sarah, notice of, ib. 

Dudley, Governor Thomas, father of 
Anne Bradstreet, xi. One of the 
founders of New England, xi, 366. 
His ancestry, xi-ii. His birth, xii. 
Only son of Capt. Roger Dudley, 
ib. Left an orphan, ib. Nothing 
known of his mother, ib. Becomes 
a page of Lord Compton, ib. A 
clerk of Judge Nichols, ib. Goes 
to France at the head of a com 
pany of volunteers, ib. At the 
siege of Amiens, ib. Returns to 
England, ib. Marries, xii-iii. 
Becomes a Nonconformist, xiii. 
Becomes the Earl of Lincoln s 
steward, ib. Moves to Boston, in 
Lincolnshire, ib- Returns to the 
Earl of Lincoln s family, ib. Lives 
at Clipsham, xiv. His first child, 
Samuel, born, ib. His daughter 

4 2 4 


Anne born, ib. Has Simon Brad- 
street under his care, xxii. Is 
succeeded as steward of the Earl 
of Lincoln by Bradstreet, xxii. 
Interested in the plan to plant a 
colony in New England, xxvi. 
Signs the agreement at Cam 
bridge, xxv. His first apparent 
connection with the Massachusetts 
Company, xxvi. Chosen an As 
sistant, ib. Important- position 
afterwards held by him in the 
Colonv, ib. Elected " Under 
taker," ib. Chosen Deputy-Gov 
ernor, ib. Visits John Winthrop 
at Groton, xxvi-vii. Goes to the 
Isle of Wight, xxvii. Embarks 
with his family for America, ib. 
Probably on the "Arbella," ib. 
Signs the farewell to their "Breth 
ren in and of the Church of Eng 
land," ib. His passage, xxviii. 
Arrival at Salem, xxviii-ix. State 
in which he found things there, 
xxix-xxx. His account of it in 
his letter to the Countess of -Lin 
coln, xxx. Goes to Charlestown, 
ib. Enters into a church cove 
nant, xxxi. Moves to Boston, 
xxxii. His picture of their condi 
tion, xxxiii. Moves to Newtown 
(Cambridge), ib. His house and 
lot there, ib. His displeasure at 
Winthrop s removal from, xxxiv. 
His temporary alienation from 
him, ib. Moves to Ipswich, xxxv. 
Mrs. Bradstreet s "Poems" dedi 
cated to him, xli, Hi, 97. His 
letter to the Countess of Lincoln, 
xxvi, xxvii, xxx, xxxii, xxxiii and 
n. His poetry, lv-vi, Ixv-vi. His 
poem " On the Four Parts of the 
World," 97. Death of his first 
wife, lii, 369. Marries again, liii. 
His children, liii n. His death, 
liii-iv, 365. His removal to Rox- 
bury, liv. High offices held by 
him, ib. His character, liv-v. 
His library, lv. Rogers s Latin 
epitaph on him, ib. His learning, 
ib. Mrs. Bradstreet s instructor, 
ib. His estate, Ivi. Heads the 
agreement to support a free school 
in Roxbury, Ivi-vii. Verses to, 
398-9. Poem to the memory of, 
365-8. Mr. C. M. Ellis s sketch 
of his life, Ivii n. 

Duyckinck, Mr., his notice of Mrs. 
Bradstreet, x. 

Dwight, Dr. Timothy, his descrip 
tion of North Andover, xxxix. 


; Ar- 

" Eagle," The, afterwards the 
bella," xxvii. 

Earth, xli, 109-13. 

Eden, 177, 373. 

Edom, 203. 

Edward II. of England, 332, 333. 

Edward III. of England, 334. 

Edward IV. of England, the murder 
of his children, 335. 

Egypt, 203, 205. 

Elector Palatine, Frederic V., 163 
and ., 165 n. 

Elements, The Four, xli, Ixv, 103-22. 
"The Interlude of the Four," old 
moral play, xli n. 

Elizabeth, Princess, daughter of 
James I., 163 and n. 

Elizabeth, Queen, xii, xvi, 162 ., 
344. Poem in honor of, xlii, lii, 
87 and ., 357-62. 

Ellis, Mr. C. M., his history of Rox 
bury, and sketch of Gov. T. Dud 
ley s life, Ivii n. 

Emilius, 317. See Paulus. 

Emmanuel College, in Cambridge, 
xxi, xxii. 

Endicott, Gov. John, sent to Ameri 
ca, xxx. 

England, Civil War in, xxiii, lix, 
Ixiv, 165 and n. 

England, Dialogue between Old and 
New, xli-ii, lii, 330-43. Perhaps 
partly derived from Speed s His 
tory, lii. 

England under Queen Elizabeth, 

359- 6 i- 

English Fair, Mrs. Bradstreet s de 
scription of, xv. 
English Literature at the close of 

the Elizabethan Age, xv-xx. 
Epaminondas, 245. 
Epiphanes, Ptolemy, 318. Successor 

to Evergetes, 319. 
Erthogrul, 173. 
Esar-haddon, 197. 
Essex, Earl of, 341 and n. Takes 

Cadiz, 360. 
Esther, 233, 236, 266. 
Eudocia, The Empress, Ixvi. 
Euergetes, Ptolemy, son of Phila- 

delphus, 319. 
Euergetes (II.), successor of Philo- 

metor, 319. 



Eumenes, 295-7. 299, 301, 306, 308. 

Eupntor, Antiochus, 318. 

Euphrates, The, 240. 

Euridice, 297, 302, 303. 

Evelyn, his notice of the death of 
the Duke of Gloucester and the 
Princess of Orange, 30 ;/. 

Evil-merodach, 204-5. 

Exeter, N.H., liii #., Ixvii n. 

Explanation as to Four Monarchies. 

Ezekiel, 200. 

Ezra, 234. 


Fabius, Q^ Maxitnus, 137. 
Fainting, After a Fit of, July 8, 1656, 

Fainting and Weakness, Sept. 30, 

1657, 2 3- 
Fainting, Deliverance from a Fit 

of, 15. 
Father, To her, with some verses, 

39 8 -9- 
Fever, Deliverance from a, 12. Same 

subject, 13. 
Finland, 178. 
Fire, xli, 104-8. 
First Church at Boston, xv, xxxi, 5, 

413 n. 
First Edition of " Poems.", See 


First Monarchy, 181-207. 
Flegme, xli, 141-6. 
Flesh and the Spirit, poem, 381-5. 
Fletcher, John, xvi. 
Florio, John. English translator of 

Montaigne s Essays, xvii. 
Foster, John, first printer in Boston, 

Ixvi-vii. Printer of second edition 

of Poems, v, Ixvi. 81. 
Four Ages of Man, xli, Ixv, 147- 


Four Elements, xli, Ixv, 103-22. 
Four Humours in Man s Constitu 

tion. xli, Ixv, 123-46. 
Four Monarchies, xli, xliii-1, Ixv, 


Fourth Monarchy, 323-8. 
Four Seasons of the Year, xli, Ixv, 


France, 332, 333. 
France and Holland saved, 162. 
France, how Britain cut from, 117. 
Frederic V., Elector Palatine, 163 

and n., 165 n. 
Funeral Elegy, Rev. John Norton s, 

upon Mrs. Bradstreet, 409-13. 


Gager, William, xxxi. 

Galen. 143. Mrs. Bradstrcct s knowl 
edge of, 1. 

Galenists, no. 

Galilee, 195. 

Gardner, Capt. Joseph, his widow 
marries Gov. Bradstreet, Ixix. 

Garrett, James, account of the loss 
of his ship, 29 n. 

Genevan version of the Bible, 21 ., 
203 n. Mrs. Bradstreet s familiar 
ity with. 1. 

Germany, 336. 

Gibraltar, 118. 

Gideon, the sword of God and, 340. 

Gilboa, Mount, 363-4. 

Gloucester, Henry, Duke of, his 
death, 30 and n. 

Gobryas, 220-1, 224. 

God, Verses in Praise of, 17. On 
Joy in, 1 8. 

Goffe, Thomas, xxvi. 

Gog, 342. 

Gookin, Daniel, his account of the 
loss of James Garrett s ship, 29 n. 

Graves, Mr., xxxi. 

Great Plague, The, 334 and n. 

Grecian Monarchy? xli, 251-321. 

Greek and Latin authors, as to Mrs. 
Bradstreet s acquaintance with, 

Greenland, 178. 

Grey, Lady Jane. 335. 

Griswold, Mr., as to the publica 
tion of first edition of Poems, 
xli n. 

Groanland, 178 and n. 

Gunpowder Plot, 163 and ., 165 
and 11. 


Hackburne, Catherine, widow of 
Samuel, marries Gov. T. Dudley, 

Hall, Bishop, the "English Sene 
ca," xx. 

Hall, Mr. and Mrs. S. C., their 
sketch of Miss Hannah More 
quoted, as to the popularity of 
women writers half a century ago, 
Ixii n. 

Hallam s opinion of Knolles His 
tory of the Turks, xix. 

Haman, 234. 

Hamlet, quotation from, 156 N. 




Hampton-Court Conference, xxiv. 

Hampton, N.H.. Ixvii ., 401 n. 

Hand-writing, fac-simile of Mrs. 
Bradstreet s, between 46 and 47. 

Harding, Robert, xxxi. 

Harvard College, 29 n. First grad 
uate of, 89 n. 

Harvey, Dr. William, xxi. 

Hathorne, Daniel, buys the Brad- 
street tomb at Salem, Ixxi n. 

Haverhill, gathering of church at, 

Hazor, 203. 

Heaven, verses expressing her long 
ing for, 42. 

Hebrew Writings, Mrs. Bradstreet s 
indebtedness to, for her facts in 
"The Four Monarchies," xliii. 

Hector, 261, 348. 

Helena, 142. 

Hellespont, bridge over, 225-6. 

Hena, 197. Henah, 197 n. 

Hengist, 331. 

Henry V. of England, 334. 

Henry VI. of England, anecdote of, 

Henry VII. of England, 332, 333. 

Henry IV. of France, xii, li n, 355, 

Henry, Duke of Gloucester, his 

death, 30 and n. 
Henry, Prince of Wales, death of, 

163 and n. 

Henryes daughter, 333 and n. 
Hephaestion, xlvi, 259-60, 276, 283, 

285, 286, 290. 
Hesiod, xliii, 199. 
Hester, 233 /*., 236 ., 266 n. 
Hevah, 197. 
Hezekiah, 198. 
Higginson, Rev. Francis, his arrival 

in America, xxix. His company, 


Hildersham, Rev. Arthur, xiii. 

Hippocrates, 143. Mrs. Bradstreet s 
knowledge of, 1. 

Hobart, Rev. Peter, 413 n. 

Holland, 332, 334. Saved, 162. 

Holmes, Dr. O. W., a descendant 
of Mrs. Bradstreet, Ixix. 

Holyoke, Rev. Edward, 74 n. 

Homer, xliii, 85, 199, 288, 347. 
Translated by Chapman, xvii. 

Hooker s "Ecclesiastical Polity," xx. 

Hooker, Rev. Thomas, his congre 
gation leaves Mount Wollaston for 
Newtown (Cambridge), xxxiv. 
He arrives in Boston, and goes to 
Newtown, ib. 

Horatii, 325. 

Horseleach, two daughters of the, 
61 and n. 

Hoshea, 195. 

Hostilius, Tullus, 325-6. 

Hottinger, Ixvi. 

House, verses on the burning of 
her, 40. 

H- S , Poetical address to the au 
thor, 92. 

Hubbard, Richard, of Ipswich, 401 
n. Marries Sarah Bradstreet, 
Ixvii n. 

Hubbard, Rev. William, 401 n- His 
brother marries Sarah Bradstreet, 
Ixvii n. 

Hull, John, goes to England with 
the Commissioners, Bradstreet 
and Norton, Ix, 32 n. His ac 
count of the passage and the mis 
sion of the Commissioners, 32 n. 
His account of the loss of James 
Garrett s ship, 29 n. His notice 
of safe return of the Commission 
ers, 38 n. 

Hume, his account of the death of 
the Duke of Gloucester and the 
Princess of Orange, 30 n. His 
estimate of those killed in the In 
surrection in Ireland, 164 n. 

Humours, The Four, xli, Ixv, 123- 

Humphrey, John, xxvi. 

Husband, verses on his restoration 
from an Ague, 27. Verses in soli 
tary hours during his absence, 34. 
Verses in acknowledgment of let 
ters received from, 37. Verses on 
his safe arrival home, 38. Verses 
to my dear and loving, 394. Let 
ter to her, absent on Publick Em 
ployment, 394-5- Another, 395-7. 
Another, 397-8. 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Lucy, her account 
of the treatment of the Puritans 
by the Stage, &c., xvii. 

Hydaspes, The, 278, 279. 

Hypatia (Hippatia), Ixvi. 


Ince, Mr., 29 n 

Indians, xxxii, xxxiv, xxxv, Ixiii, 

Ixvii n. 
In reference to her children, Poem, 

Insurrection in Ireland. 164 and ., 

165 , 336. 



Interregnum between Cambyses and 
Darius Hystaspes, 216-17. 

Ipswich settled, xxxv. Church gath 
ered there, fb. Precautions in, 
against Indians, xxxv-vi. Mrs. 
Bradstreet s residence at, xxxv-vi, 

Ireland, insurrection in, 164 and ., 
^5 > 336. Quelling of the Earl 
of Tyrone s rebellion in, 360. 

Isle de Rhe, Buckingham s attempt 
to take, 163 and . 

Israel, 197. Dispersing of the Ten 
Tribes of, 196. 

Ister (Danube), bridge over the, 

Italy, how Sicily cut from, 117. 

Ivah (Juah), 197. 

Ivry, battle of, li ;/. 

I. W., explanations of the initials, 
88 n. His poetical address to 
the author, 86-8. 


Jacoban Age of English Literature, 

Jaddus, 261. 

Jamaica, Samuel Bradstreet goes to, 
Ixvii //. 

James I. of England, xvi, xix, xxiii, 
1, 163 and nn. Religious char 
acter of his reign, xix-xx. Poets 
of the reign of, xviii. 
ane, Lady Jane Grey, 335. 
anus, Temple of, 325. 
axartes, The, 275. 
ehoiakim, 200-2, 204. 
ehu, 314. 
erusalem, rebuilding of, 234. 

"Jewell," The, xxvii. 

Jews, Captivity of the, 211. Dari- 
us s Edict for the rebuilding of 
their temple, 219-20. 

Jezreel, 314 

Jim, Zim and, 203 and . 

John, King of England, 333. 

Johnson, Dr., his opinion of Knolles 
History of the Turks, xix. 

Johnson, Edward, quoted, xxxi. 

Johnson, Isaac, xxvii. Constitutes 
Dudley one of the executors of 
his will, xiv. The Lady Arbella, 
his wife, xxvii, xxxi. Enters into 
Church covenant, xxxi. 

Jonah, 192. 

Jonathan, David s Lamentation for 
Saul and, 363-4. 

Jonson, Ben, xvi. 

Joshua commands the sun to stand 

still, 170 n. 
Josselyn s mention of Francis 

Quarles, xviii. 
Joy in God, verses on, 18. 
Juah, 197 
July, named from Julius Caesar, 174. 


Keayne, Major Benjamin, marries 

Sarah Dudley, liii n. 
Kedar, 203. 
Knolles, Richard, his " History of 

the Turks," xix. Quoted, 173 n. 
Korah and Dathan, destruction of, 

112 n. 


Lamb, Charles, vii. 

Lancastrians, 333. 

Lapland, 178. 

Lathyrus, Ptolemy, 319. 

Latin, authors, Mrs. Bradstreet s 
acquaintance with, xliii-iv. Mrs. 
Bradstreet s knowledge of, ib. 
Translation of Dedication and 
first four " Meditations," 74. 

Laud, Archbishop, 336 n. His cen 
sorship of the press, xx. His 
treatment of the Puritans, xxiii-iv. 
Imprisoned, 338 and //. Beheaded, 
164 and ;/. 

Lawrence, xxxix, Ixiii. 

Lee, Mrs. Eliza B., a descendant of 
Mrs. Bradstreet, Ixix. 

Leonatus, 292, 293. 

Leonidas, 226-7. 

Leverett, Gov. John, his daughter 
marries Paul Dudley, liii n. Si 
mon Bradstreet succeeds him as 
Governor, Ixx. 

Leverett, Mary, marries Paul Dud 
ley, liii n. 

Lewis. See Louis. 

Lincoln, Countess of, Dudley s letter 
to, xxvi n., xxvii n., xxx, xxxiii 
and n. 

Lincoln, Earl of, Henry de Clinton, 
dies in 1616, xiii. Thomas, suc 
ceeds him, xiii. Theophilus, Earl 
of, xiii, xxi, xxii, xxvii. Takes 
Dudley as his steward, xiii. His 
connection with Dudley, ib. 

Lisbon, 359. 



Lissus, 226. 

Literature, English, at the close of 
the Elizabethan Age, xv-xx. 

London, Great Fire of, 107, 108 . 

Longing for Heaven, verses express 
ing her, 42. 

Louis VIII. of France, 333 n. 

Lucretia, 328. 

Lucullus, 318. 

Lud, Put and, 203. 

Lysimachus, 307, 310, 314-16. 


Maccabees, 318. 

Magi, 216. 

Manasseh, 198. 

Mandana, 208. 

Man s Constitution, The Four Hu 
mours in, xli, Ixv, 123-46. 

Man, The Four Ages of, xli, Ixv, 

Marathon, Battle of, 221. 

Marblehead, Mass., Second Church 

in > 75- 

Marcellus, 137. 

March, Earl of, 333. 

Marcius, Ancus, 326. 

Mardonius, 223-4, 229-30. 

Maro, 410, 411. 

Martel, 355. 

Mary, Princess of Orange, her death, 
30 and n. 

Mather, Cotton, Iv. The verses 
which he attributes to Gov. T. 
Dudley, Ivi n. His eulogy on 
Mrs. Bradstreet, Ixv-vi. His opin 
ion of President John Rogers, 
96 n. 

Matilda, the Empress, 333 n. 

Massachusetts Company, xvi, xxiv, 
xxvi. Motives of those who trans 
ferred it to America, xxv. Em 
barkation for New England, xxvii. 

Massachusetts Colonists, their fare 
well to their brethren in and of 
the Church of England, xxvii-viii. 
Their voyage to New England, 
xxviii; and arrival there, xxix. 

Massachusetts Colony, its condition 
in 1630, xxx, xxxii. Its course in 
the civil war, lix. Treatment of 
the Quakers, ib. Obliged to send 
agents to England, lix-lx. Suc 
cess of the mission, lx. Dissolu 
tion of the charter, Ixx. Estab 
lishment of the Provisional Gov 
ernment, ib. Governed by An- 

dros, ib. Re-establishment of 
Charter Government in, ib. 

Massachusetts Bay, Sir William 
Phipps made Governor of the 
Province of the, Ixx-i. The new 
charter of, ib. 

Massinger, Philip, xvi. 

Maud, 331, 333 and . 

Mayhew, Mr., son of the Indian 
teacher at Marttva s Vineyard, his 
loss at sea, 29 n. 

45-76. Dedication of, 47. Manu 
script of, viii-x. Fac-simile of 
dedication of, between 46 and 47. 
Their composition, character, and 
originality, Ixi. Latin Transla 
tion of the dedication and first 
four of, 74-75. Occasional, n. 
On Spiritual Consolations, 16. 

Melancholy, xli, 136-41. 

Meleager, 291. 

Memucan, 233. 

Menahem, 193. 

Merodach Balladan, 198. 

Meroe, 215 and n. 

Meroz, (Mero s) curse, 340 and n. 

Merrimac, The river, xxxviii, Ixiii. 

Methuselah, 373. 

Michaud s notice of Du Bartas, li ;/. 

Midas, 254. 

Middle Age, xli, 156-61. 

Middleton, Thomas, xvi. 

Milan (Millain), Charles the Fifth, 
his taking of, 121. 

Miltiades, 221. 

Milton, his "Comus" quoted, Ixiii. 
His nephew Edward Phillips, Ixv. 

Mnemon, Artaxerxes, 237-46. 

Moab, 203. 

Monarchies, The Four, xli, Ixv, 181- 
328. Sources from which Mrs. 
Bradstreet derived materials for 
the Poem of, xliii-1. The Assyr 
ian, xli, 181-207. The Grecian, 
xli, 251-321. The Persian, xli, 
208-50. The Roman, xli, 323-8. 

Monarchist, Mrs. Bradstreet inclined 
to be a, Ixiv. 

Montaigne, translated into English 
by John Floric, xvii 

Moore, Jacob B., quoted, xi. 

Mordecai, 234, 266. 

Moref Miss Hannah, her popularity 
as a writer, Ixii n. 

More, SirThomas, his daughter, Ixvi. 

Mount Desert, its appearance from 
the sea, xxviii. 

Mycale, 231. 




Nabanassar, 195-6. 

Nanni, Giovanni, iSS n. 

Napier, John, Baron of Merchiston, 

Narragansett Fort, Ixix. 

Nebopolassar, 199-204. 

Nebuchadnezzar, 199-204. 

Nebulassar, 198-9. 

Necho, Pharaoh, 200. 

Nehemiah, 234, 246 //. 

Netherlands, Archduke Albert made 
Governor of, 162 n. 

New England, 91. Sir Edmund An- 
dros, Governor of, Ixx. T. Dud 
ley one of founders of, xi, 366. 
Dialogue between Old and, xli-ii, 

Hi, 330-43- 

New London, Conn., Simon Brad- 
street minister of, Ixvii n. 

Newtown. See Cambridge. 

N. H., commendatory verses by, 91. 

Nicea, 278. 

Nicolls, Thomas, "Judge Nichols," 
employs Dudley as clerk, xii. 

Nimrod, 181-2. Same as Saturn, 182. 

Nineveh, 183, 198. Rebuilt, 193. 

Ninias, 187-8. Supposed to be Am- 
raphel, 187. 

Ninus, 183. 

Nod, Land of, 375. 

Noe, Flood of, 118. 

Nonconformists, their treatment un 
der Archbishops Bancroft and 
Abbot, xxii-iii. 

Nonconformist ministers, their num 
ber in 1603, xxiv. 

North Andover, first part of the 
town settled, xxxvii. Oldest house 
in, xxxvii -viii. Description of, 

North, Sir Thomas, his translation 
of Plutarch s Lives, xvii. Mrs. 
Bradstreet s indebtedness to, 

Northumberland, John Dudley, 
Duke of, supposed ancestor of 
Gov. Dudley, xi-xii. 

Norton, Rev. John, of Boston, 413 n. 
His mission to England with Si 
mon Bradstreet, his cold reception 
on his return, and his death, Ix-i. 
His mission to England, 32 . 
Safe return from mission, 38 n. 

Norton, Rev. John, of Hingham, 
sketch of, 413 . His Funeral 
Elegy upon Mrs. Bradstreet, v, 

Nothus, Darius, 235-7. 

Nov-Anglia, 91. 

Nowell, Increase, enters into chimh 

covenant, xxxi. Remains in 

Charlestown, xxxii. 
Numa Pompilius, 325. 
Nysa, built by Bacchus, 276. 


Oakes, Rev. Urian, 96 . 

Occasional Meditations, n. 

Ochus, Darius, 247 and . 

Ochus, 249 #., 263. 

Ocrazapes, 189. 

Ohim, 203 n. 

Old Age, xli, 161-7. 

Old England and New, Dialogue 

between, xli-ii, Hi, 330-43. 
Old Testament, Greek version of, 

319 and n. 
Oliver, James. 408 n. 
Olympias, 251, 286, 300, 302-6, 310, 

3 11 . 
Omphis, 276. 

Orange, Mary, Princess of, her 
death, 30 and n. Reception of 
the news in Boston of the land 
ing of the Prince of, in England, 

Orthobulus, 173 and n. 

Ostia, building of, 326. 

Ovid, xliii, 199. 

Oxus, 273. 


Pacye, , marries Sarah Dudley, 

liii n. 

Palatinate, 163, 165 n. 

Papists, Mrs. Bradstreet s hatred of, 

Paracelsians, 105. 

Parker, Mr. Thomas, xxxix. 

Parliament, 337, 343 n. Mrs. Brad- 
street s sympathy with, at the time 
of the civil war, Ixiv. 

Parliament and Charles L, xxv. 

Parmenio, xlvii, 254, 258-60, 264, 267. 
Murder of, 282-3. 

Pasargadae, xlvi, 211. 

Paul s, St., Sir P. Sidney buried in, 


Paulus, L. yEmilius, 317. 
Pausanias, 251. 
Peele, Mr. Robert, Ixxi ;/. 
Pelham, Mr., 29 . 



Pemble, William, 249 n. Notice of, 
xliii n. Mrs. Bradstreet s acquaint 
ance with his " Period of the Per 
sian Monarchic," xliii. 

Pepin, 355. 

Percy Society, its reprint of the old 
moral play, " The Interlude of the 
Four Elements," xli n. 

Perdiccas, 290-8, 309-10. 

Perkins, Sarah, marries John Brad- 
street, Ixvii n 

Perkins, Rev. Wm., his daughter 
marries John Bradstreet, ib. 

Perseus, 317. 

Persian Monarchy, xli, 208-350. 

Peucestas, 306. 

Pharaohs, 203. 

Pharaoh Necho, 200. 

Phila, 294. 

Philadelphus, Ptolemy, 315, 318. 

Philip II., Father of Alexander the 
Great, 251, 252, 292. 

Philip, son of Antipater, 287. 

Philip, 307,311,313-14. 

Philip, son of Demetrius, 317. 

Philip II. of Spain, xii, 162 and #., 


Phillips, Edward, his notice of Mrs. 
Bradstreet in his "Theatrum Poe- 
tarum," Ixv. 

Phillips, Mr. Wendell, a descendant 
of Mrs. Bradstreet, Ixix. 

Philometor, Ptolemy, 319. 

Philopator, Ptolemy, ib. 

Philotas, 259. Murder of, 281-2. 

Phipps, Sir Wm., made Governor 
of Massachusetts Bay, Ixx-i. 

Phlegm. See Flegme. 

Pickman, Ben., sells the Bradstreet 
tomb at Salem, Ixxi n. 

Pickman, Col. B., ib. 

Pierse, John, 29 n. 

Pistyrus, Lake, 226. 

Plague, The Great, in London, 334 
and //. 

Pliny, xliii, 107 and #., 115. 

Plot, Gunpowder, 165 n. 

Plutarch, 246. 

Plutarch s Lives, 297. Translated 
by Sir Thomas North, xvii. 
Mrs. Bradstreet s indebtedness to, 

POEMS, 77-413, Ixvi. Their merit, 
xlii, Ixiii. Character considered, 
Ixi. Their originality, xlii - Hi. 
Their revision, Ixiv. Plan of first 
four longer, xli. First edition of, 
v, 79. First edition of when pub 
lished, xl and xli n. Fac-simile 

of titlepage of first edition of, v, 
79. Second edition of, v, vii-viii, 
Ixvi, 81. Fac-simile of titlepage 
of second edition of, v, Si. The 
alterations in, v, vii-viii, Ixiv. 
Third edition of, v-vii. Posthu 
mous, 391-408. Present edition 
of, plan pursued, vii. 

Poetical Address of I. W. to the 
Author, 86. Of H. S., 92. 

Polyphemus, xlix, 289. 

Polysperchon, 299-302, 304, 310. 

Polystratus, 270. 

Pompilius, Numa, 325. 

Popelings, 340-1. 

Porus, 276-8 

Prague, Battle of, 163 n. 

Praise of God, verses on, 17. 

Praxaspes, 214. 

Prayers, hearing of, 7. 

Preston, Rev. Dr., xxi, xxii. 

Price, Theodore, his widow marries 
Dudley Bradstreet, Ixvii n. 

Priscus, Tarquinius, 326-7. 

Prologue, Ixii, 100. 

Provisional Government, establish 
ment of, in Massachusetts, Ixx. 

Prynne, William, has the letters 
" S. L." branded on his cheeks, 
336 . 

Ptolemy, Soter, 277, 295, 296, 300, 
307-12, 315, 316, 318. 

Ptolemy, Philadelphus, 315, 318-19. 

Ptolemy, Ceraunus, 316. 

Ptolemy, Euergetes, 319. 

Ptolemy, Philopator, ib. 

Ptolemy, Epiphanes, ib. 

Ptolemy, Philometor, ib. 

Ptolemy, Euergetes II., ib. 

Ptolemy, Lathyrus, ib. 

Ptolemy, Alexander, ib. 

Ptolemy, Auletes, ib* 

Pul, 193. 

Puritans, and the Stage, xvii. Mrs. 
Bradstreet s sympathy with, at the 
time of the civil war, Ixiv. 

Put and Lud, 203. 

Pyraustes, 106. 

Pyrrhus, 316. 

Pythias, 224-5;. 

Python, 296-8. 


Quakers, their treatment in Massa 
chusetts, lix. Success of their ex 
ertions against Massachusetts at 
the court of Charles II., lix-lx. 



Quarles, Francis, his "Emblems," 
xviii. A friend of the New-Eng 
land men, ib. 

Queen Elizabeth, Poem in honor 
of, 87 and n., 357-62. See Eliza 

Quintius, Titus, 317. 

Quintus Curtius, 265. 


Raleigh, Sir Walter, writes his 
" History of the World," xix. His 
" History of the World," 188 ., 
245, 249 n. Concerning the spu 
rious works of Berosus, iSS n. 
Mrs. Bradstreet s indebtedness to, 

Reader, Address to, xl, 83-4. 

Recovery from Sickness, Verses on, 

Ree, 163, 165 n. See Rh. 

script of, viii-x. 

Religious Experiences, 2, 3. Writ 
ing of, Ivii. 

Remus, 323. 

Respite from Sickness, May n, 1661, 


Rhea, Silvia, 323. 
Rhe, Isle de, Buckingham s attempt 

to take, 163 and n. 
Rich, Lord, xxii. 
Richard II. of England, 332, 333. 
Richard III. of England, ib. Origin 

of his appellation of "boar," 

33 2 

Richmond, Earl of, 332, 333. 

Right, the Petition of, xxv. 

Rochelle (Rochel), 163 and ., 336. 

Rogers, Rev. Ezekiel, his epitaph 
on Gov. T. Dudlev, lv. 

Rogers, President John, sketch of, 
96 n. His commendatory verses 
on Mrs. Bradstreet s Poems, v, 
xlii, 93-6. 

Rogers, Rev. Nathaniel, of Ipswich, 
96 n. Succeeds Rev. N. Ward as 
pastor, xxxv. 

Roman Monarchy, xli, 323-8. Rea 
son of its non-completion, Ixi. 

Romans, the last King of the, 328. 

Romanists, xxiii. 

Rome, 342. 

Romulus, 323-4. 

Rosweide (Rosuida), Ixvi. 

Roxana, 290, 309. 

Roxbury, easy circumstances of the 
people there, Ivi. Free school 
founded there, Ivi-vii. Mrs. 
Bradstreet probably buried there, 

R. Q^, commendatory verses by, 
90 n. 


Safety, Council of, in Massachusetts, 
Ixvii #., Ixx. 

St. Louis, 355. 

St. Paul, his idea of the strife be 
tween the Flesh and the Spirit, 
381 n. 

Salamis, Battle of, 228. 

Salem, Massachusetts, settlement 
of, xxx. Charter-street burying- 
ground in, Ixxi n. 

Salmanassar, 195-6. 

Sardanapalus, 189-92. 

Sardes, 209. 

Sarocchia, Ixvi. 

Satrapes, The, 216, 217. 

Saturn, same as Nimrod, 182. 

Saul and Jonathan, 363-4. David s 
Lamentation for, tb. 

Savage, Mr. James, his opinion as 
to the passengers on the " Ar- 
bella," xxvii. 

Saye and Sele, Lord, recommends 
Dudley to the Earl of Lincoln as 
steward, xiii. 

Schurmann (Schurnian), Anna Ma 
ria de, Ixvi. 

Scipio, 318. 

Scotland, 334. 

Scots, 332. 

Seasons, The Four, xli, Ixv, 168-79. 

Sebastia, 173 and n. 

Second edition of " Poems." See 

Second Monarchy, 208-50. 

Seleucus, 291, 307, 308, 312-17. 

Seleucus II., 317. 

Seleucus III., 318. 

Seleucus IV. (Philopator), ib. 

Seleucus, Epiphanes, ib. 

Semiramis, 184-6, 265-360. Mrs. 
Bradstreet s account of the legend 
concerning her death taken from 
Raleigh s " History of the World," 
xlvii viii. 

Sempringham, Castle of the Earl of 
- Lincoln, xxi, liii n. 

Seneca, xliii. Quoted, 284-5. Mrs. 
Bradstreet s apparent quotation 
from, taken from Raleigh, xliv-v. 

43 2 


Sennacherib, 197. 

Separatists, xxiii. Colonized Plym 
outh, xxv. 

Sepharvaim (Sperharvaim), 197 w. 

Septuagint, 319 and n. 

Serjeant Death, 156 ;/;/. 

Servius Tullius, 327. 

Sewel, William, the Quaker histo 
rian, his account of the conduct 
and danger of Bradstreet and 
Norton, when commissioners in 
England, Ix-i. 

Sextus, son of Tarquinius Superbus, 

Shakespeare, xvi. Quoted, 156 n. 
Mrs. Bradstreet appears to have 
read, xvi-vii. 

Sharpe, Thomas, xxxi. 

Shelton s translation of " Don Quix 
ote," xvi. 

Shushan or Sushan, 256, 266 and //., 
267, 280, 306, 308. 

Sibbs, Dr. Richard, xx. 

Sicily, how cut from Italy, 117. 

Sickness, and Weakness, after much, 
Aug. 28, 1656, 20. After a sore 
fit of, May n, 1657, 21. Respite 
from, May n, 1661, 25. Verses 
on recovery from, 26. Poem upon 
a fit of, Anno 1632, Hi, 391-2. 

Sidney, Sir Philip, xvi. A literary 
favorite of Mrs. Bradstreet, Hi. 
Her criticisms on, ib. His "Ar 
cadia," 345. " Tragick Comedies," 
345. Mrs. Bradstreet s idea of her 
family connection with him, xi- 
xii. Her Elegy upon him, xlii, Hi, 
344-52. His widow, 348 and . 

Sidon, 259. 

Simple Cobbler of Agawam, 85 n. 

Sisygambis, 256. 

Smerdis, 213 ., 216. 

"Society," The ship, the Commis 
sioners Bradstreet and Norton re 
turn in, Ix. 

Socrates, one of the officers of Alex 
ander the Great, 259. 

Sodom and Gomorrah s King, 187. 

Solon, 209-10, 210 n. 

Soter, Antiochus, 317. 

Spain s Americans, 116. Monarch, 

Spanish Armada, 332, 333, 359. De 
struction of, 162 n. 

Speed, John, xix. His "Historic 
of Great Britaine," 358 and n. 
Mrs. Bradstreet s knowledge of, 

Spelman, Sir Henry, xix. 

Spenser, Edmund, xvi, 348 and #., 
358. Mrs. Bradstreet s knowledge 
of his works, lii. 

Spirit, The Flesh and the, 381-5. 

Spring, xli, 168-72. 

Stateira, 280. 

Staurobates, xlvii-viii, 186. 

Stephen, King of England, 331, 333 
and n. 

Stephen of Blois, 333 n. 

Stoics, 387. 

Strafford, the Earl of, beheaded. 164 
and ., 165 ., 338. 

Stratonice, 313. 

Summer, xli, 172-6. 

Superbus, Tarquinius, 328. 

Sylvester, Joshua, his translation of 
Du Bartas, xvii. Mrs. Bradstreet s 
fondness for this book, li. Milton s 
obligations to, ib. Editions of, li 
n. Concerning Sir P. Sidney. 349 
and ;/., 350. 

Symonds, Samuel, Simon Bradstreet 
succeeds him as Deputy Governor, 

Syria, 200. Subdued, 194-5. 


"Talbot," The, xxvii. 

Tamerlane, 173 n. 

Tanaquil, 327. 

Tarquinius Priscus, 326-7. 

Tarquinius Superbus, 328. 

Tarquins, Expulsion of the, 328. 

Thalestris, 271. 

Thebes, 252, 306, 308. 

Themistocles, 228, 234-5. 

Theos, Antiochus, 317. 

Thermopylae, Battle of, 226-7. 

Thessalonica, 307. 

Third Monarchy, 251-321. 

Thornton, Mrs. Eliza G., a descend 
ant of Mrs. Bradbtreet, Ixix. 

Thucydides, xliii, 199. 

Tiglath-Pileser, 194-5. 

Tigranes, 318. 

Tilbury, Queen Elizabeth s camp at, 

Tissaphernes, 243-5. 

Tithraustes, 245. 

Titlepages of " Poems." See Poems, 

Titu s Quintius, 317. 

To her Father with some verses, 


Tomris, 211, 360. 
Topsfield, Ixvii //. 
Trabezond, 244. 



Troy, 107, 142, 1 88, 253, 348. 

Tudor, 333. 

Tullius, Servius, 327. 

Tullus Hostilius, 325-6. 

Tully, 411. 

Turkey, 342. 

Twiss, Rev. Wm., D.D., 89 ;/. 

Tyburn, 341. 

Tygris, 191. 

Tyng, Edward, his daughter marries 
Joseph Dudley, liii n. 

Tyng. Mercy, wife of Samuel Brad- 
street, Ixvii #., 407-8. 

Tyng, Rebecca, marries Joseph Dud 
ley, liii 11. 

Tyng, William, 407 n. His daughter 
marries Samuel Bradstreet, Ixvii n. 

Tyre, 200, 258-9. 

Tyrone, Earl of, suppression of his 
rebellion in Ireland, 360. 


Ulysses, xlix, 289. 

Usher, Archbishop, xix, xx, 188. 
Mrs. Bradstreet s acquaintance 
with his " Annals of the World," 

Usher, Hezekiah, senior, 29 >/. 


Valley of Baca, 21 and ., 23. 
Vanity of all Worldly Things, Poem, 

386-8, 363 . 
Vashti, 233. 

Verses, May 13, 16^7, 22. 
Virgil, xliii, 199, 410, 411. 
Voetius, Ixvi. 


Wade, Major Nathaniel, marries 
Mercy Bradstreet, Ixvii n. 

Ward, Mr. Geo. A., editor of Cur- 
wen s journal and Letters, Ixxi, n. 

Ward, Rev. Nathaniel, mention of, 
85 . Made Pastor of Church in 
Ipswich, xxxv. His Commenda 
tory verses on Mrs. Bradstreet s 
Poems, xl i, 85. 

Ward, Major Samuel, marries Sarah 
Bradstreet, Ixvii n. 

Warwick, the Countess of, Brad- 
street steward of, xxii. 

Warwick, the Earl of, ib. 

Water, xli, 114-18. 

Watt s notice of the works of Hcl- 

kiah Crooke, M.D., 1 n. 
Weakness and Sickness, After much, 

Aug. 28, 1656, 20. After sore, 

Maj 7 ii, 1657, 21. 
Weakness and Fainting, Sept. 30, 

!657> 2 3- 

Webster, John, xvi. 

Wiggin, Andrew, marries Hannah 
Bradstreet, Ixvii ., 28 n. 

Wiggin, Hannah, verses on her re 
covery from a fever, 28. 

Wight, Yarmouth on the Isle of, 

Williams, Bishop, xxiii. 

William the Conqueror, 331. 

Wilson, Rev. John, enters into 
church covenant, xxxi. 

Winter, xli, 178-9. 

Winthrop, Gov. John, xviii, xxvi, 
xxvii, xxix, xxxi, liii ., 35 n. 
Enters into church covenant, xxxi. 
Moves to Boston, xxxii. Moves 
to Cambridge, xxxiii. Returns to 
Boston, xxxiv. Alienation from 
Dudley, ib. Chosen Councillor 
for life, liv. 

Winthrop, John, Jr.. xxxvii. Begins 
a- settlement at Agawam (Ips 
wich), xxxv. 

Winthrop, Mary, daughter of Gov. 
John, marries Samuel Dudley, 
liii n. 

Witchcraft Delusion, Dudley Brad- 
street s connection with, Ixvii n. 

Wither, George, xviii. 

Women as writers of books, Ixii, 

Wood, Ann, marries Dudley Brad- 
street, Ixvii n. 

Wood, William,. his description of 
Cambridge, xxxiv. 

Woodbridge, Rev. Benjamin, sketch 
of, 89 . His commendatory verses 
upon Mrs. Bradstreet, xli, 89. 

Woodbridge, Rev. John, 88 ., 89 n. 
Sketch of, xxxix. Marries Mercy 
Dudley, xxxix, liii ., 88. One of 
the first settlers at Andover, xxxvi. 
Buys the land on which the town 
was founded, xxxvii. Goes to 
England, 88 n , xxxix. Concerned 
in publishing Mrs. Bradstreet s 
poems, xl. His commendation of 
Mrs. Bradstreet and her poems, 
xl. His Poetical Address to her, 
86-8. His Address to the Reader, 




Woodbridge, Lucy, daughter of the 

Rev. John, marries her cousin, the 

Rev. Simon Bradstreet, Ixvii . 
World, Gov. Dudley s poem on the 

Four Parts of the, Iv, 97. 
World, The Four Monarchies of the, 

Ixv, 181-329. Sources from which 

it was taken, xli-1. 
Worldly Creatures, poem on the 

vanity of all, xlii. 
Worldly Things, The Vanity of all, 

Poem, 386-8, and 363 n. 


Xenophon, xliii, 211, 237. Leads 
home the Greeks, 243. Mrs. Brad- 
street s apparent quotation from, 
taken from Raleigh, xlvi. 

Xerxes, 222-32, 274. Mrs. Brad- 
street s account of his accession 

to the throne, taken from Raleigh, 

Yarmouth on the Isle of Wight, 

Year, The Four Seasons of the, xli, 

Ixv, 168-79. 

York, Duke of, 30 ., 333. 
Youth, xli, ic;2-6. 

Zamies, 187-8. 
Zenobia, 361. 
Zidon, or Sidon, 259. 
Zim and Jim, 203 and n. 
Zion, 196, 202, 203. 
Zutphen, xvi. Sir Philip Sidney 
slain at the siege of, 344 and . 



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